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Full text of "Wooden ship-building"

WOODEN 
SHIP-BUILDING 



By 

CHARLES DESMOND 






» • „ 'J • • , 



NEW YORK 

THE RUDDER PUBLISHING COMPANY 

9 MURRAY STREET 

Opposite City Hall Park 



COPYRIGHT 1919 

BV 

THE RUDDER PUBLISHING COMPANY 

NEW YORK 

<^ll Rights ReitrveJ) 



Kugineering 
library 



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U'C/' -^ 



PRESS OF 



^ n/^»fa'r>x^Cf^ 



9 Murray Street, New York 



Introduction 

THE object of this book is to place at the disposal 
of builders of wood ships some much needed in- 
formation about construction and equipment. Each 
principal part of a vessel's construction is explained, the 
information being arranged in such a manner that the 
reader can either use the book for reference purposes and 
quickly obtain from it desired information about any selected 
part of hull or equipment, or he can read the book as one 
continuous story covering the construction and equipment 
of a vessel. 

If it is desired to make use of the book for reference 
purposes, turn to indexed name of part or piece you desire in- 
formation about. (The headings are arranged alphabetically.) 

The photographs used to make the illustrations Figs. 
29, 31, 38, 43a, 43b, 44, 47, 53, 57, 66, 69, 74, 75, 76, 76a, 
77, 78, 79, 84, 92, 93, 95a, 124 and 125, and of the Accoma are 
copyright Underwood & Underwood. 

The illustrations numbered Figs. 81, 81a, 97 and 99 
are published by the courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

The illustration Fig. 73 in Chapter X is copyright 
by the Publishers' Photo Service. 

The Author. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

I. Classification and Insurance 5 

II. Information About Woods 7 

III. Kinds and Dimensions of Material to Use 19 

IV. Tonnage 25 

V. Strains Experienced by Ships 30 

VI. Estimating and Converting 36 

VII. Joints and Scarphs 39 

VIII. Describing the Different Parts of a Ship Constructed of Wood 46 

IX. Building Slips and Launching Ways 66 

X. Building a Ship 80 

XI. Ship Joinery 108 

XII. Sails 123 

XIII. Rigging : 129 

XIV. Masts and Spars '. 143 

XV. Types of Vessels 148 

XVI. Anchors, Chains and Equipment 156 

XVII. Resolution and Composition of Forces 167 

XVIII. Strength and Strains of Material 169 

XIX. Plans 180 

XX. Definitions of Terms Used by Shipbuilders and Parts of Wooden 

Ships 201 

Useful Tables 212 

Paragraph Reference Index 219 

Alphabetical Index 221 

Index to Illustrations 223 

Index to Plans 224 



Chapter I 

Classification and Insurance 



In almost every instance kinds and dimensions of ma- 
terials to use for constructing a ship are determined by 
the designer, or builder, in accordance with rules laid 
down by the classification society that will classify the 
vessel for insurance purposes. 

I a. Classification for Insurance Explained 

Seagoing vessels are classified for insurance because 
unless this is done insurance rates for vessel and for 
cargo carried cannot be fixed with any degree of certainty. 

When a ship owner contracts with a builder for a new 
vessel he generally stipulates that the vessel shall be built 
to conform with the classification rules of a known classi- 
fication society, and selects the class he desires vessel 
to enter ; and the builder, knowing these things, obtains a 
copy of building rules and dimensions of material tables 
issued by the named classification society and constructs 
the vessel to conform to the rules. 

These rules stipulate the kinds and dimensions of 
materials that must be used for each principal part of 
hull and equipment, and also the manner in which the 
parts should be put together; and as the rules are based 
upon results of actual tests made by practical shipbuild- 
ers and owners all over the world, it is evident that both 
builder and owner have every reason to adhere to them. 

The Classification Societies' rules most generally used 
are: 

Lloyd's rules and regulations for the classification and 
construction of vessels. (British.) 

American Lloyd's (Bureau of American Shipping) 
rules for classification and construction. 

Bureau Veritas (French) rules for construction and 
classification. 

British Corporation rules. 

Though methods of measuring and determining neces- 
sary dimensions of material to use are not alike, some- 
what similar results are obtained by the four classification 
societies' rules mentioned, therefore a vessel built to con- 
form to a certain class in one society will be granted a 
corresponding classification in any other society. 

As I have mentioned classification of vessels for in- 
surance, perhaps I had better explain its meaning a little 
more fully. The majority" of seagoing vessels are insured 
by their owners, and the cargo carried is also separately 
insured by its owners. The amount of "risk" or danger 
of vessel and cargo being lost or damaged depends very 
largely upon strength and seaworthiness of vessel and her 
equipment, therefore it is imperative that people who in- 
sure, and people who desire to ship cargo, have some ready 



means for determining (a) the condition of the vessel 
and her equipment, and (b) the proper amount of risk 
involved by shipping cargo. If a vessel is sound and has 
proper equipment the risk is necessarily very much less 
than if a vessel is old, or badly constructed, or poorly 
equipped, and of course the smaller the risk of loss or 
damage the lower the premium will be for both vessel and 
cargo carried. 

You can therefore readily understand that a well- 
found, properly constructed vessel will seldom have to 
wait for cargo. The means employed for determining 
condition of a vessel and for letting all shippers of cargo 
know her condition is to have a vessel classified by a 
known and competent authority and to have this classi- 
fication done while vessel is being constructed and at 
certain periods after launching. 

The classification is done by skilled surveyors, em- 
ployed by classification society, who designates the class 
that vessel's construction and equipment entitles her to 
receive. Under Lloyd's rules a vessel will be classed 
"A" provided it is found to be in a fit and efficient condi- 
tion for its contemplated employment. If a vessel is 
being built for any particular trade, there will be affixed 
to the letter the name of trade, such as "A" for coast 
service only. 

If vessel is built properly and in accordance with ma- 
terial and dimension rules, the number lOO will be pre- 
fixed to the letter, thus: A lOo; and if the equipment^ 
such as anchor, chains, rigging, etc., is as specified in 
tables, the figure (i) is placed immediately after the letter 
designating class. Thus a vessel classed as lOO A i is 
known to be in fit condition, to be built of materials that 
are proper in strength and put together in a proper man- 
ner, and to have equipment, rigging, etc., that is proper 
in amount, dimensions and quality. If a vessel's con- 
struction is not quite up to the standard called for by 
rules, the numeral loo is replaced by one of lesser value 
(95 or 90). 

In the American Lloyd's (Bureau of American Ship- 
ping) classification the character assigned to vessels is 
expressed by number from i to 3, A i standing for 
highest class and A 3 for lowest. Intermediate numbers 
(i/4, i^, 2, 2^) being assigned to vessels that, while 
not as good as A i, are superior to A 3. 

In general new wooden ships built in accordance with 
Lloyd's building rules can obtain classification in Class 
A for a designated number of years, and can have this 
classification continued on the termination of the named 



■6'- 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



'p'eVioa 'if.i ailei" survey, the ship is found to be in proper 
condition for a continuation of the classification. 

Class A ships are entitled to carry all kinds of car- 
goes in any waters. 

Ships that have passed out of Class A and are not in 
condition to be continued in it and ships not built in 
accordance with rule are generally classed in Class A, in 
red. 

Ships which are found on survey fit for carrying dry 
and perishable cargoes on short voyages are classed AE, 
and ships which are not safe for carrying perishable car- 
goes but perfectly safe for carrying cargoes not likely 
to be damaged by salt water are classed E. 

These classification rules are mentioned because it is 
necessary that you have some knowledge of the under- 
lying principles of the rules for classifying vessels. 

To get a class, or get a vessel classified, a written ap- 
plication must be made to a properly authorized agent, 
or surveyor, of the classification society, and the estab- 
lished fee paid. It is usual to apply for classification 
before work on a vessel is commenced, because the rules 
of classification societies stipulate that their surveyor 
shall inspect hull during construction and specify the 
stages of construction when each inspection shall be made. 

Inspections are usually made: 



1st. — When keel is laid and frames are up. 

2d. — When planking is being wrought. 

3d. — When planking is completed and caulked, but be- 
fore deck is laid. 

4th. — When decks and ceiling are laid and vessel is 
ready for launching. 

5th. — When vessel is completed, outfitted and ready 
for sea. 

When a class is assigned to a vessel it is assigned for 
a certain stated number of years and upon the condition 
that vessel is to be kept in good repair and properly 
equipped during the whole of named period; and it is 
also stipulated that whenever a vessel is being repaired, 
or whenever she is damaged, a surveyor must be notified 
and vessel be inspected. In addition to this all vessels 
must be submitted for resurvey at the expiration of a 
named number of years. These rules not only insure that 
a vessel shall be properly built, but they also insure that all 
classified vessels shall be kept in good repair under penalty 
of withdrawal of certificate or lowering of class. Having 
thus briefly explained the meaning of classification and 
the reason for classifying vessels, I will tell you about the 
kinds of materials used in ship-building and the proper 
dimensions of materials to use in each principal part of 
a vessel's construction. 



Chapter II 

Information About Woods 



The substance named ivood is, for the most part, 
elastic, tenacious, durable, and easily fashioned. The 
part that is characterized as timber is obtained from 
the body of trees, or that part of those which grow 
with a thick stem, rising high, and little encumbered 
with branches or leaves, which is called the trunk. The 
head of the tree consists of the branches, which are 
adorned with leaves; these attain their full development 
in the Summer, and then, in the great majority of 
species, fall in the Autumn. 

In ship carpentry, the wood of the trunk and largest 
branches alone is used ; and only that of the commoner 
species of trees. 

Some of the timber trees attain an immense gize 
when they are allowed to come to full maturity of 
growth. Oaks and beeches are found to attain the height 
of I20 feet; the larch, the pine, the fir grow to the 
height of 135 feet. Other kinds, as the elm, the maple, 
the walnut, the poplar, and the cypress, reach sometimes 
a great elevation. 

Botanists classify trees according to their physiological 
and structural peculiarities; and in this way trees are 
divided into two great classes, — Monocotyledonous, or 
Endogenous, and Dicotyledonous, or Exogenous trees. 

The terms Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous, 
belong to the Jussieuan system of nomenclature, and are 
descriptive of the organization of the seeds. Endog- 
enous and Exogenous are the terms used by modern 
botanists, and are descriptive of the manner of growth 
or development of the woody matter of the tree, which 
is, in the endogens, from the outside inwards towards 
the interior, and in the exogens, outwards to the ex- 
terior. 

The monocotyledonous or endogenous trees have no 
branches : their stems, nearly cylindrical, rise to a sur- 
prising height, and are crowned by a vast bunch of 
leaves, in the midst of which grow their flowers and 
fruits. In this class are the palm trees, growing only 
in tropical climes, where they are of paramount import- 
ance, yielding to the people of those countries meat,- 
drink, and raiment, and timber for the construction of 
their habitations. 

The pahn tree will serve as a type of the endogenous 
structure. Dicotyledonous or exogenous trees, which 
form the second class, are in much greater variety, and 
much more widely spread over the globe, than trees of 
the first class. The form of their trunks is generally 
conical, tapering from the root to the summit: the sum- 
mit or head of the tree is formed by the prolongation of 



the trunk, which divides into sundry primary branches ; 
these again ramify into innumerable secondary branches; 
and these throw out small twigs, to which the leaves 
are attached by foot-stalks, larger or smaller. At first 
sight it appears as if the leaves grew by chance, but an 
order, regular and constant in each species, presides in 
their distribution. 

On making a transverse section of a dicotyledonous 
tree, we see that it is composed of three parts, easily 
distinguished — the bark which envelops, the pith which 
forms the core or center, and the woody substance which 
lies between the bark and the pith. 

In the woody substance we distinguish two thick- 
nesses : the one wh'icJi envelops the pith is the greatest, 
and is of a harder nature than that which adjoins the 
bark. The former is termed perfect wood, the latter 
alburnum. The inner layer of bark next the alburnum 
is called the liber, a name given from its being used to 
form the books (libri) of the ancients. Between the liber 
and the alburnum there is a substance partaking of the 
qualities of both, and called cambium. This is developed 
in the Spring artd Autumn, when its internal portion 
changes insensibly into alburnum, and the exterior into 
liber. The liber never becomes wood: it is expanded 
continually by the process of growth in the tree, and 
forms the bark, which rends and exfoliates externally, 
because of its drying ; and the layer of liber, in growing 
old, cannot extend in proportion to the augmentation in 
[he circumference of the tree. 

Duhamel and Buffon long since proved that albur- 
num, in process of time, became perfect wood; and there 
is now no doubt in regard to the manner in which the 
tree grows and produces its wood. 

Exogens, or outward growers, are so called because, 
as long as they continue to grow, they add new wood to 
the outside of that formed in the previous year; in which 
respect they differ essentially from endogens. 

The only respects in which the»growth of exogens cor- 
responds with that of endogens are, that in both classes 
the woody matter is connected with the leaves, and in 
both, a cellular substance is the foundation of the whole 
structure. 

As new layers of alburnum are produced, they form 
concentric circles, which can be easily seen on cutting 
through the tree; and by the number of these circles one 
can determine the age of the tree. Some authors assert 
that this is not so, since a tree may produce in one year 
several concentric layers of alburnum, and in another 
year only one. Nevertheless, the commonly received 



8 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



opinion is, that the number of concentric circles in the 
cross section of the wood, called annual layers, indicates 
the time it has taken to reach its size. Although a layer 
of alburnum is deposited each year, the process of trans- 
formation of it into perfect wood, otherwise heart-wood, 
is slow, and, consequently, the alburnum, or sap-wood, 
comprehends many annual layers. 

The annual layers become more dense as the tree 
grows aged ; and when there is a great number in a tree 
of small diameter, the wood is heavy, and generally hard 
also. In wood which is either remarkably hard or re- 
markably soft, the annual layers can scarcely be distin- 
guished. They cannot, for example, be distinguished in 
ebony, and other tropical woods, nor in the poplar, and 
other soft white woods of our climate. In the case of 
the softer woods in our climate, the layers are frequently 
thinner and more dense on the Northern side than on the 
opposite. In a transverse section of a box tree, about 7 
inches diameter, we reckoned one hundred and forty 
annual layers. 

The roots of a tree, although buried in the soil, have, 
as we have seen, an organization resembling that of the 
trunk and branches. The roots of several trees are em- 
ployed in the arts and in ship-building, but as these are 
fully described in another chapter I need not dilate on 
the subject: I shall only remark, that as the branches of 
a tree divide into smaller branches and twigs, expanding 
to form a head, so the roots divide also into branches, 
which expand in every direction in the ground, and these 
branches again divide, their ultimate division being into 
filaments, commonly called fibres, which appear to be to 
the roots what the leaves are to the branches. 

It has been remarked that there is a sympathy between 
the branches and the roots in their development. Thus, 
when several considerable branches of a tree are lopped 
off, the corresponding roots suffer, and" often perish. 

2a. Cultivation of Trees 

Trees are the produce of forests, planted sponta- 
neously, and consequently very ancient, or of forests and 
plantations created by man since he has engaged in this 
kind of culture. 

The reproduction of trees, their culture, and the fell- 
ing of timber, belong more to the management of forests ; 
but I shall remark briefly on some qualities which are 
derived from growth. 

The size and fine growth of a tree is not an infallible 
sign of goodness of quality in the wood. The connection 
of the age of a tree with its development, and the nature 
of the soil in which it grew, ought to be inquired into 
to enable a judgment to be formed of the quality of the 
wood. 

In general, boggy or swampy grounds bear only trees 
of which the wood is free and spongy, compared with the 
wood of trees of the same species grown in good soil at 
greater elevations. The water, too abundant in low- 



lying argillaceous land, where the roots are nearly al- 
ways drowned, does not give to the natural juices of the 
tree the qualities essential to the production of good wood. 
The oak, for example, raised in a humid soil, is more 
proper for the works of the cabinet-maker than for those 
of the ship-carpenter; because it is less strong and stiff, 
and is softer and more easy to work than the same wood 
raised in a dry soil and elevated situation : it is also less 
liable to cleave and split. Its strength, compared with 
that raised in a drier soil, is about as 4 to 5, and its specific 
gravity as 5 to 7. 

Wet lands are only proper for alders, poplars, cypress, 
and willows. Several other species incline to land which 
is moist or wholly wet; but the oak, the chestnut, the 
elm, thrive only in dry situations, where the soil is good, 
and where the water does not stagnate after rain, but is 
retained only in sufficient quantity to enable the ground 
to furnish aliment for the vegetation. Resinous trees, 
too, do not always thrive in the soils and situations 
proper to the other kinds of timber, and especially in 
marshy soils: sandy soils are in general the best for 
their production ; and several species affect the neighbor- 
hood of the sea, such as the maritime pine, not less useful 
for its resin than for its timber. 

In fine, trees which grow in poor and stony soils, and 
generally in all such soils as oppose the spreading of 
their roots, and do not furnish a supply of their proper 
sap, are slow and stunted in their growth, and produce 
wood often knotty and difficult to work, and which is 
mostly used as veneers for ornamenting furniture. 

The surest tokens of good wood are the beauty, clear- 
ness, and firmness of the bark, and the small quantity of 
alburnum. 

It has been remarked that timber on the margin of a 
wood is larger, more healthy, and of better quality than 
that which grows in the interior, the effect of the action 
of the sun and air being less obstructed. 

2b. Timber for Ship-Building 

The qualities which fit woods for use by shipbuilders 
are durability, uniformity of substance, straightness of 
fibre, strength and elasticity. The good quality of a 
wood is known by uniformity and depth of color peculiar 
to its species. When color varies much from heart to 
circumference it is safe to assume that the tree from 
which the timber was cut was affected by disease. 

Knotty and cross-grained wood is difficult to work 
and should be rejected especially for use in pieces sub- 
jected to great strains. The knots are always a source of 
weakness because the straightness of fibres which gives 
strength is interrupted. 

Knots are the prolongation of branches across the 
perfect wood of the trunk of the tree. If the branches 
have grown with the tree to the time it was cut down the 
knots will be perfect wood and the fibres of the trunk 
will only be slightly turned from their straightness, but 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



if the branch forming the knot ceased to grow before tree 
was cut down the knot will be "dead" and will not only 
greatly weaken the timber but may have caused some of 
the surrounding wood to decay. In all woods of a given 
species the heavier the specimens are the stronger and 
more durable. Timber cut from the butt of a tree is 
always the heaviest and strongest, and for this reason all 
pieces of timber that have to be steam bent should be 
cut from butt ends of logs. 

Among resinous woods those which have the least 
resin in their pores, and among non-resinous woods those 
which have the least sap, or gum, in them are generally 
the strongest and most durable. 

The tenacity of wood when strained along the grain 
depends on the tenacity of the fibres, and tenacity when 
strained across the grain depends upon the adhesion of 
the fibres to each other. 

Timber used for ship-building should be free from 
cracks radiating from the center (called "clefts"), from 
cracks which partially separate the layers (called shakes), 
and from sap-wood (the light-colored wood nearest the 
bark), and should be properly and thoroughly air 
seasoned. 

2c. Care of Timber 

If timber be exposed to great changes of tempera- 
ture, to alternations of wetness and drought, to a humid 
and hot atmosphere, it will inevitably suffer a deteriora- 
tion of those qualities which render it serviceable for 
the ship-carpenter. 

Timber, when too suddenly dried, is liable to split: 
when exposed to too high a temperature in a close at- 
mosphere, its juices are liable to fermentation, followed 
by a loss of tenacity and a tendency to rot and become 
worm-eaten. The greater the quantity of timber thus 
kept together, the more rapidly is it impaired, which is 
made sensible to the smell by a peculiar odor emitted 
from it. 

When timber is exposed to injury from the weather, 
and lying long exposed on a damp soil, it is attacked 
by wet rot. The alternations, too, of drought and rain, 
of frosts and of heat, disorganize the woody fibre, which 
breaks, and a species of rottenness ensues resembling 
the decay of growing timber. The means of defending 
the timber from these various causes of waste, and pre- 
serving it in a state fit and proper to be used in construc- 
tion, we now propose to describe. 

When the timber is squared and cut up, care must 
be bestowed on' it ; not alone on the ground that it is 
then so much the more valuable by the labor which it 
has cost, but because, by its being divided, it is more 
easily affected by deteriorating causes ; and by its sur- 
face being augmented, these causes have also a larger 
field to operate on. 

Timber of the same scantling should be piled together ; 
and there should not be mingled in one pile wood of 
different species. 



The first layer of the pile should be elevated above 
the soil on sleepers, the higher the better, as securing 
a freer circulation of air, and preventing the growth of 
fungi. The most perfect security, however, is obtained 
by paving the site of the pile, and building dwarf walls 
or piers, with strong girders, to form the foundation 
for the first tier. 

Where the space will admit of it, and the timbers 
are square, they should be laid in tiers crossing each 
other alternately at right angles, and at least their own 
width apart. This method will not do for thin planks, 
because it would not allow a sufficient circulation of air. 
These are better when piled so that in the alternate tiers 
there are only planks sufficient to keep the other tiers 
from bending. Where space can be afforded, it is well 
to pile square timber in this way. The diagram (Fig. i) 
will best explain this mode. 

After timber is erected as part of a ship it will 
rapidly deteriorate unless protected against the causes of 




Fig. 1 

decay, which are principally: (a) imperfect seasoning, 
(b) improper ventilation and presence of impure air in 
holds of a ship, (c) changes in temperature and presence 
of moisture in holds and around joints of the ship's struc- 
ture, (d) dirt in holds and around the framing. 

In the present day very little shipbuilding timber is 
properly seasoned and for this reason it is expedient to 
close up ever}' rend, shake, and opening, and the surfaces 
of joints that cannot be reached after the pieces are as- 
sembled, with some substance that will act as a preserva- 
tive by resisting the action of water and prevent moisture 
getting into the pores of the wood. The ventilation of 
holds and circulation of air around the timbers of the 
frame should be properly planned because it is in the hold 
of a ship, more than in any other part, that decay starts; 
here the greatest degree of moisture collects and the 
greatest amount of impure air accumulates, especially if 
holds are not properly cleaned when a cargo is removed, 
or if through some damage to ceiling of a hold dirt or 
decaying refuse from cargo is allowed to accumulate 



lO 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



around the frames and in places where it cannot be readily 
removed from. 

Timbers that are found to be decayed at the lower 
part of the extremities of a ship, and in which the de- 
cay proceeds from the center, will usually be found upon 
examination to have some surface defect, such as a shake 
or fissure, through which air and moisture have been ad- 
mitted to the' heart, and in the case of joints that have 
decayed it will generally be found that air and moisture 
has had access to the center of joint through some defect 
or opening in joint. 

Without air and moisture decay in timber cannot 
begin. Decay in timber is a fungus that requires air to 
stimulate its growth, as can be easily proved by admitting 
moist air to the heart of timbers that are apparently sound. 
With the admission of air and moisture the growth of 
fungus of decay is almost immediately started. 

2d. Of the Bending of Timber 

Curved forms require that the ship-carpenter should 
obtain the timber naturally curved, or should possess 
the power of bending it. Trees which yield timber 
naturally curved are generally used for the construc- 
tions of the naval architect. If, where curved timber 
is required, it should be attempted to be formed by 
hewing it out of straight timber, two evils would ensue: 
the first, a loss of wood; the second, and greater, the 
destruction of its strength by the necessary cross-cutting 
of its fibres. Hence, to maintain the fibres parallel among 
themselves, and to the curve, recourse is had to curving 
or bending the timber artificially. This process may be 
performed on the timber after it is squared or cut up. 

The process of bending timber artificially is founded 
on the property which water and heat have of penetrat- 
ing into the woody substance, rendering it supple and 
soft, and fitting it to receive forms which it retains after 
cooling. 

Bending timber is effected in the five following 
ways: 

1. By using the heat of a naked fire. 

2. By the softening influence of boiling water. 

3. By softening it by vapor. 

4. By softening it in heated sand. 

5. By vapor under high pressure. 

The first method of operation is only applicable to 
timbers of small scantling. 

In the second method, the timber is immersed in 
water, which is heated until it boils, and is kept boiling 
until the timber is wholly saturated and softened. The 
timber being then withdrawn, is immediately forced to 
assume the required curvature, and is secured by nails 
or bolts. This proceeding has the defect of weakening 
the timber, and lessening its durability. It should, there- 
fore, be used only in such cases as do not require the 
qualities of strength and durability. 



In the third process, the timber is submitted to the 
action of the steam of boiling water. For this purpose 
it is inclosed in a box made perfectly air-tight. The box 
has a series of grated horizontal partitions or shelves on 
which the timbers are laid. From a steam boiler con- 
veniently situated, a pipe is carried to the box. The 
steam acts on the timber, and in time softens it and 
renders it pliant. The time allowed for the action of 
the steam to produce this effect is generally one hour for 
every inch of thickness in the planks. 

The fourth method of preparing the wood for bend- 
ing, is by applying heat and moisture to it through the 
medium of the sand bath. The apparatus for this pur- 
pose is a furnace with flues, traversing the stone on 
which the sand is laid, in the manner of hothouse flues. 
There is also provided a boiler in which water is heated. 
On the stone a couch of sand is laid: in this the tim- 
bers are immersed, being set edgeways on a bed of 
sand about 6 inches thick, and having a layer of sand 
of the same thickness separating them, and being also 
covered over with sand. The fire is then lighted in the 
furnace, and after a time, the sand is thoroughly mois- 
tened with boiling water from the boiler before men- 
tioned. This watering is kept up all the time that the 
timber is in the stove. Thin planks require, as in the 
preceding case, an hour for each inch of thickness ; but 
for thick scantlings the time requires to be increased; 
for instance, a 6-inch timber should remain in the stove 
eight- hours. 

The fifth mode, by means of high-pressure steam, only 
differs from the third process described in this, that the 
apparatus requires to be more perfect. The box, there- 
fore, is generally made of cast-iron, and all its parts are 




Fig. 2 

strengthened to resist the pressure to be employed. 
When the steam has a pressure of several atmospheres, 
the softening of the wood is very rapid; and it is very 
effectually done by this method. 

After the timber is properly softened and rendered 
pliable, it is bent on a mould having a contour of the 
form which the timber is required to assume. 

The simplest method of doing this is shown in out- 
line in Fig. 2. A series of stout posts, a a a, are driven 
into the ground, on a line representing the desired curve. 
The piece of wood m n, when softened, is inserted 
between two posts at the point where the curvature is 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



II 



to begin, as at a b, and by means of a tackle, applied 
near that point, it is brought up to the next post, a, where 
it is fixed by driving a picket, c, on the opposite side. 
The tackle is shifted successively from point to point; 
and the pickets, c, d, e, are driven in as the timber is 
brought up to the posts. It is left in this condition 
until it is cold and dried ; and then it is removed to make 
way for another piece. But if the balk is required to be 
more accurately bent, and out of winding in its breadth, 
squared sleepers, a a a (Fig. 3, Nos. i and 2), are laid 
truly level across the line of curvature, and the posts 
b b are also accurately squared on the side next the balk. 




Fig. 3 

An iron strap c, which is made to slide freely, is used 
for attaching the tackle, and as the balk is brought up 
to the curve, it is secured to the posts b, b by two iron 
straps, e'e, e e (seen better in the vertical section, 
No. 2), which embrace the pieces /, on the opposite 
side, and are wedged up tight by the wedges h h. 

In operating in either of the ways described, only 
one piece of timber can be bent at a time. By the follow- 
ing method several pieces may be bent together: 

Fig. 4 is a vertical projection, and a transverse ver- 
tical section, of the apparatus. It consists of the hori- 
zontal pieces a a, arranged with their upper surface in 
the contour of the curve. They are sustained by strong 
framing b b, c c, d d. The timber is laid with its center 
on the middlq of the frame, and by means of purchases 
applied at both sides of the center, and carried succes- 
sively along to different points towards each end, it is 
cufved, and secured by iron straps and wedges as before. 
The frame may be made wide enough to serve for the 
bending of other pieces, as m, n; or for a greater num- 
ber, by increasing the length of the pieces a a, and sup- 
porting them' properly. 



t:^ 





Fig. 4 



These methods are not quite perfect ; for in place of 
the timber assuming a regular curvature, it will obviously 
be rather a portion of a polygonal contour. To insure 



perfect regularity in the curve, it is necessary to make 
a continuous template, in place of the several pieces 
a a a a. 

Care must be taken that the curvature given to the 
timber is such as will not too greatly extend, and, per- 
haps, rupture the fibres of the convex side, and so 
render it useless. 



rifi^SS^-Sl^- 




Fig. 5 

The process of bending timber which we have 
described, is, as will be seen, restricted to very narrow 
limits. The effect, when the curve is small, is to cripple 
the fibres of the inner circumference, and to extend 
those of the exterior, and the result is, of course, a 
weakening of the timber. Bending, effected by end 
pressure, is not only not attended with injurious effects, 
but on the contrary, gives to the timber qualities which 
it did not before possess. 




y]Epiaj SB© 



Fig. 6 



Wood can be more easily compressed than expanded ; 
therefore, it is plain that a process which induces a 
greater closeness in the component parts of the piece 
under operation — which, as it were, locks up the whole 
mass by knitting the fibres together — must augment the 
degree of hardness and power of resistance. 

Another of the good results of this method is, that 
the wood is seasoned by the same process as affects the 



12 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



bending. The seasoning of wood is simply the drying 
qf the juices and the reduction of the mass to the mini- 
mum size before it is employed, so that there should be 
no future warping. But, as the compression resorted to 




^^ 



Fig. 7 

in the system' at once expels the sap, a few hours are suffi- 
cient to convert green timber into thoroughly seasoned 
wood. 

Fig. 5 shows the form of the machine for timbers 
under 6 inches square. Figs. 6 and 7 show the machine 
for heavy timbers above that scantling. 

The principle, as has been stated, is the application 
of end pressure; but another characteristic feature is, 
that the timber, during the process, is stibjected to pres- 
sure on all sides, by which its fibres are prevented from 
bursting or from being crippled ; and, in short, the tim- 
ber is prevented from altering its form in any other 
than the desired manner. The set 
imparted to it becomes permanent 
after a few hours, during which 
time it is kept to its form by an 
enveloping band and a holding 
bolt, as shown in Fig. 8. 




2e. 



Fig. 8 

Seasoning of Timber, and the Means Employed 
TO Increase Its Durability 



Seasoning timber consists in expelling, or drying up 
as far as possible, the moisture (sap) which is con- 
tained in the pores. Air, or natural, seasoning is best 
and consists in simply exposing the timber freely to air in 
a dry place sheltered from sunshine and rain. Air sea- 
soning of hard wood cannot be completed in less than 
two years. To immerse the logs in water for a few 
weeks before they are sawed into plank will hasten the 
seasoning because the water expels the sap. 

Timber can be artificially seasoned by placing it in 
a tight chamber, called a dry kiln, and exposing it to a 
current of hot air which is forced into the compartment 
by fans. The temperature of the air should vary with 
kind of wood: 



For oak it should not exceed lOS* 

For hard woods in general, in thick planks, about lOo' 

For pine woods in thick pieces, about i8o° 

For pine timbers 200° 

For mahogany , 260° 

The current of air being freely circulated around 
the planks, which should be piled, with spaces between 
them, for not over 12 hours a day. 

The drying should be gradual; for if the moisture be 
carried off too rapidly the fibres of the wood will collapse 
or lose their power of adhering to one another and the 
timber will split along the grain. One reason why kiln- 
dried timber is not advocated for use in ships is the ten- 
dency of kiln-dried timber to imbibe moisture from the 
atmosphere and thus induce decay. 

An attempt to fix a time for air seasoning timber 
would be utterly useless because time required to season 
timber will vary with kind and quality, and also with 
conditions of climate, piling, etc. 

In general it can be said that timber for ship-building 
should not be used sooner than three years after felling. 
If timber is squared, cut to scantling, and placed in a 
situation where air can pass freely over each piece, 
pieces 6 inches square will season sufiiciently to be usable 
in six months; pieces 12 inches square will require from 
twelve to fifteen months ; and pieces over 12 inches square 
will require from tzventy to twenty-four months. But 
this period of seasoning will not thoroughly dry the tim- 
ber; it will only put it into condition to be used for parts 
that do not require thoroughly air-dried timber. 

Timber in seasoning loses from 6 to 40% in weight, 
and from 2 to 8% in transverse measurement (through 
shrinkage). 

Immersion in hot water effects the same purpose 
much more rapidly; but as the wood has to be sub- 
mitted to the action of the water for ten or twelve days, 
the expense is prohibitory of the process, unless in cases 
where the condensing water of a steam engine in con- 
stant operation can be made available. As we have be- 
fore remarked, when speaking of the bending of timber, 
the action of the hot water impairs its strength, and 
should not be used where strength is an object. 

Immersion in salt water is a means of adding to the 
durability of timber. It increases its weight, and adds 
greatly to its hardness. It is attended, however, by the 
grave inconvenience of increasing its capacity for mois- 
ture, which renders this kind of seasoning inapplicable 
for timber to be employed in the ordinary practice of the 
carpenter. 

The water seasoning of which we have been speaking 
has many objectors; but numerous experiments prove, 
beyond contradiction, that timber immersed in water 
immediately after being felled and squared, is less sub- 
ject to cleave and to decay, and that it dries more quickly 
and more completely ; which proves that the water 
evaporates more readily than the sap, of which it has 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



13 



taken the place. The immersion, however, impairs, to 
some extent, the strength of the timber; and this consid- 
eration indicates the applicability or non-applicability 
of the process. When the timber is required for pur- 
poses for which dryness and easiness of working are 
essential, then the water seasoning may be employed with 
advantage; but when for purposes in which strength 
alone is the great requisite, it should not be used. 

2f. Loss OF Weight and Shrinkage of Timber in 
Seasoning 

While seasoning timber will lose a considerable por- 
tion of its original (green) weight and it will also shrink 
in width and in thickness. The amount of loss of weight 
and dimensions in seasoning varies considerably, being 
much greater in some kinds of timber than in others. On 
the accompanying Table i (page 17) I give figures ob- 
tained by carefully weighing and measuring a number of 
experimental pieces of timber. The figures are for thor- 
ough seasoning during a period of over three years. You 
will note that there is some variation in shrinkage be- 
tween butt and top planks of same timber. 

Among the insects whose attacks are most fatally in- 
jurious to the wood are the white ant, the Teredo 
navalis, a kind of Pholas, and the Limnoria terebrans. 

The white ant devours the heart of the timber, re- 
ducing it to powder, while the surface remains unbroken, 
and affords ho indication of the ravages beneath. 

The teredo and pholas attack wood when submerged 
in the sea. The teredo, its head armed with a casque or 
shell in the shape of an auger, insinuates itself into the 
wood through an almost imperceptible hole; it then in 
its boring operations follows the line of the fibre of the 
wood, the hole enlarging as the worm increases in size. 
It forms thus a tube, extending from the lowest part of 
the timber to the level of the surface of the water, which 
it lines with a calcareous secretion. A piece of timber, 
such as a pile in a marine structure, may be perforated 
from the ground to the water level by a multitude of 
these creatures, and yet no indications of their destruc- 
tive work appear on the exterior. 

The pholas does not attack timber so frequently as the 
teredo; and its ravages are more slowly carried on. Its 
presence in the wood, therefore, though very dangerous, 
is not so pernicious as the other. 

For the protection of timber from disease, decay, and 
the ravages of ' insects, various means are employed. 
These may be classed as internal and external applications. 

I. Preservation of Wood by impregnating it with 
Chemical Solutions. 

The chemicals usually employed in solution are the 
deutochloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate), the 
protoxide of iron, the chloride of zinc, the pyrolignite 
of iron, arsenic, muriate of lime, and creosote. They 
are either used as baths, in which the timber is steeped, 



or they are injected into the wood by mechanical means; 
or the air is exhausted from the cells of the wood, and the 
solutions being then admitted, fill completely every 
vacuum. 

All of these processes are advantageous under certain 
circumstances ; but it cannot be said that any of them is 
infallible. 

But it is to be feared that against the attacks of the 
marine pests — the teredo, the pholas, and the Limnoria 
terebrans— the protection these processes afford is at the 
best doubtful. An exception to this may probably be 
taken in favor of the creosote process. The soluble 
salts are supposed to act as preservatives of the timber, 
by coagulating its albumen; thus the very quality of com- 
bining with the albumen destroys the activity of the salts 
as poisons, and hence although preservatives against 
decay, they may, when thus combined, be eaten by an 
insect with impunity. With creosote, however, the case 
is different. It fills the vessels of the wood, and its 
smell is so nauseous that no animal or insect can bear it. 
It is also insoluble in water, and cannot be washed out. 
It is thus a protection to the wood against the ravages 
of insects, and also a preservative from decay. The 
base of many of the marine preservative and, so-called, 
anti-fouling bottom paints is creosote. 

Previous to the application of any of these substances, 
however, and as a preparative for it, it is essential that 
the timber be thoroughly deprived of its moisture. 

II. Preservation by Paints and other Surface Appli- 
cations. 

Timber, when wrought, and either before it is framed, 
or when in its place, is coated with various preparations, 
the object of which is to prevent the access of humidity 
to its pores. In the application of such surface coatings, 
it is essential that the timber be thoroughly dry ; for if it 
is not, the coating, in place of preserving it, will hasten 
its destruction, as any moisture contained in it will be 
prevented from being evaporated, and will engender in- 
ternal decay. This result will be more speedily developed 
as the color of the coating is more or less absorbent of 
heat. 

One of the most common applications to timber con- 
structions of large size is a mixture of tar, pitch, and 
tallow. The mixture is made in a pot over a fire, and 
applied boiling hot. 

But the most universally applicable protective coating 
is good oil paint. It is necessary that the oil should be 
good, the paint insoluble in water, and thoroughly ground 
with the oil, and that in its application it should be well 
brushed with the end, and not with the side of the 
brush. Such a coating has not the disadvantage of 
weight, like the painting with sand; nor does it, like it, 
alter the form of the object to which it is applied. 

The timber to be painted in oil should be planed 
smooth ; and it is essentially requisite that it be dry. It 
is usual to submit it to the action of the air for some 



14 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



time before painting, and then to take advantage of a 
dry season to apply the paint. 

To render eflfectual any of the surface coatings we 
have mentioned, it is necessary to take care that the 
joints of framing are also coated before the wrork is put 
together. If this be neglected, it will happen that 
although any water which may fall on the work will 
evaporate from the surface, some small portions may 
insinuate themselves into the joints, and these remain- 
ing, will be absorbed by the pores of the wood, and 
become the cause of rot. The joints of all exposed work 
should, therefore, be well coated with the protective 
covering before it is put together. 

Besides these fluid compositions, timber exposed to 
the action of marine insects is often covered with a 
sheathing of metal, usually copper. 

I will now give a brief description of each kind of 
wood used by shipbuilders in the U. S. A., the average 
weights of each, and the strength compared with that 
of oak. 

2g. Description of Woods — Hard Woods 

Oak. — The oak is one of the strongest and most 
durable of shipbuilding woods that grow in the U. S. A., 
but all of the oaks are not equally durable and valuable. 

The most durable and valuable of the oaks is the 
live oak. This is a fine-grained, compact and heavy 
wood obtained from trees that only grow near the sea- 
coast of some of the Southern States. The trees are 
rarely found more than 15 miles from the coast and are 
most abundant along the shores of creeks and bays. It 
is the most durable and strongest of the oaks that grow 
in the U. S. A., but is difficult to procure in large quan- 
tities because the trees seldom attain large dimensions 
and are never found in forests. 

Next in value to the live oak is the white oak. This 
is a light-colored, hard and durable species x>f oak that 
grows in great abundance in the Eastern half of the 
U. S. A. The wood is very durable both in and out of 
water and possesses great strength. Experiments on 
samples of white oak gave these results: 

Specific gravity, about .934 

Weight of cubic feet in tb (nearly dry) 58.37 

Comparative strength, or weight necessary to bend . .. . • 149. 

Comparative strength 350. 

Cohesive force per square inch ib 13,316. 

Comparative toughness 108. 

Red oaks and other varieties of common oaks, of 
which there are several, are less durable and do not 
possess the strength of white oak and for these reasons 
should not be used when white oak can be obtained. 
For interior finish the red oak is preferable to the white 
because it is a softer wood and has a much finer grain, 
or figure, when quarter-sawed. 

Chestnut is a soft coarse-grained wood, somewhat 



similar in color to white oak. It is found in the Eastern 
part of the U. S. A., and while not nearly as strong 
as oak its lasting qualities are excellent. For this reason 
a certain percentage of chestnut can be used in the 
frames of vessels without loss of class. The average 
cohesive force of chestnut is about 9,700. 

Its stiffness to that of oak is as 54 to 100. 
Its strength to that of oak is as 48 to 100. 
Its toughness to that of oak is as 85 to 100. 

Rock Elm. — The elm is a large tree, common in the 
U. S. A. There are about fifteen species, of which the 
rock elm is the most valuable for ship-building. Its 
wood is ruddy brown, very fibrous and flexible, subject 
to warp, tough, and difficult to work. It is not liable to 
split and bears the driving of nails or bolts better than 
any other wood. When kept constantly wet it is exceed- 
ingly durable, and is, therefore, much used for keels of 
vessels and in wet places. 

The weight of a cubic foot when green is about 60 tb 
and when dry about 43 ft. 

Its strength to that of white oak is as 82 to 100. 
Its stiffness to that of white oak is as 78 to 100. 
Its toiighness to that of white oak is as 86 to 100. 
Its absolute cohesive strength is about 13,000 tb. 

Soft elm is the worst of all the species and is abso- 
lutely useless for shipbuilding use. 

Ash is an excellent wood for oars, blocks, hand- 
spikes, etc., because its toughness and elasticity fit it for 
resisting sudden and heavy shocks. It is of little use for 
other shipbuilding purposes because of its liability to rot 
when exposed to dampness or used in places where it 
will be alternately wet and dry. 

The weight of a cubic foot of green ash is about 60 ft 
and of dry wood about 49 ft. Its cohesive strength is 
about 17,000 ft. 

Its strength to that of white oak is as 119 to 100. 
Its stiffness to that of white oak is as 89 to 100. 
Its toughness to that of vvhite oak is as 100 to 100. 

Teak. — While not a native U. S. wood, teak is ex- 
tensively used in ship-building and is, in fact, one of, if 
not the most valuable of all shipbuilding woods. It is 
a native wood of India, and is one of the few woods that 
can withstand the ravages of white ants. The wood is 
light brown in color, is durable both in and out of water, 
and possesses very nearly the strength of white oak. 
Its tenacity is about 13,000 ft per square inch. 

Teak is largely used for deck plank in yachts, for 
rails, for joinerwork, and in places where great durability 
is desired. 

In countries where it is plentiful it is used for keels, 
frames, and planking of vessels, and when so used the 
vessels are practically indestructible through decay. 

There are two descriptions of teak used in ship-build- 
ing; one of which is brought from Moulmein and the 
other from Malabar. The former of these is in various 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



15 



respects superior to the latter ; in India, where the oppor- 
tunities of comparing them have been more ample than in 
this country, it is stated to be of less specific gravity, of 
greater flexibility, and freer from knots and rindgalls 
than the teak of Malabar; it is also of a lighter color. 
It grows to an immense size in the forest, and trees are 
sometimes cut of 8 or 9 feet in diameter; but most of 
such trees are unsound; smaller trees are therefore pre- 
ferred, ranging down to 18 inches in diameter. The 
largest pieces of this teak run to about 85 feet in length, 
and are about 8 or 9 feet in girt; keel-pieces range from 
38 to 50 feet in length, squaring from 15 to 24 inches. 

This timber is killed before it is felled: the trees are 
girdled all round through the sap about 3 feet above the 
ground, just before the rainy season begins, and when the 
sap is low. The vitality of the trees being thus destroyed, 
they are left in that state to season, for two or even three 
years before they are felled. The trees are considered 
to arrive at perfection in about seventy years; a trans- 
verse section of some trees exhibits the periodical rings 
of the stem at half an inch or even three-quarters of an 
inch asunder, while in other specimens of the same tim- 
ber these rings can hardly be distinguished. Some butts 
are of a close and even texture; and the same feature of 
the wood extends the whole length of the log though it 
be 60 feet : other butts are soft for several inches round 
the heart. 

Maple. — Maple is a hard, heavy, strong and close- 
grained wood of light color. The hard maple is exten- 
sively used for launching ways and for planking of 
slipways. The wood is durable when fully covered with 
water but is not very durable when alternately wet and 
dry. When green it weighs about 62 tb, and when dry 
about 51 lb. Its tenacity, is about 10,586 It). 

Locust. — The timber of the acacia is called locust 
wood. In color it is yellow. It is an extremely durable 
wood of great strength. Experiments have shown that 
it is heavier, harder, stronger and more rigid than the 
best white oak. Its use, however, is almost entirely 
confined to treenails, because the trees from which the 
timber is cut are always very small, and for this reason 
locust is seldom used except for pieces that can be made 
out of small timbers. For treenails it is far superior to 
all other woods. 

Its strength compared with oak is as 135 to 100. 

Its weight is about 45 tb a cu. ft. and its tenacity is tb 16,000. 
Locust wood shrinks very little indeed in seasoning. 

Birch. — There are two kinds of birch used in ship 
construction, the black and the yellow. The black is 
the most durable and is the one preferred by shipbuilders. 
It is moderately hard wood, weighs when green about 
60 lb, and when dry about 45 tb. Its tenacity is 15,000 lb 
a square inch. The yellow birch is not a very durable 
wood. 

Mahogany. — This wood is extensively used for ship 



joinerwork and planking of small boats. It is a native 
of the West Indies and Central America. The mahogany 
tree is one of the most beautiful and majestic of trees. 
Its trunk is often 50 feet high, and 12 feet diameter. It 
takes probably not less than two hundred years to arrive 
at maturity. . 

The mahogany tree abounds themost and is in great- 
est perfection between latitudes 11° and 23° 10' N., 
including within these limits the islands of the Caribbean 
Sea, Cuba, St. Domingo, and Porto Rico, and in these 
the timber is superior in quality to that of the adjacent 
continent of America, owing, it is to be supposed, in some 
measure, to its growing at greater elevations and on 
poorer soils.. 

Mahogany timber was used at an early period by the 
Spaniards in ship-building. In 1597 it was used in the 
repairs of Sir Walter Raleigh's ships in the West Indies. 

The finest mahogany is obtained from St. Domingo, 
the next in quality from Cuba, and the next from Hon- 
duras. 

In the island of Cuba the tree is felled at the wane 
of the moon from October to June. The trunks are 
dragged by oxen to the river, and then, tied together in 
threes, they are floated down to the rapids. At the 
rapids they are separated and passed singly, then, col- 
lected in rafts, they are floated down to the wharves for 
shipment. It is considered essential to the preservation 
of the color and texture of the wood that it should be 
felled when the moon is in the wane. 

The Honduras mahogany is commonly called bay 
wood, and is. that most used for the purposes of car- 
pentry. It recommends itself for these purposes by its 
possessing, in an eminent degree, most of the good and 
few of the bad qualities of other timber. It works 
freely; it does not shrink; it is free from acids which act 
on metals; it is nearly if not altogether exempt from 
dry rot; and it resists changes of temperature without 
alteration. It holds glue well; and it does not require 
paint to disguise its appearance. It is less combustible 
than most woods. The weight of a cubic foot is 50 tb, 
and its tenacity is given by Barlow at 8,000 tb. 

Its strength compared with oak is as 96 to 100. 
Its stiffness compared with oak is as 93 to 100. 
Its toughness compared with oak is as 99 to 100. 

Sabicu. — The wood of a beautiful tree which grows 
in Cuba. It is used in the government yards for beams 
and planking. The weight of a cubic foot is from 57 to 
65 tb. 

Greenheart (Nectandra rodiosi). — This wood is a 
native of Guiana, where it is in great abundance. The 
trees square from 18 to 24 inches, and can be procured 
from 60 to 70 feet long. It is a fine but not even-grained 
wood. Its heart-wood is deep brown in color, and the 
alburnum pale yellow. It is adapted for all purposes 
where great strength and durability are required. The 



i6 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



weight of a cubic foot is from 51.15 to 61.13, and its 
specific gravity from 831 to 989. 

Poplar (Populus). — The wood of the poplar is soft, 
light, and generally white, or of a pale yellow. It has 
the property of being only indented and not splintered 
by a blow. 

It is adapted for purposes which require lightness 
and moderate strength, and when kept dry it is tolerably 
durable. It weighs when green 48 ft 3 oz. per cubic 
foot, and from 24 to 28 ft 7 oz. when dry. It shrinks 
and cracks in drying, and loses about a quarter of its 
bulk. When seasoned it does not warp, and takes fire 
with difficulty. Its tenacity is 6,016. 

2h. Resinous and Soff Woods 

Of the timber of the resin-producing trees, belonging 
to the natural order Coniferae, many varieties are used. 
The white pine of America, which is the Pinus Strobus; 
the yellow pine of America, Finns variabilis; the pitch 
pine, Pinus resinosa; the silver fir, Pinus Picea; and the 
various white firs, or deals, the produce of the Pinus 
Abies, or spruce fir; and also the larch, are all used in 
almost every kind of construction. 

No other kind of tree produces timber at once so 
long and straight, so light, and yet so strong and stiff; 
and no other timber is so much in demand for all 
purposes. 

From the growing trees are obtained turpentine, liquid 
balsam, and the common yellow and black rosin. Tar 
is obtained by cutting the wood and roots into small 
pieces, and charring them, or distilling them in a close 
oven, or in a heap covered with turf. The lampblack 
of commerce is the soot collected during this process. 
Fortunately, the trees of the pine and fir tribe, so useful 
to man, are found in great abundance in America and 
Europe. 

White or Northern Pine. — This wood grows in the 
Northern States of the U. S. A. and in Canada. It is 
a light, soft, straight-grained wood of a light yellowish 
color, and is one of the most reliable of woods for stay- 
ing in place after it is fastened, because it does not 
warp. It is extensively used for patterns, for deck plank, 
for joinerwork that will be painted, and for planking of 
small craft of all types. 

Its strength to that of oak is as 90 to 190. 
Its stiffness to that of oak is as 95 to 100. 
Its toughness to that of oak is as 103 to 100. 

Its weight when green is about 36 tb. 

Its weight when dry about 28 tb. 

Georgia Pine. — Also known as pitch pine, as yellow 
pine, and as "longleaf pine", is a strong, close-grained, 
durable wood extensively used in ship-building. This 
pine grows in Southern States from Virginia to Texas, 
and can be obtained in lengths up to at least 60 feet 
and dimensions up to about 14 by 14 inches. Yellow 
pine is largely used for planking, for decking, for a large 



portion of the longitudinal framework, for keels and 
keelsons and for spars. 

Its strength as compared with that of oak is as 90 to 100. 
Its toughness as compared with that of oak is as 96 to 100. 

Its weight when green is about 56 lb. 

Its weight when dry about 45 tb. 

Spruce. — There are four kinds of spruce in U. S. A., 
of which only two are suitable for shipbuilding use, viz., 
the black and the white spruce. These are tough, light 
woods that are fairly durable when used in wet and 
damp places. For this reason it is used for floors, for 
keelsons and for longitudinal members of vessels' frame- 
work. Its strength is about the same as that of white 
pine. Bear in mind that it is the color of the bark and not 
the wood that gives the name to each kind. The woods 
cannot be distinguished after bark is removed. 

Oregon Pine. — This is a species of pine that grows 
on the Western Coast; its texture is somewhat like that 
of the Eastern white pine but the wood is slightly harder 
and contains more rosin. The wood is extensively used 
for shipbuilding purposes and rates next to yellow pine 
for durability and strength. It is an excellent wood for 
masts and spars. Oregon pine can be obtained in lengths 
of 100 feet and over, and some of the timbers of this 
length are almost clear of knots. Oregon pine is also 
called Douglas fir. 

White Cedar. — -This is a soft, white, fine-grained 
wood in great demand for planking small boats and yachts. 
The wood is a native of Virginia, where it grows in 
swampy land. Species of white cedar are also found in 
Canada, in Michigan, in New Jersey and in Florida. The 
wood is exceedingly durable, is tough and is extremely 
light in weight, some of the Canadian cedars weighing 
only 15 ft per cubic foot. The weight of an average 
Virginian white cedar log is about 20 ft per cubic foot. 

Red Cypress. — This is anotlier Southern wood in 
great demand for small boat and yacht construction 
work. Its color is reddish yellow and the wood is one 
of the most durable of woods, either in or out of water. 

Cypress has, however, this defect: it soaks up water 
very readily, and for this reason it must be kept well 
covered with paint or varnish. The wood is soft and 
bends readily. 

As cypress trees grow to heights of over 100 feet, 
the wood can be obtained in long lengths and almost free 
from knots and defects. The red cypress is the name 
given to the dark-colored wood cut from trees that grow 
near the coast — the lowland cypress. The upland light- 
colored cypress is worthless for boatbuilding purposes 
and is not at all durable. In color the lowland cypress 
is yellowish and for this reason it is called yellow cypress. 

The most valuable woods in the U. S. A. for ship- 
building purposes are teak, live oak, white oak, common 
oak, chestnut, elm, hackmatack, yellow pine, spruce, 
Douglas fir or Oregon pine, red cypress, white cedar, 
Washington cedar, and white pine. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



17 



Lignum Vita. — This is one of the hardest and 
heaviest species of wood ;, and owing to its valuable pecu- 
liarities it is applied to uses in which the greatest strain 
has to be borne, and chiefly for the sheaves of blocks 
and lining of shaft bearings. In this use it endures a vast 
amount of friction, and bears the strain of enormous 
weights. When the wood is used for sheaves, care should 
be taken so to cut it that a band of the sap may be pre- 
served all round; as this preserves the sheaves from 
splitting from the outside inwardly towards the center, 
which they would do if they consisted of the perfectly 
elaborated wood alone. 

As the sap of this wood is so important, care should be 



taken to preserve it from the depredations of worms ; and 
also to protect the wood generally from too much draught, 
especially when it is newly cut. 

The Havana Cedar {Cedrela odorata) belongs to the 
same natural order as mahogany, which it resembles, 
although it is much softer and of a paler color. It is im- 
ported from the island of Cuba, and is much used both in 
cabinet work and in boat-building. 

The New South Wales Cedar {Cedrela toona) some- 
what resembles the Havana cedar, but is of a coarser 
grain and of a darker color. It grows in the East Indies 
as well as in New South Wales. Most of the cedars are 
used in boat-building. 



TABLE I 
TABLE OF TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE AND LOSS OF WEIGHT IN SEASONING TIMBER 



Kind of Timber 



12-Inch Boards Shrunk to These Widths in 
Seasoning 



Butt Plank 



Top Plank 



Weights of Cubic Foot of Timber 



Green State 



When Seasoned 



White oak 

Common oak... 
Common oak . . . 
Canadian oak. . 

Larch 

Hackmatack . . 
Ehn, American. 
Ehn, Canadian. 

Fir 

Fir, Douglas. . . 
Pine, white. . . . 
Pine, long leaf. . 

Pine, yellow 

Cedar, white. . . 

Ash 

Spruce, Eastern 
Cypress, red. . . 



"•75 
11.60 
11.50 
11.60 

ii-SS 
11.60 

11.70 

"■55 
11.80 
1 1. go 
11.80 
"•95 
II.7S 
11.40 

II-SS 
11.85 
11.50 



60 
SO 
35 
45 
40 

50 
45 
30 
70 
80 
65 
85 
65 
30 
45 
75 
30 



58—64 
56 
54 
57—60 

37—40 

43 

60 

56 
46 

43 
36 
56 
5° 
32 
56 
40 

38 



53—58 

47 

42 

54 

32—35 
36—38 
46 

42 

36 

34 
28 

42—45 

39 

28 

44—46 
29—31 
27 — 29 



i8 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



TABLE 2 
TABLE OF THE PROPERTIES OF TIMBER 





I. 


2. 


3- 


4- 


$• 


6. 


7- 


8. 


9- 


Tredgold's 
Formula: 


Barlow's 
Formula: 




Specific 

Gravity, 

Water 

being 

I.O 


Weight 

of a foot, 

Dry, 

in lbs. 


Weight 
of a Bar, 
I ft. long, 
I in. sq., 

in lbs. 


Absolute 
Tenacity 
of a sq. in. 
Average, 
in lbs. 


Tenacity 

of a sq. in 

without 

injury, 

in lbs. 


Modulus 

of Elasticity. 

in lbs. 


Modulus 

of Elasticity, 

in feet 


Crushing 

force per 

sq. inch, 

in lbs. 


Constants 

for 

Posts, and 

value of 

e 


10. 


n. 


12. 


13^ 




Value of 
a 


Value of 
C 


Value of 

S 


Value of 
E 


Acacia . . . ^. 


.710 
.690 

•845 
.760 
.822 
.690 
to .854 

.792 
.648 

.960 
1.029 

■450 

.560 
.657 

•76s 
•441 
■69s 

.671 

.748 

■753 


44^37 

43^12 

53^8i 

47^5 

51^37 

43 • 

53^37 

49^5 

40.5 

60. 

64.31 

28. 

47.06 

41.06 

47.81 

27.60 

43^43 
42. 
46.75 
47.06 


.30 


18,290 




1,152,000 


373.900 








.621 

•677 


.1867 
•2036 






8,683 
9.363. 
7,158 
7,733 
9,363 
6,402 
11,663 


.00168 



.0105 




Ash 1 


.33 
.35 


17,200 


3.540 


1,644,800 
1,640,000 


4,970,000 


•244 


Bay tree 


12,396 








Beech | 

Birch 


















•315 
■34 

.28 
.41 
.446 

•32 
.285 

•33 

•30 
-236 


14,720 
15,000 
11,663 
19,891 


2,360 


1,353,600 


4,600,000 
5,406,000 
3,388,000 


•00195 


.0127 
.0141 


■552 
•643 
■605 


•1556 
.1881 
.1834 


•19s 
.240 
.256 


" American . 


:::if::: 


i", 2 57, 600 






Box 






Bullet tree 




2,601,600 
700,000 
650,000 

1,000,000 


5,878,000 








.882 


.2646 






10,293 

9,000 

11,900 


:.;::::: 


S.674 
4,912 








" red 














Chestnut . . 






.0187 








Crab tree 




( 7,148 

\ 6,499 
6,000 

/ 9,973 
I 8,467 

I 

10,331/ 
5,7481 
6.819] 












Cypress. 


6,000 
10,230 

13.489 
11,549 
12,776 


1.500 


900,000 














Elder .... 














Ehn 1 

Fir, Riga 


3.240 



1,340,000 
699,840 

1,328,800 
869,600 


5,680,000 


.00184 

.00152 


.017 
.00115 


■372 
•369 


• HIS 
.1108 


.101 


4,080,000 


.167 






" Red 






" Douglas 


.560 

•76 

•590 

1.022 
.522 
.560 

1.22 
.760 
.800 
.560 
•793 
.830 
•934 

.872 

•756 
.972 
.661 

.660 

.607 

.461 
.612 
.698 
•S44 
.419 
.640 

.786 

•383 

•590 

•340 

•470 

.69 

•657 

.671 

•390 

.807 


35^ 

47^5 

37.00 

63.87 

32.62 

35- 

76.25 

47^5° 

SO. 

35^ 

49 •S6 

58^37 

54 •SO 

47^24 
60.7s 

4i^3i 

41^25 

41.06 

28.81 
38.40 
43.62 
34.00 
26.23 
40. 

49.06 

23^93 

36.87 
21.25 

29.37 

43.1 

41.06 

41^93 
24^37 
50.43 


•30 
•32 

•44 

•243 

•S3 
•32 
•34 
■243 

■36 

■378 

■327 

■42 
.283 

.283 

.26 
.20 

".28"' 
•338 

.164 

•25 

.147 

.20 

.296 

.282 

.288 

.167 

•347 


12,000 
20,240 
14,000 
23,400 
10,220 
8,900 
11,800 
23-500 
16,500 
^8,950 
10,584 

13.316 

10,253 
12,780 






2,797,000 






.02^^ 


•380 


.1144 


■94 


Hornbeam 






7,289 






Hackmatack 


3,000 


1,200,000 














Lance •. . . . 
















Larch | 


2,065 


10,740,000 
1,052,800 


4,415,000 


5,5681 
( 


.0019 


.0128 


.284 


•853 


.120 


Lignum-vitae 








Lime tree 




















Mahogany, Spanish 








8,198 


.00205 
.00161 


■0137 
.0109 
.0197 

.0124 

.OOQ 








" Honduras 


3,800 


1,596,300 


6,570,000 








Maple 








Oak, white | 

" Canadian 


3.960 


1,700,000 
1,451,220 

2,148,800 

1,191,200 
2,282,300 


4,730,000 


1 4,684 
-i 9.509 
I 10,058 
/ 4.231 
I 9,509 
7,731 


[■0015 

I 


•553 

■588 
.560 


.1658 

.1766 
•1457 


.210 


5,674,000 

3,607,000 
5,583,000 


.310 
.149 


" common 


/ 


.0087 


" African 






Pear tree ... 


9,861 
7,818 

10,000 

7,000 
16,000 
20,000 
13,800 

8,000 
11,700 

II.3SI 

6,016 




, 7,518 

/ 6,790! 

l S.44SJ 

/ S,375\ 

I 7,518/ 

5.445 

5.445 

9,000 

7,000 

2,500 




.021^ 








Pine, Pitch . 


2,900 


1,225,600 

1,840,000 

1,000,000 
1,200,000 
1,700,000 
1,400,000 
700,000 


4,364,000 

6,423,000 
8,700,000 




.0166 


•544 
•447 


.1632 
•1341 


.177 
.272 


" Red . . 




.0100 


" American white 




.0112 


" (N.C.) yellow 

" (long leaf) yellow 

" (Oregon) 


.0110 
































" Red wood 














Plane tree 






.0128 








Plum tree 








10,493 

9,367 

3,657 we 

J 3,107) 
I 5,124/ 




















t. 










Poplar 




.0224 
.0089 








Soruce Orecon 




1,536,200 


6,268,000 


•577 


•1731 


.190 


' ' Norway 


17,600 
14,000 
13,000 
12,460 

8,465 

14,000 

8,000 




7.293 


.00142 




** white 




1,200,000 




.0124 








Svcamore 








.0168 








Teak 




2,414,400 


7,417,000 


12,101 
7,227 
6,128 


.00118 


.0076 
.020 


.820 


.2462 


•349 


Walnut 




Willow 










•03 1 








Yew, Spanish 





































Chapter III 

Kinds and Dimensions of Material to Use 



The relative value of each wood for shipbuilding pur- 
poses has been carefully considered and classified by 
the vessel insurance companies for durability and strength. 
This classification is in the form of years of service as- 
signed to each wood when utilized for each principal 
part of a vessel's construction, for you must bear in mind 
that while one wood may give excellent service when 
used for planking, it may not be at all suitable for the 
framework. 

Below I give a table of years of service assigned by 
insurance companies to each wood when it is used for 
designated parts of a vessel. 

This table must be used in conjunction with one that 
designates the dimensions of materials to use; because 
sometimes, by increasing dimensions of a less valuable 
wood the years of that wood for a designated part will 
be increased. 

3a. Explanation of Table 3 

Table 3 gives years assigned to different kinds of tim- 
ber, when used in the construction of a vessel built under 
Lloyd's rules for classification of wooden vessels. 



3b. Dimensions of Materials to Use 

The specifications of both Lloyd's and the Bureau of 
American Shipping construction rules cover workman- 
ship, as well as quality and dimensions of timbers and 
fastenings. 

Tonnage is the base used for determining all scant- 
lings of hull, the tonnage for Lloyd's being, in flush deck 
vessels having one, two or three decks, the tonnage under 
upper deck, without abatement for space used by crew 
or for propelling power; and in vessels having raised 
quarter deck, or top-gallant forecastle, or deck houses, 
the total tonnage below the tonnage deck. 

In Bureau of American Shipping the tonnage for 
scantlings is determined by using this formula : 

L X B X D X .75 

^ Tonnage. 

100 
L =r Length from after part of stem to fore side of 
stern post. 

B = Breadth over all at widest part. 

D = Depth from top of ceiling alongside keelson to 



TABLE 3 
LLOYD'S TABLE OF YEARS ASSIGNED TO EACH KIND OF WOOD 







e 

h 

55 


1" 
< 


11 
1 


J 


Timbers 


1 
1 


T3 

a' 

'a 
i4 


Ceiling 


§ 

m 


4J 

c 


1 


Plank 


Deck 


s 




Kind of Timber 


II 


M 

■OK 


it 


1 

E 


d 


1 




1 



■s 

1 




s 



1 


cJ3 


be 
.S 


i 




2 




I East India Teak . . . 


16 

12 
10 

8 


16 
12 
10 

7 

■ 7 
9 

8 

9 
9 

4 


16 

12 
10 

7 

7 
9 
8 

9 
9 
4 


16 
12 
10 

7 

7 
9 
8 

9 
9 

4 


16 

12 

10 

8 

8 

9 
8 

9 
9 
8 
8 

7 
6 

7 
8 

7 


16 

12 
10 

' 8 

8 

9 
8 

9 
9 
6 

"6 
6 
6 
8 
6 


16 
12 
10 

7 

7 
9 
8 

9 
9 

5 

6 
6 

8 


16 

12 

10 

7 

7 
9 
8 

9 
9 

5 

6 
6 

"8 

4 


Tfi 


16 
12 
10 

7 

8 

9 
8 

9 
9 

5 

7 
6 

"s 

4 


16 

12 
10 

7 

7 
9 
8 

9 
9 

5 


16 

12 

12 

7 

8 

10 

8 

9 
9 


16 
12 
12 

7 

8 

10 

8 

9 
9 


16 
12 
12 

7 

8 

10 
8 

9 
9 


16 
12 
12 

7 

8 

10 
8 

9 
9 


16 

12 
12 

7 

7 
9 
8 

9 
9 

5 


16 

12 

12 

7 

7 
9 
7 

9 
9 

5 


16 
12 
12 

7 

7 
9 
8 

9 
9 
5 


16 
12 
12 


16 

12 
12 


16 
12 
10 


16 

12 
10 

7 

7 

10 

8 

10 
9 


16 
12 
10 

7 

7 
10 

8 

10 
9 


16 

12 
10 

7 

7 

10 

8 

10 
9 


16 
12 
10 

7 

7 

10 

8 

10 
9 


16 
12 
10 

7 

8 
9 
9 

9 
6 

S 


t6 


2. English, African and Live Oak 

Greenheart, iron bark 

3. Sabien, Jarrah, Kurrie, Blue 

Gum, Red Gum, Pencil Cedar 

4. Second Hand English, Oak 

Greenheart . . . . : 


I 
I 


2 
3 

7 


12 
10 

7 


5. Red Cedar, Philippine Island 
Cedar 


7 
9 
8 

9 
9 

S 

6 
6 

';8 


12 

12 
12 

12 

9 
10 

8 
12 
12 
10 

8 
12 

6 


12 
10 
12 

12 

9 
10 

8 
12 
12 
10 

8 
12 

6 


8 

10 

8 

10 
9 

5 
6 

7 
6 
6 
8 
6 
5 


8 


6. Danish Oak, Mahogany (hard). 

7 . North American White Oak. . . 

8. Pitch Pine, Oregon Pine, Kau- 

ria Pine, Larch, Hackmatack, 


9 
8 

9 
9 


9 
9 

9 
6 

5 


9. Danzie, French, Red Pine 


I J . Rock Maple 


10 
10 


5 


S 




5 


6 


6 


6 






6 

6; 


6 
6 


6 
6 


7 
6 

' 8 

4 


6 
6 

"s 

4 


7 
6 

"8 

4 




7 


7 


13. Grey Elm 






















14. Black Birch 


10 
8 




















6 


6 


15. Spruce, Fir 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 




16. Beech '. 












6 


6 


17. Yellow Pine. 


8 


4 


4 


4 


S 


5 


5 


5 





























20 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



underside of main deck, to be measured at fore end of 
main hatchway. 

In both rules the scanthngs as hsted are correct for 
use in vessels that are properly designed, have normal 
shape, and have not over a certain named proportion of 
length to breadth and of length to depth. In cases when 
proportion of length to breadth is in excess, or when the 
proportion of depth to length is below requirements, some 
addition to structural strength is required, this additional 
strength being obtained partly by the use of diagonal steel 
straps and partly by increasing scantlings. 

In all cases, workmanship must be first class and the 
kinds of materials used must not have a lower rating for 
durability and strength than those named in list. The 
number, kind and size of fastening must also be as listed 
in rules. In cases when a weaker or less durable kind of 
material is used for a part some addition to dimension of 
part must be made. Below I give a brief synopsis of 
building rules and scantling tables. 

3c. Lloyd's Rules and Dimension of Material Tables 

The number of years assigned to a new vessel is de- 
termined with reference to construction and quality of 
vessel, the materials employed and mode of building. 

Defects in workmanship or quality of timber will in- 
volve a reduction in class. 



Ships built with mixed timber materials below the 14- 
year grade, and in which high class materials and extra 
fastenings have been judiciously employed may be allowed 
a period, not to exceed two years, exceeding that to 
which the material of the lowest class used would other- 
wise entitle them, providing workmanship is high class 
thoroughout. 

All timber must be of good quality, properly seasoned, 
and of the descriptions and scantlings shown on tables. 

Should the timber and space (spacing of frames) be 
increased, the siding of timbers must be increased in 
proportion. 

In ships claiming to stand for twelve or fourteen years, 
timber materials must be entirely free from sap and all 
defects. 

If a ship is properly salted during her construction, 
one year will be added to her term for classification. 

Workmanship is to be well executed for all grades; 
(a) timbers to be frame bolted together throughout their 
entire length; (b) the butts to be close fitted; (c) scarphs 
are to be of proper length. 

In all ships air courses must be left, either immediately 
below or one strake below the clamps of each tier of 
beams, and one or two air courses must be left in hold, 
between the keelson and hold beam clamps. 

All ships of 600 tons and up, the frames of which are 



TABLE 3B— LLOYD'S SCANTLING TABLE 
Minimum Dimensions in Inches, of Timbers, Keelson, Keel, Planking, Etc. 



TONNAGE 



300 



400 



600 



700 



800 



1050 



1150 



1250 



1350 



ISOO 



I7S0 



Timber and Space — -Inches 

Floors, S & M at Keelson, if Squared 
Double Floors, S & M at Keelson, if 

Squared 

1st Futtocks, S & M at Floorheads, if 

Squared 

2nd Futtocks, Sided, if Squared. . . . 
3rd Futtocks, Sided, if Squared .... 
Top Timbers (Short), Sided, if Squared 
Top Timbers, Moulded at Heads, if 

Squared 

Breast Hooks and Wing Transom, 

S&M in Middle 

Keel, Stem, Apron, and Sternpost, 

S&M 

Keelson ,S&M 

Wales 

(e) Bottom Plank, from Keel to Wales 

Sheer Strakes, Top Sides, Upper Deck 

Clamp (No Shelf); Lower Deck, 

Clamp with Shelf 

Ceiling Below Hold Beam Clamp. . . 
Waterway: 

Hardwood 

Fir 

Ceiling Betwixt Decks 

Bilge Plank, Inside, Thick Strakes and 

Limber Strake , 

Lower Deck Clamp (No Shelf) and 

Spirketting 

Upper Deck Clamp (With Shelf) 

Planksheer 

Flat of Upper Deck 

Scarphs of Keelson Without Rider .... 
Scarphs, where Rider Keelson is added, 

also Scarphs of Keel 

Main Piece of Windlass — Inches 



19 

6 

5K 



4K 

8K 



10 



4 



3 

2K 

2X 
2K 

4'9' 

4'3'' 
14 



21>i 

8K 

7K 

7 



24M 
loX 

9% 

8K 

8 

7X 



9% 

4X 

2K 



3X 

2'A 



5K 

12K 
4^ 
3X 



3H 

2H 



5 5K 

2 2% 



3H 

3X 
2K 

2H 

3 
5'3" 

^Y 
15 



3K 

2H 

3H 
3 
5'io 

5'2" 
15 



27K 

10 

9 

8>i 



12 

13 
14 

aH 

3K 



3H 

2% 

6 

7 

2K 

4>i 

4 

2% 
3K' 
3 

e'e" 
16 



30 
13 



II 

10 

9 

9 

6 

13 

14 

15 

5 

4 



4 
3 

6K 
8 

2>i 

4>^ 

A\i 
3 

4 

6' 
17 



30>^ 

13X 

12^' 

wYl 
10>i 

9^4 
9% 

13X 

14X 

5 
4 



4 

8 
2>4 

\y^ 

4K 
3K 

7' 

6' 



31K 
13K 

12K 

\\% 

9K 
9>^ 

f>y, 

I3K 

4 



4K 
3% 

7 

8K 

2K 

4K 

4K 
3% 



6' 
19 



31K 

12K 

I2>< 
IlX 
10% 

9A 

f>yA, 
13K 
14K 

SA 
4X 



4X 
3K 

7 

8>^ 

2^ 

4K 

4K 
3K 
4 

3K 
7'3' 

6'3' 
21 



32 K 
14 

13 

I2>^ 

iiK 

I0>^ 

9H 



14 

15 
16 

iA 
4X 



VA 
3A 

lA 

9 

2H 



5 

3A 

4 



22 



33X 
WA 

13A 

13X 
12X 
iiK 
10 

7A 

hA 

15A 
16A 

6 

VA 



aA 

3H 

7A 
9 

2A 

5A 
5K 

3^ 
4 
4 
7'6" 

b'b" 
23 



33A 
14K 

13K 

nA 
12A 
iiA 
loA 

lA 

14K 

16K 
6 

4K 



AA 
3H 

lA 

9 

3 

5H 

5A 

3A 

4 

4 
fg" 

6'9" 

23 



33A 
15 

14 

I3K 

123A 

11^ 
loA 

1A 

15 

16 

17 

6 

aA 



aH 

4 

8 

9A 

3 



bA 

4 

4 

4 

7'9" 

6'9' 
24 



33K 
15X 

14X 

14K 

12A 

ioA 

SA 

15A 

16A 

17A 

6A 

aA 



9A 
.3 

6A 

5A 
A 
A 
A 



r 

24 



34 

15A 

iaA 

HA 

nA 
12A 
loK 

^A 

15A 

16A 

17A 

6A 

aA 



5A 

AA 

8A 
9A 
3A 

6A 

5A 

aA 
aA 

4 
8' 

7' 
25 



3AA 
15A 

HA 

hA 
uA 
12A 
II 

SH 
15K 

16K 

17H 

6A 

aA 



hA 
aA 

8A 
9A 

3A 
6A 
5A 

aA 
aA 

4 



7' 

25 



35 
15K 

iaH 

13A 
12A 
iiA 



16 

17 
18 

7 
5 



SA 

aA 
9 

10 

3A 



7 
27 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 21 

composed of fir, and all ships the length of which shall ber, not of less diameter than given for through butt 

exceed five times the extreme breadth, or eight times bolts. The number of straps to be in the proportion of 

and under nine times their depth, shall have diagonal not less than one pair for every 12 feet of ship's length, 

steel straps inserted outside the frame, the straps to In vessels exceeding six breadths, or nine and under 

extend from upper side of upper tier of beams to first ten depths in length, the number of diagonal straps must 

futtock head. be not less than one pair to every .10 feet of the ship's 

The dimensions of straps to be not less than as length. And in addition to the requirements for ships of 

follows: five times their breadth in length, such ships must be 

In ships from 100 to 200 tons 3j4" X Vie" fitted with rider keelson, or with a pair of sister keelsons 

200 to 400 " 4" X Yi" properly fastened with through bolts. 

400 to 700 " ..-;..4j4" X Yi Spacing of deck and hold beams is regulated by depth 

Table 3a 700 to 1000 " 5" X Y^" of hold, and ships having extreme depth must be fitted 

1000 to 1500 " 5J/2" X ^Vie" with riders, or with orlop deck beams properly secured. 

1500 to 2000 " 6" X %" Methods of fastening, dimensions of fastenings, and 

2000 and above 614" X J^" in fact particulars of every important detail of construc- 

Straps to be placed diagonally at not less than 45 degrees tion are fully explained in the building rules, and in my 

and to be fastened with bolts, one at each alternate tim- description of each part of a vessel's construction. 

TABLE 3C— LLOYD'S PLANKING TABLE 

For the Thickness of Inside Plank, and in the Construction of Ships in the British North American Colonies 

and All Fir Ships Wherever Built 



TONNAGE— Tons 


100 


200 


300 


400 


Soo 


600 


700 


goo 


900 


lOSO 


I ISO 


1350 


Thick Waterway — Inches. 


5X 


6 


6>^ 


7K 


8 


8K 


9 


9K 


10 


II 


iiK 


12 


Spirketting. 


3 


3K 


3K 


4 


4X 


4J< 


4K 


5 


5K 


5K 


6 


(>A 


Ceiling Below Hold Beam Clamp and Between Decks. 


2 


2K 


3 


i'A 


3K 


4 


^yi 


^'A 


4^ 


5 


5X 


5A 


Bilge Plank (inside). 


3 


3K 


4X 


4K 


5K 


byi 


7 


8 


9 


loK 


iiK 


12 


Thickstuff Over Long and Short Floorheads and Limber Strakes. 


2?< 


3X 


3K 


4 


4K 


5 


i'A 


6 


6K 


7 


rA 


7 A 


Main Keelson (Rider Keelsons may be two-thirds that of main 
ditto) . 


10 


iiK 


12K 


H 


15 


^i'A 


I5K 


15K 


16 


16K 


i(>A 


17 


TABLE 3D— LLOYD'S FASTENING DIMENSIONS 
Sizes of Bolts, Pintles of Rudder, and Treenails 



TONNAGE 



Heel-Knee, Sterason and Deadwood Bolts Inches 



'% 



ISO 



I H'e 



300 



1% 



3S0 



1% 



400 



1^6 



1% 



1% 



1% 



Bolts in Sister Keelsons, Scarphs of Keel (a), Breast Hooks, 
Pointers, Crutches, Riders, Knees to Hold or Lower Deck 
Beams, Shelf, Clamp and Waterway Throat Bolts of Upper 
Deck Hanging Knees. 



'% 



'% 



'Hi 



'Ke 



Ws 



'*/i6 



1% 



1% 



1^6 



Keelson Bolts, Throats of Transoms, Throats of Breast Hooks, 
and Throats of Hanging Knees to Hold or Lower Deck Beams. 



'Ke 



'ife 



'Hi 



iKe 



1% 



I Hi 



I Hi 



Bilge, Limber Strake, and Through Butt Bolts. 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'Hi 



"/ii 



'Hi 



'He 



'Hi 



'He 



'Hi 



Other Butt Bolts. 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'He 



'He 



'Hi 



'Hi 



Bolts through Heels ot Cant Timbers, Bolts of Upper Deck 
Waterway, Shelf and Clamp, Arms of Hanging and Lodging 
Knees. 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'Hi 



'He 



'He 



Pintles of Rudder. 



2 H 



2 A 



2 H 



2 H 



3A 



3A 



iA 



Hardwood Treenails. 



I A 



I A 



I A 



I A 



I A 



I H 



I A 



(a) Number of Bolts in Scarphs of Keel: 

In ships of ISO tons and under 6 Bolts ] These bolts to be of 

" above 150 tons and under 500 tons. 7 Bolts } Copper or Yellow 

" ' 500 tons and above 8 Bolts J Metal in all cases 

N.B. Bolts to be through and clenched, and to be of good quality, well made with 

suitable heads and be tightly driven. 



22 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



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WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



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24 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



3d. General Remarks 

While building rules specify dimensions of materials 
that should be used for each part of a vessel's construc- 
tion it is not necessary to use materials of exact dimen- 
sions named, providing scantlings used are not less than 
those specified in tables. Thus it is permitted to use 
heavier frame timbers spaced a greater distance apart, 
or to use keel, keelson and other longitudinal timbers 
having' sided and moulded dimensions differing from 
those specified but in all cases the alteration in dimensions 
must not lessen strength of the whole structure and, of 
course, the actual strength of each assemblage of timbers 
must be equivalent to strength of timbers having dimen- 
sions specified by rules. 

In addition to this, improvements in construction de- 
tails likely to increase strength of whole structure, or to 
make a vessel constructed of lighter scantlings equal or 
superior in strength to one constructed of materials hav- 
ing specified scantlings are permitted by all classification 
rules providing the plans of construction are submitted to 
classification society before vessel is built and construc- 
tion as shown on plans is approved. 

Originally a wooden vessel was entirely a timber 
product, shaped and assembled by hand-labor, and being 
such the required construction strength was obtained by 
using an exceedingly large amount of first-quality ma- 
terial. In other words, dimensions of material were 
excessive. 



With the advent of machinery and larger use of iron 
and steel it became possible to reduce the amount of ma- 
terial used for many parts of construction and by sub- 
stituting iron and steel for other parts, or combinng 
the proper amounts of these metals with the wood, to 
obtain greater strength with lessened weight. 

Today, many labor-saving machines are used in ship- 
yards, thus methods of assembling timbers and combin- 
ing them with steel and wood that could not be used in 
the old days, because of excessive cost, are now available 
and it has become possible to construct wooden vessels 
that have greater strength than any turned out in the 
old days. 

The successful wooden vessel of the future will be 
one in which parts composed of wood will be composed 
of a minimum of material fitted together in such a man- 
ner that a maximum amount of strength will be obtained, 
and a certain proportion of steel will be used in combi- 
nation with the wood. Thus, in place of an all wood 
solid keelson it is likely that all wood trussed keelsons 
will be used, or all steel trussed keelhons, or a combina- 
tion of a steel trused nelson with wood members. 

It is also likely that there will be an increased use 
of diagonal steel bracing both outside and inside of the 
frames, and very likely steel knees will be substituted for 
wooden ones. In addition to this, it will be found ad- 
vantageous to substitute steel waterways and sheer 
strakes for the present wood ones. 



FORMULA FOR ASCERTAINING DIMENSIONS OF 
MATERIALS TO USE 

Rule — If the moulded breadth of vessel is multiplied by the decimal 
entered against each principal part of construction the proper 
dimension of material to use will be ascertained, approximately. 



Name of Part 


Decimal Multiplier 


Keel Siding 


.40— .42 
•45 — 50 


Keel Moulded 


Keelson Main 


.40— .42 
.25— .28 
.40 — .42 


Frame Siding 


Frame Moulded at Floors 


Frame Moulded at Top 

Main Deck Beams 


.16 — .20 
.30 — -.35 


Planking Thickness, Bottom 

Planking Thickness, Wales 

Planking Thickness, Top Planking 


.1 
.12 

• IS 

.15 — .20 


Ceiling at Bottom 


Ceiling at Bilge 


.25 

.25— .30 
.1 
.m — .20 


Deck Planking 

Coamings 


Stanchions Between Decks 


.20 — .22 


Lodge Knees 

Hanging Knees 


.15— -18 
.20 — .25 







Chapter IV 

Tonnage 



In the early days of commercial intercourse between 
France and England, a large portion of the cargo carried 
in vessels consisted of wine in large casks, called Urns. 
As trade increased it was found that it would be a 
great convenience to have some generally understood 
and simple method for determining the carrying capacity 
of each vessel, and very naturally it became a practice for 
vessel owners to state, when a question regarding size of 
a vessel was asked, that the capacity was so many tuns 
of wine, and as the tun was a standard of measure known 
to all who owned vessels and shipped goods in them, a 
knowledge of capacity in tuns enabled both to accurately 
estimate capacity for carrying in other trades. Thus the 
tun became a standard of a vessel's capacity to carry 
cargo of all kinds. 

The word tun ultimately became corrupted to ton and 
turmage to tonnage, and no doubt the fact that the 
actual weight of a tun filled with wine approximated 
2,000 lb tended to preserve the name even after the 
necessity for doing so ceased. 

Note. — ^The capacity of a tun was equal to 252 gallons 
of 231 cubic inches. 

The tonnage of a ship is the capacity which the body, 
or hull, has for carrying cargo, or weights. 

4a. Tonnage. Explained 

In these days the word tonnage, when referring to a 
vessel, should never be used without expressly stating 
the kind of tonnage meant. Unless this is done confusion 
results, because any one of five different tonnage weights 
or measurements can be meant. These are: 
1st. — The builders', or classification societies' tonnage 
measurement, sometimes used when calculating 
dimensions of materials required to insure proper 
strength of construction. 
2d. — The Gross registered tonnage, or total internal 
capacity of vessel as measured by a government 
surveyor for the purpose of registration. 
3d. — The Net registered tonnage, or tonnage measure- 
ment ascertained by deducting from gross tonnage 
the measurement (capacity) of space occupied by 
engines, steering apparatus and certain designated 
spaces that cannot be used for the storage of cargo. 
This measurement is also made by a government 
surveyor. 
4th. — The Light displacement (in tons), ascertained when 
vessel is designed by actually calculating the dis- 
placement weight to water-line vessel will float 



when ready for sea with clear swept holds, 
empty bunkers and tanks. 
Sth. — The Heavy displacement, or loaded displacement 
(in tons), also ascertained by designer calculating 
displacement weight when vessel is floating to the 
deepest water-line she can safely be loaded to. 

4b. Method of Calculating Builders' or Classifi- 
cation Societies' Tonnage 

The length, breadth and depth of vessel is measured. 

Length measurement being taken from after side of 
stem to fore side of stern-post. This measure is taken 
along center line of deck. 

Breadth measure is taken over all at widest part. 

Depth measure is taken from top of ceiling of hold 
alongside keelson, to underside of main deck. This 
measure is made at forward end of main hatch. 

Then the tonnage is ascertained by multiplying dimen- 
sions, taken as above, into each other, and dividing the 
product by 100. Three-quarters of quotient will be the 
tonnage. 

L X B X D X 0.75 
= Tonnage. 

IOC 

Note. — In the above formula the divisor 100 repre- 
sents the average number of cubic feet of bulk allowed 
for one ton of cargo when vessel is measured in manner 
stated. The coefficient 0.75 indicates the assumed fine- 
•ness of form (block coefficient) of the average vessel. 

4c. Meaning of Gross Tonnage and Method of 
Calculating It 

The Gross tonnage of a vessel is its internal capacity, 
as calculated by method of measurement in use in the 
country where vessel is being measured. There are 
several methods of measuring tonnage — U. S. A., British, 
Panama Canal, Suez Canal, Italian, etc. — and while each 
country uses a different method, the underlying principle 
of each rule is to ascertain as accurately as possible the 
actual internal capacity of vessel. 

The United States and British rules are very similar, 
and as they are the ones most frequently used, I will ex- 
plain method of measuring a vessel by using these rules. 

Gross tonnage in U. S. A. is measured in this manner: 

The length of vessel is measured in a straight line 
from inside of plank at side of stem to inside of plank 
at stern timbers, deducting from this length what is due 
to rake of bow and of stern timber in the thickness of 



26 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



deck, and also what is due to rake of stem timber due to 
round of beam; the length thus ascertained is divided 
into equal parts, the number depending upon length of 
vessel : 

Vessels 50 feet and under in length are divided into 
six parts; 

Vessels over 50 and up to 100 are divided into eight 
parts ; 

Vessels over 100 and up to 150 are divided into ten 
parts ; 

Vessels over 150 and up to 200 are divided into twelve 
parts ; 

Vessels over 200 and up to 250 are divided into four- 
teen parts; 

Vessels above 250 feet are divided into sixteen parts. 

Then at each point of division of length measure the 
transverse area is ascertained in this manner : 

The depth of vessel at each point of division is 
measured from top of ceiling to the underside of tonnage 
deck and from this measure is deducted one-third of the 
round of tonnage deck beam. If the depth measure at 
midship point of division does not exceed 16 feet, each 
depth measure is divided into four equal parts and the 
inside horizontal breadth at each depth point of division 
including the upper and lower points is ascertained (five 
measures in all at each depth measure). The points of 
division are numbered from i at deck to 5 at ceiling, then 
the second and fourth breadth measures are multiplied 
by four, and the third by two; these products are added 
together and to the sum is added the breadth measure of 
first and fifth ; the quantity thus obtained, when multiplied 
by one-third the common interval between breadth 
measurement lines, will give the transverse area. In 
cases when depth measure at midship point of division 
exceeds 16 feet, depth must be divided into six parts 
.(seven lines for measuring), the multipliers for second, 
fourth and sixth measurement is four, and the third and 
fifth is two. Products are added and the calculation madfe 
in exactly the same manner as explained for the smaller 
depth. 

When transverse area at each point of division is 
ascertained, the Gross registered tonnage is calculated in 
this manner : 

The areas are numbered successively, beginning with 
I at extreme bow. (There will be an odd number of 
.areas in every instance.) All ^z/ew-numbered area 
measures are added and product multiplied by four, then 
all even numbered area measures, except first and last, 
are added and product multiplied by two; the two prod- 
ucts are added and to the sum the area measures of first 
and last is added. When the total thus obtained is 
multiplied by one-third the common interval between 
points of length division, . the cubical contents of vessel 
below tonnage deck will be ascertained. This tonnage 
measurement is subject to these additions : 
" , If, there is a break, a poop, or any other permanent 



closed-in space on upper deck available for cargo, or 
stores, or the accommodation of passengers or crew, the 
cubical contents of such spaces must be ascertained in a 
similar manner to the one explained and added to total 
already ascertained, and if a vessel has a spar deck the 
cubical contents of the space between it and the tonnage 
deck must also be measured in the manner already ex- 
plained and total added to other totals. The sum of all 
these totals is the cubical measurement of vessel's internal 
space and if this sum is divided by 100 the gross registered 
tonnage of the vessel will be ascertained. 

4d. Meaning of Net Registered Tonnage and 
Method of Calculating It 

The net tonnage is the internal capacity of space 
available for carrying cargo and passengers, and is as- 
certained by deducting from the gross internal capacity, 
as ascertained by the rule, the capacity of spaces that are 
exempt from measurement. 

These spaces are : 

(a) Spaces occupied by or appropriated to use of 
crew of vessel. 

Note the regulations of U. S. require that each 
member of crew have a space of not less than 12 
superficial feet and 75 cubic feet allotted to him. 

(b) A reasonable and proper amount of space ex- 
clusively for use of the Master. 

(c) Space used exclusively for working of helm, 
the capstan, the anchor gear, and for the keeping 
of charts, signals, and other instrurtients of 
navigation. 

(d) Space occupied by donkey engine if same is con- 
nected to main pumps of vessel. 

(e) In sailing vessels, space used exclusively for 
storage of sails, tonnage of said space not to exceed 
2j^% of gross tonnage. 

(f) In vessels propelled by steam, the deduction for 
space occupied by propelling machinery is as 
follows : 

If propelled by paddle wheels, and the space oc- 
cupied by machinery and for the proper working 
of boilers and machinery is above 20% and under 
30% of gross tonnage, a deduction of 37% from 
gross tonnage is allowed; in vessels propelled by 
screws, if space is over 13% and is under 20%, 
the deduction, shall be 32%. In all cases the space 
. occupied by sha f t alleys shall be deemed ,a space 
occupied by. machinery. 

(g) In cases when the actual space occupied by ma- 
chinery amounts to under 20% of gross tonnage 
in the case of, paddle veissels, and under 13% of 
gross tonnage in case of screw vessels, the deduc- 

r- ■ ' tion shall be ij4 tiqies the actual space in the case 
_:.\ ■',oi paddle vessels and ,1^ timies. space , in cases of 
;-:[> if screw vessel?. . ■;■'■:■'■, -r i,:i:i;K-:.:-U: 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



27 




Fan -rti ^nsexse 






Tig. 9 



(h) And in cases when space occupied by machinery 
is so large as to amount to over 30% of gross 
tonnage in the case of paddle vessels, and over 20% 
of gross tonnage in screw machinery, the owner 
has the right to select the actual space measure- 
ment instead of the measure set as in (f). 
And these proper deductions from the gross tonnage 
having been made, the remainder shall be deemed the 
net tonnage of vessel. 

Below I give a table of Gross, Net and Builder's Ton- 
nage of a number of vessels. 

Table 4 









Gross 


Net 


Builder's 


No. 


Type 


L. B. D. 


Tonnage 


Tonnage 


Tonnage 


I 


Ship 


320—42—24 


2,699 


2,541 


2,419 


2 


Schooner 


258—44-28 


2,461 


2,342 


2,383 


7, 


(( 


211— 34— 17 


1,088 


879 


914 


4 


n 


14s— 24— 12 


354 


336 


417 


5 


Screw Steamer 


330—43—29 


3,708 


2,375 


3,086 


6 




270—35—21 


1,925 


1,199 


1,488 


7 




490—60—37 


10,530 


6,420 


8,158 


8 




230—32—20 


1,050 


750 


1,104 


9 




220 — 36 — 14 


944 


674 


831 


10 




130— 21— II 


250 


158 


225 



Fig. 9 shows points used for measuring tonnage of a 
vessel, and below it I give tabulated particulars of gross 
and net tonnage of No. i and No. 5 vessels on list. 
Table 4. 

Ship No. I, 320x42x24. : , 

Under deck tonnage 2,549 



Poop tonnage; . .. .i .'. 

■ Fcastle tonnage ..... 

Deck house . . ., 



120 
20 
10 



f;i 



Deductions — 

Crew's space . 
Chart House . . 
■ ' P'swiiin stores 
Sail locker . . . 



'Gross'tonnage 
Deduction . . : . 



. r . I . 



•••r'•.^.^•; <• • 



•• V •••• 



2,699; Gross tons 

117 
5 

, -«o... 



. 158 tons 
2,699 ■ ;:= 
158 .... 



i ■;'??; 

'r?-) 



2,541 Nfet tonnage 



Steamer No. s, 330x43x29 

Under tonnage deck 3,488 

Fcastle 90 

Deck houses 80 

Other closed spaces 50 

3,708 Gross ton'ge 
Deductions — 

Machinery space 1,104 

Crew space 142 

Stores 57 

Master's room 22 

Chart room 8 

1,333 tons 

Gross tonnage 3,7o8 

Deductions i,333 

2,375 Net tonnage 

4e. Panama and Stjez ^anal Tonnage 

Special tonnage certificates are required for ships that 
navigate either the Panama or Suez cana:ls, because the 
methods of computing net registered tonnage by the canal 
authorities differ somewhat from the rules in force in 
U. S. A. and Great Britain. The rules for measuring, 
while very similar to the one explained, have minor points 
of diflference that should be considered by owners before 
building a vessel that will frequently pass through either 
of these canals, for it must be remembered that canal 
dues are based upon the registered tonnage as measured 
by canal authorities. It is not necessary here to explain 
the small differences between the measurement systems, 
but always bear in mind that as a ship's dues, such as 
pilotage, dock, river, etc., in almost every country where 
such dues are collected are based upon the registered 
tonnage, it is of prime importance, from an economical 
point of view, to carefully consider the tonnage rules and 
so design a vessel that it will have a maximum of carrying 
capacity and a minimum registered tonnage. - 

Registered tonnage does not really give an acctirate 
idea of size and, therefore, should never be used as a 
base for comparing the size. of -one vessel with that. of 
another.; '. .; ;! .•, '- - '•' ,:'.■; : ^r' 

■■ If it'is'desired to compare size, the onlyaccui-ate basis 
f of comparison is light displacement and heavy displace- 



28 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



O/gPLncencn-r .sc/^Lr- 




Hg. 11 



ment, because by comparing these it is possible to ac- 
curately form an idea of size of vessel and size of cargo 
she will carry. 

4f. Light Displacement Calculation 

The term displacement, when applied to a vessel, 
means the amount of water displaced by the immersed 
part of vessel. Displacement is, in U. S. A., expressed 
in tons of 2,240 lb, when it is desired to express it in 
terms of weight, or in cubic feet when it is. desired to 
express it in terms of bulk. 

The law of displacement is: 
1st. — That a solid immersed in water will displace a 
volume of water exactly the same as the hulk of 
object immersed. 
2d. — That any solid will float when its bulk is greater 
than that of the water displaced. 

Weight and bulk are, therefore, the two principal 
things to consider when calculating displacement, and it is 
very important to clearly understand that both hulk and 
weight must be taken into consideration when making a 
displacement calculation. 

The Light displacement of a vessel is the weight of 
water displaced when vessel is floating without cargo, coal, 
water, stores, or crew on board. The calculation to de- 
termine this weight is made in this manner : 

The designer carefully measures the hulk of that por- 
tion of vessel that is below the water-line to which she 
floats when in a light condition and for each cubic foot 
of bulk he allows 64 tb weight (the weight of a cubic foot 
of salt water) if vessel is floating in salt water, or 62.5 lb 
if floating in fresh water (fresh water weighs 62.5 tb 
per cubic foot). 

The bulk is measured by dividing the underwater 
portion of vessel into parts, in a manner similar to the 
one explained in paragraph dealing with Tonnage 
measurement, ascertaining the area at each point of divi- 
sion and then calculating volume or bulk by using the 
area measures for a second calculation. Bear in mind 



that only the underwater bulk is measured. If the 
Volume figures ascertained by making this second cal- 
culation are divided by 35 (32.5 for fresh water) the 
actual displacement of vessel to water-line she is floating 
will be determined in tons of 2,240 tb (35 cubic feet of 
salt water weighs one ton). The calculation is called 
Simpson's rule for measuring the volume of irregularly 
shaped bodies. 

The measurements for underwater bulk calculation 
are made from outside to outside of planking and not 
inside, as in the registered tonnage calculation. 

4g. Heavy Displacement Calculation 

The light displacement having been determined, it is 
next necessary to determine the Displacement when vessel 
is floating to the deepest draught of water it is permitted 
to load her to. This is called the Heavy or Loaded dis- 
placement, and the calculation is made in exactly the 
manner that light displacement calculation is made, except 
that displacement measurements are taken from the 
heavy load water-line instead of from the light load 
water-line. 

The difference between the light and loaded displace- 
ment weights is the deadweight. 

4h. Deadweight 

The Deadweight of a vessel will, of course, vary with 
each change in draught, because deadweight is the dif- 
ference between the displacement weight in a light con- 
dition and at any specified draught. 

4i. How Light Displacement W.L. is Fixed 

The light displacement water-line always depends upon 
the weight of material used in the construction of vessel, 
therefore, it cannot change unless construction or other 
permanent material is added to or taken from hull, or 
equipment. Deadweight varies with each change in 
weight of cargo or other removable weights placed on 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



29 



vessel, but there is for every vessel a water-line beyond 
which it is not safe to immerse a vessel, and this maxi- 
mum safe water-line is the Heavy displacement water- 
line. 

This heavy displacement water-line is always fixed, 
when vessel is built, by the classification society that 
surveys the vessel for classification and is indicated by 
marking on side of vessel near its midship section an 
identifying freeboard mark somewhat similar to the one 
shown by Fig. 10. 

FW 



et 



4j. Explanation of Freeboard Mark 

The long horizontal mark indicated by letter 5 is 
placed on line to which vessel may load in salt water 
during the summer months. The upper short line marked 
FW is placed on line to which vessel may be loaded 
when in service in fresh water. 

The lower short line marked W is placed on line to 
which vessel may load when in service on salt water 
during the winter months. 

The long line is placed through center of a circle and 
all marks including circle are permanently graved or 
marked on hull plating or planking and then painted a 
color that will be clearly distinguishable. 

Both light and heavy displacement water-lines and 
weight required to immerse a vessel to these lines is known 
and fixed, but suppose a vessel is loaded to a line between 
fliese two and that it is desired to ascertain the displace- 
ment weight to the intermediate line, how can this be 
done? It is done in this manner: 

4k. Displacement Curve and Deadweight Scale 

When a vessel is designed, the designer calculates 
the displacement weight to a number of equally spaced 
parallel water-lines between the heavy and light ones, 
and having done this he lays out a curve of displacement 
and vertical deadweight scale, from which the owner of 
vessel can quickly ascertain displacement weight of vessel 
to any intermediate water-line, the cargo weight neces- 
sary to immerse vessel to any draught of water between 
light and heavy L.W.L. draughts, and amount of free- 
board when vessel is immersed to any water-line. 

On Fig. II I show displacement curve and dead- 
weight vertical scale of cargo vesseK No. 8 (See page 
28.) 

Explanation of Fig. ii 

The vertical scale on left is divided into equally spaced 
intervals, each interval representing 100 tons of displace- 
ment, the o of displacement scale beginning at intersection 
point of the two scales. 

The curved line that begins at bottom of vertical scale 



and extends diagonally to horizontal scale is the displace- 
ment curve of vessel plotted by calculating displacement 
of vessel at several evenly spaced water-lines, marking 
points where the ascertained tonnage and draught lines 
will intersect and drawing a curved line to cut the points. 
Thus as the light displacement drayght is 7 feet and the 
displacement at that draught is 690 tons, a horizontal line 
is drawn from named draught and a vertical line down 
from ascertained tonnage for that draught, and the point 
of intersection found. The displacement curve passes 
through this point, and others found in a like manner. 

On the right of curve is shown the deadweight scale. 
This is divided into four columns, the first being marked 
in tons displacement, the second in feet of draught from 
keel up, the third in deadweight tons beginning with o at 
the light displacement draught, and the fourth in free- 
board measures beginning with o at sheer and progress- 
ing downwards to the light displacement line. 

To make the explanation clearer, I have marked at left 
of scale an outline of cross-section with light and heavy 
water-lines marked. The portion of section that is diago- 
nally cross lines in one direction is the portion immersed 
when vessel is floating to her light displacement line 
(without cargo, stores and equipment), the portion cross 
lines in two directions is the portion immersed by putting 
cargo, stores, etc., on board, and the portion that is not 
lined is the part of vessel that is out of water (freeboard) 
when she is loaded to her deepest draught. 

4I. Volume of Internal Body or Room in a Ship 
This is very difl^erent from the displacement which 
measures the whole space a ship occupies in the water, 
and the weight of both vessel and everything on board. 
The volume of internal room in a ship is measurement 
of the empty space left inside of hull. 

On Table 4a is given the approximate thickness of 
sides of wood cargo vessels and the percentage of dif- 
ference between internal and external capacity. 

Table 4A 



Internal 
Capacity 
in Tons 


External Capacity 

Increased Per Cent 

in Wood Ships 


Thicltness of S 

of Wood Shi 

in Inches 


100 


0.28 


II 


200 
300 


0.27 
0.26 


I2H 

14 


400 
500 


0.25 
0.24 


16 


1000 


0.20 


20 


2000 


0.16 


24 



The proportions above are for ordinary sailing vessel 
and will hold good for ships that are similar. 

If the designer fails to accurately determine before- 
hand the relative proportions that internal capacity avail- 
able for cargo bears to displacement it may happen that 
a vessel will not have enough displacement of under- 
water body to enable her to carry a full weight of cargo 
and it may also happen that she has plenty of displace- 
ment to carry more cargo without having room to store it. 



Chapter V 

Strains Experienced by a Ship's Structure 



The chief strains to which a ship's structure is sub- 
jected are: 

1st. — Strains tending to produce longitudinal bending 
of the whole structure. 

2d. — Strains tending to alter the transverse shape. 

3d. — Local affecting some particular part and tending 
to produce local changes in shape or damage. 

4th. — Strains due to propulsion by steam or sail. 

The first and second items mentioned are strains that 
affect the structure as a whole, and therefore must be 
taken care of and overcome by an intelligent design of 
the whole structure and a proper use of materials. The 
effects of third and fourth items being local can be 
readily overcome by giving ample strength to parts of 
structure likely to be affected by the strains. 

5a. Longitudinal Bending Strains When a Ship Is 
Afloat in Still Water 

These are partly, due to uneven distribution of weight 
of hull structure and the fact that this distribution does 
not coincide with the longitudinal distribution of upward 
pressure due to buoyancy of water, and partly to weight 
of cargo and its uneven weight distribution. 

When a ship is afloat in still water the down pressure 
due to weight of hull is exactly the same as the up pres- 
sure due to buoyancy of water, and the longitudinal 
center points of these two forces always exactly coincide. 
Considered in this manner it would naturally seem that 
the two forces being equal and acting in opposite direc- 
tions, there is an absence of strain; but this is not really 
the case as will appear when I analyze the problem. 

A ship placed in water will sink until it displaces a 
volume of water having a weight exactly equal to the 
weight of ship and all on board, the bulk of immersed 
portion of ship and bulk of water displaced will be 
identical, the longitudinal center point of bulk of water 
displaced and of weight of ship will be located exactly 
over each other, and ship will float to a straight water- 
line. This condition exists because the pieces of which 
ship is built being rigidly connected, the structure has 
become a single object and must be considered as sUch. 

Fig. 12 is a longitudinal view of a ship afloat and on 




it I have marked the center points of bulk of water dis- 
placed and of weight of ship with arrows pointing in 
direction of line of action of strain due to buoyancy up 
force and weight down force. 

That the up and down forces are equal, and that the 
center of these forces are located the same distance from 
bow, is known, because these are fundamental laws of 
flotation, but until the longitudinal immersed form of a 
ship and the longitudinal distribution of weights of con- 
struction are analyzed and compared, it will not be known 
whether the longitudinal distribution of bulk and of 
weight coincide at points of length other than at the 
ones marked (the center points). Unless they do coin- 
cide at all points there will be a permanent strain put on 
structure, the amount depending upon the difference 
between bulk and weight distribution throughout ship's 
length. 

: To explain this more fully I have drawn illustration 

Fig- 13. 




Fig. 13 shows longitudinal view of Fig. 12 ship afloat, 
but in place of its being one rigidly connected structure, 
I have assumed that the structure has been divided into 
ten parts, that each part has been made watertight with- 
out increasing weight, and the parts connected in such a 
manner that while free to move up and down, they can- 
not separate or move sideways. 

If the ten-part connected-together ship is now placed 
in water instead of floating to a longitudinally one level 
water-line as shown in Fig. 12,: it will float somewhat in 
the manner shown on Fig. 13, the reason being : 

While the total weight of ship has not changed and it 
displaces exactly the same bulk and weight of water as 
before, the separation of ship enables each part to act 
in accordance with the law of displacement, which is — 
iveight and bulk of object immersed and weight and bulk 
of water displaced must be identical. 

In other words, each part accommodates itself to a 
water-line that equalizes weight and immersed bulk, which 
it cannot do when whole ship is one rigidly connected 
structure. 

Thus Nos. I, 2, 9, 10 portions of structure (bow and 
stern) have a greater proportion of weight than buoy- 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



31 



ancy below marked water-line requires, and therefore 
being free to immerse independent of other portions, they 
sink until marked water-line is some distance below 
water level. 

The Nos. 3, 4, 7, 8 portions have varying degrees of 
greater buoyancy below marked water-line than their 
weights require, therefore these portions float with 
marked water-line well above water level. 

The Nos. 5, 6 portions have weight and bulk below 
marked water-line very nearly equalized, therefore these 
portions float with marked water-line nearly correspond- 
ing with water level. 

It therefore can be said that if the ten separated 
parts, when floating as shown in Fig. 13, were rigidly 
connected together again both longitudinal weight and 
bulk strains would be equalized for the entire length of 
ship and there would be an absence of structural strain 
due to unequal distribution of weight and bulk, and it 
can also be said that if the ten parts are rigidly connected 
in any other position weight and bulk will not be equally 
distributed throughout length, and consequently there 
must be some degree of structural strain due to this un- 
equal distribution. 

As a ship cannot float in the manner shown by Fig. 13, 
and as in all ships the longitudinal distribution of bulk 
below L.W.L. does not coincide with longitudinal dis- 
fribution of weight of construction, etc., it is evident 
that the hull structure of every ship is under strain when 
afloat. Bear in mind that this strain is always present, 
but is never noticeable and does not have any permanent 
effect on hull unless the longitudinal structure is too 
weak to withstand it. 

5b. Hogging Strains Explained 

If strength of hull structure is not sufficient to with- 
stand the strain the ends of ship will drop, relative to 
center, and hull will ultimately change its form and 
become "hogged". 

The dotted lines on Fig. 14 show shape when ship 
shown by heavy lines become hogged. 

Hogging strains are nearly always present when a ship 
is floating without cargo in still water, but if it should 
happen that condition of weight and buoyancy are such 
that there is an excess of buoyancy at ends and an excess 
of weight near middle, the middle would drop relative to 
ends and change of form, if hull is weak, would occur 
near middle lengtH. A change in this kind is known as 
sagging. 

5c. Sagging Strains Expr.AiNED 

Sagging strains are seldom present throughout the 
whole length of a ship's structure when ship is without 
cargo and is floating in still water. In loaded condition 
and when moving among waves, the conditions are fre- 
quently such as to produce sagging strains at every part 



of the length. (Fig. 14a dotted lines, show shape of 
ship that has sagged.) 




Before it is possible to accurately determine the eflPect 
longitudinal strains will have on hull structure of a ship 
it is necessary to ascertain the relative positions and 
magnitude of each kind of strain throughout the length 
of ship and to calculate their effect when coupled as 
one. 

Perhaps you will more clearly understand my ex- 
planations of strains and bending moments if I first ex- 
plain a few simple problems, such as strains on weighted 
and supported beams. 

Fig. 15 shows a beam supported at its center and 
loaded at both ends, the weights W and W IV being equal 
and placed at equal distances from support. A beam 
loaded and supported in this manner is under a sttain 
similar to that experienced by a ship afloat in still water 
and having an excess of weight at ends and buoyancy 
and weight equalized at middle. i; 



w 



FIG-. 15 



WW 



Fig. 15a shows the same beam loaded at center and 
supported at ends, a condition of loading that puts a sag- 
ging strain at center of beam. A beam loaded in this 
manner is under a strain similar to that experienced by 
a ship afloat in still water and having an excess of weight 
at center and buoyancy and weight equal at ends. ' 

w 



M 



FI&.IJ' 



Fig. 15b shows the same beam supported near ends 
and loaded at ends and at center — a condition of load- 
ing that puts both sagging and hogging strains on beam, 
the magnitude of each depending upon weight and dis- 
tance from the supports. 

If W2 weight is greater than W-lVi weights there 
will be a sagging moment at center of beam, but the 
portion of beam between ends and supports will be sub- 
jected to hogging strains and so also will be some portion 



32 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Jl 



M 



i 



v-- 



FI&. 1^' 



of beam lying between the supports and middle. On the 
illustration a dotted outline shows general lines of direc- 
tion of strain. But if the moment of the W-Wi weight 
X distance weights are from nearest support, is greater 
than moment of W2 weight X distance, there will be a 
hogging strain at middle of beam and no portion of beam 
will be subjected to a sagging strain. 

As bending moment ^ weight X length or leverage, 
you can readily understand that before it is possible to 
determine the strains on a weighted beam, it is essential 
that the longitudinal distribution of both weight and 
supports be known. 

The weighted and supported beam conditions men- 
tioned above are similar to those for a ship, therefore, it 
is an easy matter to estimate the bending moment or 
strain a ship's structure must withstand when the longi- 
tudinal distribution of weight and buoyancy (support 
of water surrounding ship) is known. 

5d. Curves of Buoyancy Distribution 

The longitudinal distribution of the buoyancy of a 
ship floating at rest in still water may readily be deter- 
mined when the lines of vessel are available, and a curve 
of buoyancy can be plotted by marking a base line to 
represent length of ship and on this base line erecting 
ordinates at right angles to it and spaced the same dis- 
tance apart that cross-sections used for displacement cal- 
culations are. 

Then if along each ordinate line there is measured a 
distance equal to cross-section area of ship at that point 
a series of points will be obtained and a line drawn to 
cut these points will be curve of buoyancy of ship when 
floating to the water-line cross-section areas are taken 
from. 

On Fig. 16 I show curves of buoyancy of a ship. 




B. L.^Base Line. 

I, 2, 3, etc., are ordinate lines spaced the distance apart 
that cross-section lines drawing are. 

C. B. curve of buoyancy drawn through points laid 
off on ordinate line, the solid lines curve being curve of 
buoyancy for ship when floating to her light W.L. with- 



out coal, stores or cargo on board, and the dash line curve 
is curve of buoyancy to line ship floats to when every- 
thing is on board and ship is fully loaded with cargo. 

Each curve clearly represents the longitudinal dis- 
tribution of buoyancy of ship floating to a different W.L. 
and the area enclosed within each curve represents the 
total buoyancy or displacement volume to water-line 
measurements are taken from. 

The buoyancy weight of portion of ship lying between 
any two ordinates can be ascertained by measuring areas 
enclosed between the selected lines and converting it into 
its equivalent displacement volume. The light displace- 
ment volume of ship to which curve belongs is 47,250 
cubic feet, the area enclosed within solid line curve is 
47,250 square feet, and therefore each square foot of 
area represents one cubic foot displacement volume, or if 
expressed in terms of weight — 64 lb (salt water), and if 
the number of square feet area enclosed between any two 
ordinates is multiplied by 64 the actual buoyancy of 
portion of ship between the selected ordinates is ex- 
pressed in weight terms. Similar conditions prevail for 
all buoyancy curves. 

5e. Curves of Weight Distribution 

The longitudinal distribution of construction, equip- 
ment, lading and other weights of ship can be graphically 
illustrated by means of a curve, or curves, laid out in a 
similar manner, but in place of using cross-section areas 
measures for curve points on ordinates, the weights of 
construction, lading, equipment, etc., of portion of hull 
between each two ordinates is determined. The weight 
is then converted into its equivalent volume (by dividing 
by 64) and the volume measure used as a point for curve 
of weight. 

Thus the weight of construction, etc., of portion of 
hull enclosed between No. i and No. 2 ordinates is con- 
verted and measurement point marked on ordinate 
erected midway between No. i and No. 2 ; the weight of 
construction, etc., of portion between No. 2 and No. 3 is 
converted and point marked on an ordinate erected mid- 
way between No. 2 and No. 3, and so on for the whole 
length. A series of points for laying out curve of weight 
is thus obtained, and a curved line drawn to cut all points 
will graphically illustrate the longitudinal distribution 
of weights, just as the buoyancy curve graphically illus- 
trates the longitudinal distribution of buoyancy. Of 
course as weight and buoyancy must always be equal, 
the area enclosed within weight curve must be exactly 
the same as that enclosed within buoyancy curve. 

It is usual to lay out two, or three, curves of buoyancy 
and of weight, one being for ship in light condition with- 
out cargo, coal or stores, another being for ship with 
everything on board except cargo, and the third being 
for ship when fully loaded with cargo. If only two 
sets of curves are laid out, omit the second. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



33 



On Fig. 17 I show the Fig. 16 curves of buoyancy 
and on same base Hne is laid out two corresponding 
weight curves, the solid-hned curves being one pair, the 
dash-hned ones another. 

By laying out the curves in this manner it is an easy 




matter to compare the longitudinal distribution of buoy- 
ancy with that of weight and determine with exactness the 
points where buoyancy or weight is in excess. 

Where the curve of buoyancy line of a pair is outside 
the weight curve buoyancy is in excess ; where the two 
lines cross weight and buoyancy are equal and where 
weight lines is outside buoyancy line weight is in excess. 

And knowing the points where buoyancy or weight is 
in excess a curve of loads can be laid out and the value 
of the longitudinal bending moment at any cross-section 
determined. 

5f. Curve of Loads 

A curve of loads is laid out in this manner : 

The same length of base line and ordinate spacing 
used for weight and buoyancy curves is marked oflf and 
then the distance between each line (buoyancy and weight 
curve lines) of a pair is measured at each ordinate and 
transferred to base line, measurements taken where 
buoyancy is in excess being transferred above the base 
line and those where weight is in excess below. 

On Fig. 18 illustration is shown the curve of loads 
(two) laid out from measurements taken from Fig. 17 
illustration. 

When the curve of loads for any ship floating to a 
certain water-line and loaded in a certain manner is 
plotted, it is an easy matter to calculate the longitudinal 
bending moment or strain at any part of the hull by 
ascertaining the excess buoyancy or weight at the 
designated location and multiplying it by the longitudinal 
distance this excess is from the point the strain is being 
calculated from. For ships afloat in still water the point 
generally selected for this calculation is either midship 
section, bow, or stern. 

The light load figures for ship that curves of loads 
laid out on Fig. 18 belong are as follows : 

For first 80 feet' from bow, weight is in excess 400 
tons. 

For the 70 feet nearest stern, weight is in excess 450 
tons. 



For 150 feet amidships, buoyancy is 850 tons in 
excess. 

This condition parallels that of the loaded beam 
illustrated by Fig. 15b. 

While the loading of a ship with cargo increases 
weight it does not always increase .strains, as you will 
see by referring to the dash-lined curve of loads, which 
shows that by loading the ship strain has actually 
diminished. 

5g. Longitudinal Strains Among Waves 

When a ship passes into disturbed water, the move- 
ment of the waves will cause ship to rise and fall con- 
tinually and this up-and-down movement will afifect both 
the size and character of bending moments and will also 
cause rapid changes in direction of strain in certain parts 
of ship. 

To illustrate the effect that movement of waves has 
on a ship, I will take two extreme positions, the first 
being a condition in which wave has immersed the middle 
portion of ship more deeply and has left the ends partially 
unsupported, and the second being a condition where 
waves have been more deeply immersed the ends and left 
middle portion partially unsupported. 

Figs. 19 and 20 illustrate these two conditions. 







1 


[ J 






1 1 


1. 






















~ 


— ■■ 


., " 


> •> 








1 


1 




"~- — - 


,> 


*^ 








I ] 


L 








^ 




An examination of the Fig. 19 illustration will show 
the great change that takes place in longitudinal distri- 
bution of weight and buoyancy when a wave lifts a ship 
on its crest, or when a ship falls into a hollow between 
two waves. In general, when a ship is supported on the 
crest of a wave of its own length there is a hogging strain 
on the whole structure, the maximum hogging moment 
being at, or near to, midship section and being, approxi- 
mately, between three and four times the maximum ex- 
perienced in still water. On the other hand, when a ship is 
in the condition shown on Fig. 20 the whole structure is 
under a sagging strain largely in excess of still-water 
maximum, the point of maximum strain being at, or near 
to, midship section, and in addition to this it must be re- 
membered that these excessive hogging and sagging strains 
alternate at intervals of a few seconds. (In a 360-foot 
ship the intervals between extremes of rising and falling 
when waves are 17 feet high is approximately 4j^ 
seconds.) 




34 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



While in every instance strain varies with, height and 
length of waves it is safe to assume, for the purpose of 
calculation, that the maximum longitudinal bending 
moment is experienced when wave length is equal to 
length of ship and wave height between one-twelfth and 
one-fifteenth of length. 

When longitudinal distribution of weight and buoy- 
ancy of a ship is known the maximum hogging or sagging 
bending moment at any point for still water, on a wave 
crest, or in a wave hollow can be determined with reason- 
able accuracy by using this formula : 



Weight X Length 



Numeral for length of ship and type 



Maximum 
bending moment 
in foct-tons. 



Weight being total excess, buoyancy or weight, at 
selected point. 

Length being distance excess is from point of support, 
or from point where buoyancy and weight is equalized. 

Numerals vary with size of ship and conditions of 
loading. For cargo steamers from 250 to 350 feet in 
length and loaded with miscellaneous cargo in all holds 
the numerals are: 

Still water From 1 10 to 150 

On wave crest From 25 to 40 

In wave hollow .... From 30 to 50 
(These figures are approximate.) 

When longitudinal distribution of weight and buoy- 
ancy is not known a reasonably accurate formula to use 
for computing maximum bending moment in foot-tons, 
among waves, for ships of ordinary form loaded with 
miscellaneous cargo properly stowed throughout length, 
wave height being about i/i5th of length, is 
L X W 

:= Bending moment in foot-tons. 

20 

L = length of ship. 
W = weight of ship. 

When making calculations for longitudinal strains it 
is assumed that the ship remains upright. We, of course, 
know that this condition is not possible when ship is in 
a sea because both rolling and pitching occur simultane- 
ously ; but to calculate strains for any assigned transverse 
inclination, or variation between upright and a named 
degree, would entail a large amount of labor and results 
obtained would be of very little practical value providing 
calculations for both direct transverse and longitudinal 
strains are made. 

It must, however, be kept in mind that when a ship 
is poised upon the crest of a wave and inclined trans- 
versely by the wave forcing one side of stem down and 
supporting the opposite side at bow, there is a twisting 
■ strain put on structure and this strain must be resisted 



by making the parts afifected sufficiently strong and 
fastening them securely. In a very large number of 
wooden ships structural weakness, especially when twist- 
ing, is largely due to improper or weak fastening. 

Sh. Transverse Strains When a Ship is Afloat 

Strains of this kind tend to produce a change in 
transverse form and are largely caused by oscillations 
and rolling movements when ship is in a sea, and by 
unequal pressure of water on underwater body. Fig. 21 
is for the purpose of explaining this transverse water 
pressure. 




CENTRt or PRCS6URK. 



CENTRE OF PRESSURE. 



Fig. 21 shows cross-section of a ship floating upright 
in still water. When afloat in this condition weight 
pressure acts down through the C.G. point and up- 
buoyancy pressure acts upwards through the C.B. point 
and as both pressures are equal and act along the same 
vertical line the ship is at rest. 

There is, however, another pressure, or strain, that 
must now be considered — i.e., the horizontal water pres- 
sure acting on opposite sides of ship along horizontal 
lines and having the center of pressure located about 
two-thirds of mean draught below the L.W.L. This 
horizontal pressure tends to compress the hull, or change, 
the transverse form of ship along its whole length being 
greatest at ends where sides of ship are nearly vertical 
and where transverse area is smallest. 

The ordinary framing (transverse) of a ship is 
generally strong enough to withstand this pressure, ex- 
cept at bow, where it is usual and necessary to add 
structural strength to prevent the pressure causing leaks 
in wood ships and "panting" (in-and-out movement of 
plating) in steel ones. 

In wood ships the forward end is strengthened by 
means of knees and pointers, and in steel ships by means 
of additional frames called panting frames or beams. 

So long as a ship remains upright and in still water, 
transverse pressure strains, while much greater than 
longitudinal pressure ones (they are about eight times 
greater), are not excessive, but just as soon as the ship 
inclines, moves ahead, or pitches and rolls in a sea, trans- 
verse water pressure and the forces tending to alter trans- 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



35 



verse shape greatly increase. The strain when a ship 
is in any one of the named conditions is very largely a 
racking one that is continually striving to alter both the 
transverse and longitudinal form, and unless the framing, 
especially at connections between deck beams and side 
framing, is amply strong and properly fastened there 
will be some change of form or loosening of knees and 
framing of decks and bilges. 

When a ship's righting moment is known the approxi- 
mate racking strain at any transverse inclination can be 
ascertained by making use of this rule: 

X Righting moment for inclination ^ Moment 

j)2 j^ g2 of racking force in foot-tons. 

D standing for depth of ship from upper deck to keel. 

B standing for breadth of ship from outside to out- 
side. 

The period of oscillation, or time required for a ship 
to make one complete roll from port to starboard, has a 
very great influence upon total strain that a ship's struc- 
ture has to withstand. The more rapid the oscillations 
are the greater the number of times the racking strain 
changes its direction in a named period (such as one 
minute), and as each change of direction (from port to 
starboard and vice-versa) tends to produce changes in 
transverse form, it is advantageous to have a long period 
of oscillation. A deep-rolling and quick-acting ship al- 
ways requires greatest strength of hull structure to with- 
stand strains. So also does one in which the proportion 
of length to depth is excessive. 

5i. Local Strains 

By local strains is meant strains that affect some par- 
ticular portion of the hull structure and which are due 
to that part of the structure being subjected to some 
strain that is local in its effect. For instance, if a heavy 
or unusual load is concentrated upon some part of the 
hull structure (a deck winch, for instance), the strain 
due to this load will be local. 

Thrust of a screw propeller produces a local strain 
on that part of the ship to which the thrust block founda- 
tion is attached. 

The downward thrust of a mast produces a consid- 
erable local strain at and near to part of hull where mast 
is stepped. 

Wind pressure on sails is transferred to spars and 
rigging and then to' hull structure where masts are sup- 
ported and rigging fastened. 



Chain plates produce local strains on parts of struc- 
ture where they are fastened. 

Engines and boiler weights are concentrated along a 
short portion of ship's length and cause local strains of 
great importance. One of the most effective methods 
of overcoming strains of this kind is to distribute these 
permanent weights over as large a* portion of hull as 
possible by extending the foundation structure over a 
much greater (length and width) area than weight oc- 
cupies. 

53. Strains Due to Propulsion by Sails or Steam 

In nearly every instance strains due to propulsion are 
local and can best be overcome by adding strength to the 
parts of structure in the locality where strains are 
greatest. 

When a ship is propelled by sail power the effective 
wind pressure acts both longitudinally and transversely, 
the longitudinal thrust acting principally in driving the 
ship ahead and the transverse thrust acting largely upon 
the structure of ship and tending to r^ck the structure, 
especially at points where masts are stepped and rigging 
secured to hull. 

It is therefore necessary to strengthen any part of 
hull where a mast is secured or supported, or where any 
standing rigging is fastened. 

In the case of propulsion by a screw propeller the 
thrust is delivered in the direction ship will travel and 
therefore there will be no transverse strain, except in 
cases when hull vibrations are set up by unbalanced mov- 
ing parts of machinery or by the period of engine vibra- 
tion not being properly tuned to hull vibration period. 

Every structure has a natural period of vibration and 
in a ship this period is governed by the structural arrange- 
ment, weight and distribution of material. In an engine 
the period of vibration is governed by the balancing of 
moving parts, and the period of revolution. If the revolu- 
tion period of engine approximates in regularity to the 
hull structural vibration period, hull vibrations will be 
very noticeable; it is therefore necessary to determine 
the natural period of hull vibration and then have engine 
revolutions fixed at a number that will not be a muhiple 
of the hull period. This can nearly always be done by 
selecting a propeller that will allow engine to turn at a 
number of revolutions that will not be a multiple of the 
hull revolution period. 

Unbalanced propellers will set up vibrations similar 
to those produced by unbalanced moving parts of engine. 



Chapter VI 

Estimating and Converting 



6a. Bills of Material 
The usual procedure in a modern shipyard is to first 
prepare detailed bills of materials on which is specified 
these things: 

The names of principal parts of ship. 
The kind, quantity, quality and dimensions of ma- 
terials needed for each part. 
The order in which materials are needed and 
date they should be delivered. 
On the bills of material is listed all lumber, fastenings, 
fittings, equipment, rigging, machinery, etc., required for 
the job, and in every case quantities named should in- 
clude a proper allowance for wastage during converting 
or manufacturing. 

I say bills of material, because it is more satisfactory 
to make up a separate bill of material for each principal 
division of the work or for each production department. 
Thus one bill would cover lumber, fastenings, fittings, 
etc., for the hull construction department ; another would 
cover materials and equipment for pipefitting and plumb- 
ing department ; another material for engineering depart- 
ment; another materials required by rigging and sail- 
makers' department ; another materials for painting 
department. 

Specifying each department's materials separately sim- 
plifies checking quantities and keeping track of deliveries. 

Quantities are generally calculated from plans, speci- 
fications and mould loft measurements, and as the work 
must be very accurately done the man assigned to the job 
should be a competent estimator and have a fair knowl- 
edge of ship construction work. 

The usual practice is for the estimator to enter on his 
estimating sheets every needed item of material piece by 
piece. The sheets then go to stock keeper, who checks 
off items that can be supplied from stock and then passes 
the sheets along to purchasing department, where items 
that cannot be supplied from stock are listed and ordered. 

In the next column 1 give headings of a very satis- 
factory estimating sheet for use in a large shipyard. 

A filled-in copy of Sheet No. i is attached to each 
department's material list and to it is attached filled-in 
sheets having headings as given in Sheet No. 2. 

Copies of estimates should be sent to stock keepers, 
to purchasing department and to the head of each depart- 
ment, and it should be the duty of each department head 
to report when any item of material is not delivered on 
date wanted, and of the purchasing and stock keeping 
departments to enter dates ordered and received on all 



Sheet No. i Date 

Name of Firm • • 

Quantity estimating sheet for ship No Designed by 

Contract No Signed on 

Date set for delivery 

The following dates have beei set for the named divisions of 
work to be completed : 

Keel laid Framed up 

Planked and caulked 

Deck laid and caulked 

Joiner work completed 

Engines and boilers in place Condensers in place 

Auxiliary machinery in place Tanks in place 

Pipe fitting completed .and covered 

Electric wiring completed .... and tested 

Plumbing completed and tested 

Deck fittings and equipment in place 

Spars, booms and rigging completed 

Steering gear and navigation equipment in place 

Painting completed 

Sails bent 

Vessel will be launched on 

Trial trip will be run on 

Delivery will be made At 

As these dates have been set after consultation with heads of 
departments, they must be adhered to unless changed by written 
authority of the President of Company. 



Sheet No. 2 Ship No. 

Material estimate for 



.Date 



.Department 



Date Date 

Ordered Wanted 



Quantity 



Desctiption 



Uied 
for 



Date 
Received 



Checked by 



Estimator 



department copies of estimates. Thus a very satisfactory 
cross check is kept of delays, should any occur. 

In all cases the estimated wanted date should be fixed 
several days ahead of actual requirements. 

6b. Selecting Timber Required For the Construc- 
tion OF A Ship 

The first work of the shipbuilder is to "lay down" the 
lines and construction details full size, and make the 
full-sized templates (moulds) required by the converters, 
ship-carpenters, and erectors, and while this work is 
going on the necessary timber can be selected and got 
ready. Selecting timber should be done with care and 
by men who are thoroughly familiar with ship construc- 
tion and the grading of lumber. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



37 



Timber used in a modern shipyard is usually delivered 
in these conditions : 

(a) In pieces squared on four sides to dimensions 
named. This is termed squared material (dimen- 
sion stock) and is principally used for keels, keel- 
sons, deadwood, and pieces that can be advan- 
tageously got out of heavy straight dimension 
material. When ordering material of this kind, 
it is necessary to state length, width and thick- 
ness of each piece and quality, or grade of ma- 
terial desired. 

Shipyards usually keep a stock of standard di- 
mension squared material on hand — yellow pine, 
fir, oak. 

(b) In pieces, or planks, sawed to named thickness, 
the edges of pieces being left with the natural 
taper or curve of tree intact. Material of this 
kind is called "flitch cut" and it is very advanta- 
geous to have such material for frames, floors, 
futtocks, stem, planking, and pieces that have to 
be got out to some curved shape, because the 
natural taper or curve will materially reduce 
waste and enable the shipbuilder to avoid a great 
deal of short grain (cross grain) that is always 
present when a curved piece is got out of a 
straight plank. Material of this kind is generally 
ordered "log run" and therefore it is not graded 
for quality. 

(c) Planks edged and cut to named thickness. Use- 
ful for planking, ceiling, decking and in places 
where long straight planks are needed. Material 
of this kind is cut to specifications as to thickness, 
width, length and grade, or quality. 

(d) In pieces planed and finished ready for use. 
Under this heading is included flooring, joiner- 
work material, matched material, etc. 

(e) In pieces sawed to designated thickness and hav- 
ing the natural curve of roots and butt portion of 
tree intact. Material of this kind is termed 
natural knees, and is usually either oak, spiucc, 
pine or hackmatack. Knees are usually ordered 
by thickness and as each piece has curve of root 
and butt of tree intact, it is necessary to designate 
the approximate angle of knee required. Thus 
if knees having less than a right angle is desired, 
"in" angle knees is designated. Knees having 
more than a right angle are termed "out" angle 
knees. 

Wooden ship-building is naturally a wasteful industry, 
because of the large number of pieces that have to be cut 
with some curvature, or taper. Therefore, it naturally 
follows that the man in charge of the selection of ma- 
terial holds a most responsible and important position, 
because upon the judgment and skill with which his 
selection is made depends, to a considerable extent, 
strength, and durability of the ship, and economy of ma- 



terial. A good converter can save material, reduce cost 
of labor and thus add many dollars to a firm's profit, 
while a bad converter can so increase cost of material 
and labor that profits will vanish. I mention this because 
I know of instances in which yard managers have, through 
mistaken economy, looked upon the selection of material 
for the various parts of a ship as being of secondary im- 
portance, and a matter that can be properly attended to 
by an ordinary yard foreman or sawmill leading man. 
It is false economy to do this, and I know through ex- 
perience that it pays to have a man in charge of this work 
who has a good knowledge of ship construction, a fair 
knowledge of mould loft work, and a thorough knowledge 
of timber and sawmill work. 

6c. Converting 

By converting timber is meant selecting the timber 
and planks for each piece and part of ship, marking out 
shape and form of the pieces, and getting them sawed, 
or machined, as near as possible to required shape. 
Therefore, the material has to pass through three different 
departments before it is ready for the ship-carpenters. 

1st.- — -The men who select the materials. 

2d. — The men who mark out the materials to required 
shape. 

3d. — The men who actually machine or saw the ma- 
terial to shape. 

Here are a few things that should always be kept in 
mind by the men who select and convert timber : 

Waste material should be kept to a minimum by select- 
ing logs and planks as near as possible of the required 
dimensions, and by carefully considering before a log or 
plank is cut whether the waste from it can, or cannot be 
used for some other part. 

Every log, or plank, should be carefully inspected for 
defects before any work is done on it, and if defects exist 
the templates should be laid out on the material in such 
a manner that the more serious ones are cut out or left 
in a position on completed piece that will not detract from 
strength or durability. 

In all cases when it is practicable, timber should be 
so converted that the end of a log or plank that was 
nearest the top of tree will be placed in ship at the part 
in which decay starts quickest ; as, for instance, the top 
of the log from which stern-post is sawed should be 
placed uppermost, as the butt will be better preserved 
when entirely immersed in water. 

In converting timber, particular care should be taken 
to avoid, as far as possible, an excessive amount of cross 
grain located where it will detract from strength, or where 
it will not be supported or reinforced by other adjoining 
pieces of material. 

In getting out futtocks of frame timbers cross grain 
of one piece can nearly always be strengthened and re- 
inforced by straight grain of adjoining piece. 

Scarphs should never be cut until it is ascertained that 



38 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



the piece of timber is fit for the intended use. It is 
therefore advisable to cut each piece of material to shape 
before cutting or forming a scarph. 

No heart shake, check or knot should be located at or 
near to a scarph unless fastenings are located in such a 
manner that they will tend to close the defect and prevent 
it detracting from strength of the finished piece. 

In a modern shipyard every eflfort should be made to 
reduce the amount of hand labor to a minimum by using 
power and labor-saving machines. The handling of 
heavy timber should be done by means of electric timber 



trucks and self-propelling hoists, and the shaping of the 
many pieces that enter into the construction of a vessel 
should be very largely done by means of machinery. 
Nearly every piece of the transverse frame of a vessel 
can be sawed, shaped and beveled by machinery. Plank- 
ing, decking, ceiling and nearly every longitudinal piece 
of material can also be shaped and beveled by machinery, 
all joinerwork material can be machined ready for as- 
sembling, fastening holes can be drilled with the aid of 
machinery, and in addition to this the actual caulking of 
planking and deck seams can be largely done with the 
aid of caulking machines. 



Chapter VII 

Joints and Scarphs 



In ship construction it is necessary to join together a 
number of pieces of wood in such a manner that the 
strength of joints will at least equal the strength of ma- 
terial used. 

The meeting place of two pieces of wood is called 
the joint and the joint is circumscribed by the lines which 
mark the intersection of the faces of one piece with the 
other. 

The simplest and easiest joints to make are those in 
which the bearing faces are planes of the same size and 
shape in relation to the planes of the axes. 

The putting together of two pieces of wood may be 
done in three ways: 

1st.- — They may meet and form an angle. 

2d. — Two pieces may be joined in a right line by 
lapping and indenting the meeting ends on each other. 
This is called scarphing. 

3d. — The two pieces may be joined longitudinally, the 
joint being secured by covering it on opposite sides by 
pieces of wood, or metal, bolted to both beams. This is 
called fishing. 

7a. Joints That Form an Angle 

Should two pieces of wood that meet and form an 
angle be joined by simple contact of the end of one piece 
with its bed on the other, the pieces are said to abut, 
and the joint is called a plain joint. This method of 



joining does not prevent one piece sliding on the other, 
unless it is fastened with nails or bolts, and even when 
these are used the joint will be a very insecure one. 

Plate VIIa Illustrations 

Fig. I shows the simplest means of obtaining resist- 
ance to sliding by inserting the piece C in notches cut 
in both pieces. On the upper view of joint is shown 
the proper mode of securing joint by a bolt. A stronger 
but more costly method of joining is the mortise and 
tenon, and as this is the principle of a large number of 
joints, I will describe it at length. 

The simplest case of a mortise and tenon joint is 
when two pieces of wood meet at right angles. Such 
a joint is shown on Fig. 2. 

The tenon is formed at the end of one piece in the 
direction of its fibres and a mortise of exactly the same 
size and form as the tenon is hollowed in the face of the 
other piece. The sides of the mortise are called the 
cheeks, and the square parts of the piece from which 
the tenon projects, and which rest on the cheeks, are 
called the shoulders. As the cheeks of the mortise and 
the tenon are exposed to the same amount of strain, 
it follows that each should be equal to one-third the 
thickness of timbers in which they are made. 

The length of a tenon should equal the depth of the 
mortise, so that its end will press on bottom of mortise 






Plate Vila 



40 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Plato vnij 



when shoulders bear on the cheeks. In practice this 
perfection of joining cannot be obtained, so the tenon 
is generally made slightly shorter than depth of mortise, 
thus enabling the shoulders to press closely upon cheeks. 

When a mortise and tenon joint is cut and put to- 
gether, the pieces are generally secured by a key or 
treenail. The key is generally a round one having a 
diameter equal to about one-fourth the thickness of the 
tenon and it is usually inserted at a distance of about 
one-third the length of tenon from the shoulder. 

The key, however, is never depended upon as a means 
of securing the joint, because joints of this kind should 
be so closely fitted that they will hold together without 
the aid of key. 

The foregoing describes a simple tenoned joint when 
the pieces to the joint are at right angles to each other. 

When the pieces to be joined are not at right angles, 
a more complicated method of tenoning must be used. 

Fig. 1. 

•AAA i^h Jk Al. 



L 



I 



1 



~% 



Fig. 2. 



eS, 



Fig. 3. 



-mr 



t*. 












Plate Vlld 



This method is shown on Fig. 3. 

You will note that the cheeks of mortise are cut 
down to form an abutment or notch, thus increasing the 
bearing surface and adding to the resistance to slipping. 

Plate VIIb Illustrations 

Fig. 4 shows other forms of this kind of joint, and 
on Fig. 5 I show methods of adding to resistance to 
slippage by using straps and bolts. Note that a steel 
wedge is inserted into opening of strap (a). 

7b. SCARPHS 

In ship-building it is often necessary to join timbers 
in the direction of their length in order to secure scant- 
lings of sufficient longitudinal dimensions. When it is 
necessary to maintain the same depth and width in the 
lengthened beam, the mode of joining is called scarphing. 
Scarphing can be performed in a number of dififerent 
ways, but in all cases it is very necessary to consider the 
direction of strain to which the lengthened beam will 
be subjected, whether longitudinal or transverse, and to 
select the method that will give the maximum resistance 
in the direction from which the strain comes. 

The following illustrations will serve to explain a 
number of excellent methods of scarphing and lengthen- 
ing beams. 

Plate VIIc Illustrations 

Fig. 6 illustrates a plain scarphed joint. The end? of 
each piece of timber are cut obliquely and lapped and 
then secured by bolts that pass through plates or washers 
to prevent the screwing up of the nuts injuring the wood. 

The strength of a scarph of this kind depends en- 
tirely upon the holding power of the bolts and the re- 
sistance to slipping is very slight. 

Fig. 7 shows a similar scarph, but as the ends are in- 
dented and a key is inserted through opening cut in 
timbers midway from ends of scarph, the resistance to 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



41 




l^^^tT" 






<? 


i' : ^ 


H L 




▼ 




V 










II 








< 

s 

1_ 



/J^ 







Plato VHo 



slipping is very greatly increased. This scarph is an im- 
provement over Fig. 6. 

Fig. 8 illustrates a scarph that is stronger than Fig. 7. 
Here the indentions are placed at ends and center and 
key is also used. With number of fastenings shown on 
illustrations the relative strength of the three scarphs is: 

Fig. 7 is one and one-quarter times the strength of 
Fig. 6. 

Fig. 8 is two and one-half times the strength of 
Fig. 6. 

Figs. 9 to 14 show other, more complicated, methods 
of scarphing that can be used when maximum strength of 
scarph is desired. 

Figs. 15 and 16 show two views of combined ver- 
tical and horizontal scarphs, and Figs. 17 and 18 illustrate 
methods of lengthening beams by inserting a short piece 
between two longer pieces. 

When a beam does not have to be same thickness 
throughout, the lengthening can be done by simply 



butting the pieces and lacing pieces of timber each 
side, bolting and keying the four pieces together. 

Plate VIId Illustrations 

Fig. I shows a plain fished joint. 

Fig. 2 shows an indented fished joint. 

Fig. 3 shows a keyed fished joint. A, B are keys. 

This method of joining timbers is called fishing. 

The timber used for the deck framing of a ship is 
seldom of sufficient length to permit the use of one- 
piece beams, so each beam and timber is generally com- 
posed of two or more pieces scarphed together. 

Plate VIIe Illustrations 

On Plate Vile is shown methods of scarphing deck 
beams. 

Figs. 21 to 23 show accepted methods of scarphing 
beams used for deck framing of vessels. 



42 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 











Plate Vile 



Fig. 21 illustrates how a two-piece beam is put to- 
gether, the upper view being a side or moulded view and 
the lower one a view as seen from above. A scarph of 
this kind is usually made one-third the length of the 
whole beam. 

In cases where it is necessary to make the beam out 
of three pieces, the scarph is made in the manner shown 
by Fig. 22. The length of scarph is usually about one- 
fourth the length of beam. 

Fig. 23 shows an exceptionally strong method of 
scarphing beams. The keys in a scarph of this kind are 
of iron or steel and must be tapered and fitted snugly, 
and the lips of scarph must be cut square to the moulded 
edge of beam. The length of this kind of scarph need 
not be more than one-fifth or one-sixth length of beam. 

7c. Dovetailing, Halving 

Fig. 16 (Plate Vllf) shows two pieces of timber 
joined together at right angles by a dovetailed notch. 
As to dovetails in general, it is necessary to remark that 
they should never be depended upon for joints exposed 



to a strain, as a very small degree of shrinkage will allow 
the joint to draw considerably. 

Figs. 17 and 18 (Plate Vllf) show modes of mortis- 
ing wherein the tenon has one side dovetailed or notched, 
and the corresponding side of the mortise also dovetailed 
or notched. The mortise is made of sufficient width to 
admit the tenon, and the dovetailed or notched faces are 
brought in contact by driving home a wedge c. Of 
these. Fig. 18 is the best. 

Fig. 19 (Plate Vllf) shows the halving of the tim- 
bers crossing each other. Fig. 20 shows a joint simi- 
lar to those in Nos. 17 and 18, but where the one timber 
b is oblique to the other a. 

Fig. 21 (Plate Vllf). — Nos. i and 2 show a mode of 
notching a horizontal beam into the side of an inclined one 
by a dovetailed joint. The general remark as to dove- 
tailed joints applies with especial force to this example. 

7d. An Explanation of Coaked Scarphs 

The word coaked refers to a method of increasing 
strength of scarphs by preventing the joint from moving 
sideways or endways. A coak is a rectangular or round 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



43 



piece of hard wood laid into the surface of the two pieces 
of timber that are scarphed together in such a manner 
that one-half of depth of coak will be in each piece of 
timber. On Fig. 33 (page 49) is shown a properly coaked 
keel scarph, and you will note that by the addition of 
coaks the resistance to sliding has been greatly increased 
and the holding strength of bolts has also been increased. 



In the days when wooden ships were built in large num- 
bers all the principal keel, stem, stern, keelsons and frame 
scarphs were coaked, but in these days coaking is seldom 
used, and in ignoring the advantages of coaking a scarph 
I believe the shipbuilders are making a serious error. 
Round coaks are used up to 3 inches'in diameter and rec- 
tangular ones up to 3 inch X 6 inch. 



Tig 



(a.JO. 



/^''./S/AA 



T 



\ 



i i 






Jk 



Fin.n. 



Vv^'N/' 






> i. 






j£L 



Fiq. 18. 



v/^xAV^ 




Plate Vllf 



Chapter VIII 

Describing the Different Parts of a Ship Constructed of Wood 



In this chapter I shall describe and illustrate the prin- 
cipal parts of a wooden ship's construction, explaining 
the position each occupies, its duty, and how it is shaped 
and fastened. 

8a. Explanatory 

The longitudinal form of a vessel is determined by 
timbers called the keel, the stem and the stem-post. The 
stem, which is at the foremost extremity, is supported by 
its combination with the keel, which is the lowest part of 
the structure, by other timbers lying in its concave part, 
called the apron, and the stemson ; the apron and stemson 
unite with timbers called the deadwood and with the 
keelson, which timbers strengthen and give support to 
the keel; the stern-post, which is at the aftermost ex- 
tremity, is supported by timbers called the inner stern- 
post and the sternson ; and these timbers likewise form 
a junction with the keelson, deadwood, and keel, so that 
a mutual connection is kept up by them, to preserve the 
longitudinal form. 

Transversely, the form is given by assemblages of 
timbers placed vertically, called frames. The lowest tim- 
bers of the frames, called floors, lie between the keel and 
keelson, extending equally on each side; the other tim- 
bers of the frames, called futtocks and top-timbers, con- 
nect keel to the timbers that form the upper boundary 
of the structure, which are called gunwales and plank- 
sheers. 

The longitudinal form is further maintained, and 
strengthened, by exterior and interior linings, called plank- 
ing, and by interior binders, called shelf-pieces, which 
are united to the frames. The exterior lining or planking 
which is connected with, and covers the whole surface of 
the frame, is made watertight, to preserve the buoyancy 
of the body. The two sides are connected and sustained 
at their proper distance apart by timbers lying horizon- 
tally, called beams ; these are firmly united to the sides 
of the ship. Platforms, called decks, are laid on the 
beams, on which the cabins for the accommodation of 
officers and ship's company are placed. 



The beams are so disposed on the different decks that 
their sides may form the hatchways and ladderways, 
which are the communications from one deck to another, 
and to the hold ; and to give support to pieces fixed to 
them, called mast partners, for wedging and securing 
the masts. The beams on the different decks are placed 
immediately over one another, in order that pillars may 
be placed between them, to continue to the upper decks 
the support given to lower beams by pillars resting on 
keelson. 

The deck beams are secured to the side by large tim- 
bers, called shelf-pieces, on which the beams lie, and to 
other large timbers called waterways, lying on ends of the 
beams, both well fastened to the ship's side. Knees under 
the beams, and steel plates bolted to the side, give addi- 
tional security. 

Below the lower deck, in two-decked ships and up- 
wards, upon the inside planking, were formerly placed 
interior frames, in the full part of the body, extending 
from the keelson upwards to lower deck beams, called 
bends or riders; the lowest timber, called the floor rider, 
extended equally on each side of the middle ; the other 
timbers, according to their position with this, were called, 
first, second, and third futtock riders. These timbers 
were intended to support the body against the upward 
pressure should the ship ground. 

These riders are in some cases omitted, diagonal frames 
being introduced on the inside of frame timbers, form- 
ing a system of braces and trusses, that takes their place. 
The diagonal framing was brought into use to prevent 
ships hogging through the unequal vertical pressures of 
the weights downwards, and of water upwards, in 
different parts of a ship's length. 

At the present time, a greatly improved method of 
diagonal framing is used. This method calls for the use 
of flat steel straps on the outside of frames, the straps 
being let in flush and placed to cross the frames and 
each other at an inclination of about 45° from the per- 
pendicular. In addition to this, steel plate riders and a 




ng. 25 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



45 




Fig. 26 



Steel arch are worked on inside of frames, the arch 
extending from near deadwood forward up to main deck 
beams amidships and to stern-post near deadwood aft. 
This arch is securely fastened to all the frames it crosses. 
Figs. 25, 26, 27 and 28 show construction details of a 
wooden ship, the principal parts being marked for identi- 
fication. 

8b. Keel. Description 

The keel is the principal longitudinal timber of a ship 
and is the first construction timber to set on the building 
slip blocks. A ship's keel is usually parallel sided except 
for a short distance near the forward and after ends, 
where the sided dimension is reduced to that of stem 
and stern post. 

The sided and moulded (S. & M.) dimensions of keel 
required for a ship can be ascertained, when ship's ton- 
nage is known, by referring to Table of Dimensions 



issued by classification society under whose rules the 
ship is being built, (see Tables 3b to 3f) or it can be 
calculated, when dimensions of ship are known, by using 
formula at end of Chapter III. 

8b\ Material For Keels 

The keel of a ship should be made of selected straight- 
grained, well-seasoned timber of a kind that is durable 
when immersed in water, and that has sufficient tensile 
strength to withstand the maximum keel strain. 

The relative durability and strength of diflferent kinds 
of woods used for keels is given in Tables 2 and 3. 

In U. S. A. at present time, Douglas fir, and long- 
leaf yellow pine, are the two most readily procurable 
woods suitable for keels of large ships. Timbers of these 
trees can be obtained in long lengths and of better quality 
than other more highly rated (by insurance companies) 
woods, and in addition to this these woods do not shrink 




HALF - BEAM 



HATC H WAV BEAM 



Fig. 27 



46 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



very much while seasoning and for this reason, if partially 
seasoned timber is used, the danger of seams of scarphs 
opening through wood shrinking is greatly reduced. 

Fig. 29 is a photograph of a ship's keel being set on 
building blocks; Fig. 30 shows photograph of keel, stim 
and stern post of a shallow draught hull set on building 
blocks, and Fig. 31 shows drawings of construction de- 
tails of which keel forms a part. 

8b^. Scarphing Keels 

As timber long enough to make a keel of a ship is 
difficult to obtain, it is very often necessary to join two or 
more pieces lengthways by scarphing and bolting or 
riveting. Keel scarphs should always be either nibbed 
or hooked, because a plain scarph lacks strength and can- 
not be held in place under the strain a keel is subjected 
to. On Plate VIIc, 6, 7, 8, I show details of plain, 
nibbed and hooked scarphs, the relative strength of each 



being : The nibbed scarph has one and one-quarter times 
the strength of the plain one, and the hooked scarph has 
two and one-half times the strength of the plain one. 
While scarphs can be cut either vertically or horizontally, 
meaning by this cut on a vertical plane parallel to moulded 
surface (side) of keel, or cut on a horizontal plane 
parallel with sided surface (top) of keel, horizontal 
scarphs are generally used when scarphing keels because 
they are easier to cut, fasten and keep tight ; but no matter 
which kind of scarph is used, it is very important to make 
it of sufficient length to permit the proper number of 
fastenings to be driven. Length of scarphs should vary 
with dimensions of material and size of ship, but it is 
safe to adhere to this rule: Make keel scarph extend 
under at least four frames (three frame spaces). 

In some cases, especially if ship is a large one, it is 
necessary in addition to scarphing two or more timbers 



Dead eye- 
Upper Channel 

Cham Puiic— 
iBulwark , 

Plankahe^'- - 
SheeT9trake^- 

( Lower., 

^Clumrul 

Cham Bolt... 
Pltvcnter Boll 



"Topgallatit RmI 

■Topgallant Bulwark Stanchwii 
/Nam Rail 

Bulwark Stanckion 
Cp<.'cnng BoarJ 
■Waterway 
/ ,'hitier Wfiterway 




f^F,dlwoh 
"Wmher 



'RultrKe^ow 
MoMi Keelson. 
Liniher-loard 



Bottom Planhim 



Floor or Floortini her^ 
Vfali'rcourse'^ 



K,-ct Rohhct 
/-IT , , • E23a ^Jiaiiv Keel 

Gari^^nl stmke- p^^^U,,,,Keel 



Fig. 28. Cross-Section of Ship, Showing Construction Details, Marked For Identification 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



47 




FlK. 29. Laying the Keel of Another Ship as Soon as the Accoma Left 
the Ways at the Foundation Company's Yard 



together to make the required length of keel, to also 
fasten two or more timbers on top of each other to get 
the required moulded (depth) size. 

In such cases the scarphs must be located longitu- 
dinally, so that there is a considerable distance between 
the location of a scarph on top keel timber and that of 
scarph on piece of timber immediately below. By doing 
this each scarph is supported and strengthened against 
hogging and sagging strains by the solid timber im- 
mediately below or above. 

8b". An Explanation of Coaked Keel Scarphs 

The word "coaked" refers to a method of increasing 
strength of scarphs by preventing the joint from moving 
sideways or endways. A coak is a rectangular or round 
piece of hard wood laid into the surface of two pieces of 
timber, that are scsfrphed together, in such a manner 
that one-half the depth of coak is in each piece of timber. 
On Fig. 33 is shown a properly coaked keel scarph and 
it is apparent that, by the addition of coaks, the resis- 
tance to sliding and holding strength of bolts has been 
greatly increased. In the days when wooden ships were 
built in large numbers, all principal keel, stem, stem, 
keelson and frame scarphs were coaked, but in these days 
coaking is seldom used, and in ignoring the advantages 



of coaking a scarph I believe the shipbuilders are mak- 
ing a serious error. With modern machinery now avail- 
able every scarph could be coaked without seriously in- 
creasing cost. 

8b*. Fastening Scarphs of Keels 

Next in importance to cutting and* fitting is method of 
securing, because the strength and number of fastenings 
must be proper to withstand all strains put upon joint or 
: carph. Fig. 33, drawing of keel, shows two pieces of 
timber scarphed and fastened, the scarph being a longi- 
tudinal nibbed and coaked one. Fastenings are clearly 
indicated on drawing. Note there is a clench ring under 
^he head and also under riveted end of each fastening, 
and that one-half the fastenings are driven from each 
side (top and bottom) of keel. Below I mention a few 
good rules to adhere to when laying out keel scarph 
fastenings. 

(a) Make the diameter of fastenings in accordance 
with size laid down by classification society, and 
bore holes for fastenings with an auger that is 
at least one-eighth inch smaller than bolt. 

(b) At extreme ends of scarph let there be double 
fastenings. 

(c) Space intermediate fastenings equally and locate 
each fastening a sufficient distance inside edge 
of keel to bring both the fastenings and washers 
well inside and clear of rabbet. 

(d) Locate all keel scarphs fastenings in positions 
that will not interfere with the driving of frame 
to keel fastenings, and keelson to frame and keel 
fastenings. 

On Fig. 33 is shown frames and keelson in position and 
fastened to keel. 

Sb'^. Stopwaters in Keel Scarphs 

I will next call attention to the method of keeping 
water from leaking through a horizontal keel scarph. 
Before the scarph is put together for fastening, it is 
usual to either paint or treat the surfaces that go to- 
gether with some wood preservative and, of course, the 
scarph is accurately fitted before it is fastened. But 
these precautions do not prevent the wood shrinking 
and the joint opening. So it is necessary to use some 
methods of preventing water from passing inside the 
ship should a scarph joint open. The most satisfactory 
method of doing this is to put one or more stopwaters 
through the seam of a scarph in such a location that the 
stopwater will prevent water that passes along scarph 
getting inside the ship. 

A stopwater is a well-seasoned soft-wood dowel or 
plug that is driven into a slightly smaller hole bored 
edgeways along the seam of a scarph in such a manner 
that one-half of hole will be each side of joint. 

Of course the stopwater must be located in the proper 
position, which is, in a keel scarph like the one I am 



48 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 30. Keel Set Up 



referring to, in rabbet of keel. When located in this 
position the caulking of garboard covers end of stop- 
water and prevents water from passing back of it. Holes 
for keel stopwaters should never be bored or stopwater 
driven until ship is ready for planking. 

On Fig. 34 I have shown keel stopwater in place ; 
note it is in such a position that garboard will cover it. 




Fig. 31. As Soon as the Congaree Was Lanncbed From the Foundation 
Company's Yard Workmen Laid the Keel For Another Vessel 



Sb" Keel Rabbet 

In paragraph above I mentioned rabbet of keel, so 
perhaps I had better explain how a keel rabbet is cut. 

The rabbet extends from end to end of keel and 
mei'ges into _ rabbet of stem and stern; it is sometimes a 
groove cut at proper angle and width for plank to fit into 
and sometimes is formed by beveling the upper corners 
of keel in such a manner that garboard will fit square 
against keel. On cross-section construction view (Fig. 
28) a grooved rabbet cut near to top of keel is shown, 
and on Fig. 29 (photo of keel) the beveled upper corner 
rabbet can clearly be seen. Note that rabbet at end? of 
keel is never cut until after stem and stern post is set 
up and fastened in place. As regards value the advan- 
tage lies with grooved rabbet, because the wood back of 
groove forms a backing for caulking, while the groove 
tends to add support to garboard along its lower edge, 
and in addition to this the small amount of keel wood 
above rabbet is sufficient to necessitate the notching of 
floor timbers over keel and thus they are strengthened 
against side thrust. As regards labor to construct the 
advantage lies with the beveled-edge rabbet. 

8b'. Edge-Bolting a Keel 

In the days when wood was the principal shipbuild- 
ing material, keels were nearly always edge-bolted, the 
bolts being driven from alternate side of keel and spaced 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



49 



the distance alternate frames were apart, all bolts being 
placed some distance below garboard, as edge-bolts 
through garboard into keel were considered sufficient to 
strengthen the upper edge of keel. 

Without doubt edge-bolting a keel is advantageous 
because it tends to prevent keel being split by driving the 
large number of vertical bolts that pass through it, and by 
the working of these bolts when ship is afloat; and in 
addition to this edge-bolting will oftentimes prevent a 
keel splitting should the ship go aground. 

Sb". False Keel, or Shoe 

This is a relatively thin piece of timber 2 inches to 4 
inches in thickness, that is fastened below keel for the 
purpose of protecting its lower portion from damage 
should a ship go aground. On Figs. 25 and 28 the false 
keel is plainly marked. 

The false keel extends the whole length of keel and 
is fastened with independent fastenings that do not pass 
entirely through keel, their number and strength being 
sufficient to secure the keel under normal conditions, but 
not sufficient to hold it in place should ship go aground. 
The false keel is always fastened in place after ship is 
built, and when keel timber is relatively soft material, 
such as Douglas fir, or long-leaf yellow pine, false keel is 
made of some durable wood, oak, hard maple or beech. 

8c. The Stem 

The stem is the extreme forward construction timber 
of a hull and is the timber to which the ends of planking 
are fastened. The stem is attached to forward end of 
keel by scarphing and is reinforced and held in place by 
knees or timbers riveted or bolted to both keel and stem ; 
these timbers are clearly shown on Fig. 35, which is a 
reproduction of the drawing of keel, stem and stemknee 
construction of a modern wood ship. 

The Fig. 35 construction details are the simplest that 
it is possible to design, and in simplifying the construc- 
tion strength has not been sacrificed. 

For the purpose of enabling a comparison to be made 
between the older and more modern methods of construct- 
ing a stem I have shown on Fig. 36 stem construction 
of a wood ship built in 1876. 

Compare Fig. 35 with Fig. 36 and the more compli- 
cated construction is noticeable. 

When scarphing a stem to keel it must be remembered 
that the scarph will have to withstand strains coming 




fT^^^.. riiA.f 



Coaled Keel Scarpb and Stopw^ter 



from ahead, and therefore the scarph must be nibbed, 
or hooked, in such a manner that it will add strength to 
fastenings should the stem receive a direct blow from 
ahead, as would be the case should ship hit another vessel 
or take the ground head on. 

On Fig. 35 and 36 the scarph fastenings are clearly 
shown. * 

You should also note that on Fig. 36 stem construc- 
tion names of principal pieces are marked. 

One thing should be kept in mind when laying out a 
stem, and that is, to have the grain of wood run length- 
ways of all pieces of timber. It is, of course, impossible 
to have full-length grain in all pieces, but if the shape of 
stem is such that a great deal of cross-grained wood must 
be used, if stem is gotten out of straight planks or tim- 
bers it is better to make use of some knees or material 
that has a certain amount of natural bend of grain or 
fibres. 

Every piece of short grain should be supported or 
backed by a piece having straight grain and the fasten- 
ings should be spaced and located in such a manner th.at 
the several pieces of timber will be rigidly fastened to- 
gether and to keel. 

A stem receives the ends of outside planking and there- 
fore it must have a rabbet. This rabbet is cut either 
upon the after edge, or along the stem a little distance 
inside of its after edge, but in either case the rabbet ex- 
tends from stem head to keel and is backed up by apron 
piece into which a number of the plank end fastenings 
will be driven. 

Ahead of rabbet the stem is beveled to take the ap- 
proximate shape of longitudinal lines of ship, and after 
this beveling is completed the front of stem is frequently 
protected by a piece of steel, called a stem band, that ex- 
tends from above the heavy load water-line down to fore- 
foot. 

8d. The Apron 

The apron is the piece of timber that is fitted to after 
side of stem and extends from stem head down to for- 
ward deadwood. In fact, the apron can be considered as 
a continuation of forward deadwood. The apron forms 
a support for stem and for the fastenings that hold the 
forward ends of planking in place in stem rabbet. On 
Figs. 35 and 36, the apron is clearly indicated, as well as 
method of fastening it to stem. Some shipbuilders make 
it a practice to allow apron piece to extend to forward 
ends of planking, and thus the whole of rabbet is cut in 
apron, and stem only forms a protection for the ends of 
planking-. This method is largely resorted to when con- 
structing smaller craft and it has the advantage of allow- 
ing replacing a stem, should it be damaged, with the mini- 
mum of labor. This method, however, has the disad- 
vantage of reducing strength of construction. 

In large vessels the rabbet for plank is cut in stem and 
therefore joint between stem and apron is along a line 
cut a short distance inside of bearding line of rabbet. 



50 



pro O DEN SHIP-BUILDING 




It is usual to make apron the same width as stem, 
but if it is impossible to get proper bearing for planking 
end fastenings without increasing width of apron, the 
apron is made of material considerably wider than stem. 
In fastening apron to stem, through bolts are usually em- 
ployed, and care should be taken to space them in such a 
manner that they will not interfere with bolts of cant 
timbers or breasthook fastenings. In a number of cases 
I have noticed that shipyards are driving apron and stem 
fastenings parallel to each other. This is not good prac- 
tice, and much better resuUs, so far as resistance to pull- 
ing apart or damage is concerned, will be obtained by 
driving fastenings at varying angles to each other. Tests 
of the holding power of fastenings driven parallel to each 
other and fastenings driven at various angles show that 
"various angle" fastenings have a holding power 60% 
greater than parallel fastenings. This test was made with 
i-inch diameter fastenings connecting together two 12- 
inch pieces of yellow pine. The power used was applied 
for the purpose of separating the joint. 

Hard wood is the best material to use for stem and 
apron, and even if stem is made of a resinous wood, such 
as fir or yellow pine, the apron should be of oak, or a 
hard wood of similar strength and durability. Apron is 
shown on Figs. 25, 35 and 36 illustrations. 

8e. The Knightheads 

Knightheads are timbers placed on each side of apron 
when the rabbet is on after edge of stem, and partly on 
stem and partly on apron when rabbet is cut along stem 
and apron. These timbers give support to bowsprit, and 
add strength to the foremost extremities of outside 
planking (called hooding ends.) 

Knightheads should extend a sufficient height above 
bowsprit to receive the fastenings of bowsprit chock, and 



a sufficient distance below deck to give necessary added 
strength to the structure around the bowsprit. 

When the diameter of bowsprit exceeds siding of stem 
at head, so that knightheads would have to be cut con- 
siderably to allow bowsprit to pass between them, pieces 
of timber, called stem pieces, sufficiently thick to give 
necessary increase of width to stem and apron, are 
fastened to sides of stem and apron. 

Knightheads and stem pieces are made to conform 
to scantling of frame, and are bolted to stem. When 
the bow of vessel is not too acute the bolts should pass 
through both knightheads and stem; but when too acute 
the bolts can be driven from each side through one knight- 
head and stem only. 

On Fig. 26 the knightheads are indicated. 

8f. Forward Deadwood 

This is the piece of timber placed on top of keel, 
immediately aft of stem, for the purpose of making depth 
of wood at forward end of keel sufficient to allow a solid 
backing for the frames. 

In most vessels, as stem is approached the lines narrow 
to such an extent that the frames assume a "V"-Hke 
appearance and this, of course, will increase the distance 
between rabbet and bearding line, and from bearding 
to cutting down line, or line where top edge of timbers 
leave side of keel, stem or deadwood. On Figs. 25, 35 
and 36 the forward deadwood is clearly shown. 

Fig- 35 shows modern method of forward deadwood 
construction when straight material is used, and Fig. 36 
shows method of construction that was in use before the 
advent of steel ships. The old method is more com- 
plicated but it has the advantage of being more durable 
and stronger than the more modern method. 

In constructing forward deadwood it is essential that 
fastenings be properly driven and correct in size and 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



5r 




number. It is advantageous and advisable to nib the 
ends of deadwood into keel and stem, and to use coaks 
when deadwood is built of straight material. 

The size of dimensions of deadwood is usually the 
same as keel. 

8g. Stern-Post 

Stern-post is the perpendicular piece of timber 
fastened to after end of keel. The stern-post forms a 
portion of the after boundary of the framework of ship 
and is the timber to which after ends of all lower planks 
fasten. 

The stern-post is usually constructed of material of 
same sided dimensions as keel' and is rabbeted to re- 
ceive the ends (after hoods) of all planks that terminate 
at stern-post. It is usual to secure stern-post to keel 
by tenoning it into mortises cut into keel, and securing 
the tenoned lower end against rupture by placing dove- 
tail plates (let in flush) on each side and securing them 
with through bolts. In addition to this the stern-post is 
supported and fastened to the after deadwood and to 
shaft log if there is one. 

In vessel propelled by sail only the after end of stern- 
post is grooved in such a manner that forward edge of 
rudder post will lay close against it, and by closing the 
opening between stern-post and rudder eddies at this 
point are eliminated. In such vessels the stern-post must 
have a sufficient width and strength to receive the fasten- 
ings of rudder gudgeon and pintle straps. 

On Fig. 37 is shown details of sternpost construction 
of sailing vessel, and you will note that the stern-post is 
composed of two pieces of material fastened together. 
This is done when width of available material is not suffi- 
cient, or when additional strength of stern-post is needed. 
The forward piece of the two is named the inner stern- 
post. 

On Fig. 39 is shown the modern method of construc- 
tion at after end of keel. 

In vessels that have a screw propeller located along 
center line the stern-post is shaped to receive the out- 
board bearing of propeller shaft, and rudder is hung some 
distance aft of stern-post on a frame erected to receive 



Fig. 38. Side Counter Timbers 

it. Of course a hole for propeller shaft to pass through 
must be bored through stern-post. 

On Fig. 38 I show construction of stern-post of a 
screw-propelled vessel. 

8h. After Deadwood 

The after deadwood bears the same relation to stern- 
post that forward deadwood does to stem. It is fitted on 
top of keel and against stern-post, and is sufficiently deep 
to permit the heels of after frames to be secured to it. 
The after deadwood is generally made of timber having 
the same siding as keel and stern-post. 

In screw-propelled vessels the upper edge of dead- 
wood timbers forms a bearing for shaft log or box, and 
after shaft log is in place the sternson knee is fastened 
in place and adds strength to the whole assemblage of 
pieces. 

It is advantageous to use coaks in deadwood timbers 
and to drive the fastenings at varying angles. 

On Fig. 39 construction of screw-propelled vessel's 
after deadwood is shown, and Fig. 37 shows construc- 
tion of a sailing vessel's after deadwood; compare the 
two types of construction. 

On Fig. 36 is shown after deadwood construction of 
vessel built in 1868. 

8i. Counter Timbers — On Counter and Elliptical 

Sterns 

Counter timbers extend aft from stern-post in all 
round and elliptical stern vessels to form the rake of 
stern. There are in reality three counter timbers, two 
side counter timbers and one center counter timber. 

The side counter timbers are placed each side of stern- 
post, extend aft at rake that lower portion of counter 
must have, are set into grooves cut each side of stern- 
post, and securely bolted to stern-post, to deadwood, to 



52 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 39. Constrnctlon Plan of Three-Masted Auxiliary Schooner, Which Will Carry 700 Tons Dead Weight 



each Other, and to deadwood, sternson knee and shaft 
log (if there is a shaft log) ahead of stern-post. 

On Fig. 38 the side counter timbers of an elhptical 
stern vessel are shown in place, and on Fig. 37 the 
method of fastening them to deadwood and stem-post is 
shown. 

The center counter timber must be large enough to 
fill the space between side counter timbers, and as rudder- 
post opening is cut through the center counter timber the 
distance from inside of one counter timber to inside of 
the other one must be at least equal to diameter of rudder 
post. 

A rudder port is constructed around rudder-post 
opening. After the three counter timbers are bolted to- 
gether a rabbet to receive edge of planking that terminates 
along counter is cut along the lower outer edge of out- 
side counter timbers. 

Fig. 40 illustrates modern elliptical stern construction 
details. 

8k. The Frame 

This is the name given to the transverse timbers that 
are shaped to the form of vessel and placed at stated dis- 
tances apart from stem to stern. 

Along the center portion of a vessel, where the shape 
does not change very much, the frame timbers are placed 
square to the longitudinal plane and for this reason are 
named square frames. But at the ends (bow and stern) 
where shape changes considerably the frame timbers are 
placed obliquely to longitudinal vertical plane and for 
this reason are named cant frames. (They are canted or 
inclined from the perpendicular.) In addition to the 
frame of a vessel being composed of a number of timbers, 
placed as stated above, each separate frame is composed 
of several pieces assembled and fastened together, and 
each of these pieces (called timbers of the frame) has 
a distinguishing name, viz., first, second, third, fourth, 
fifth and sixth futtocks; and long and short top timbers. 
Of course you will understand that the number of fut- 
tocks will vary with size of vessel. 

In addition to this each frame of the square body is 
fastened to a floor timber that scores over and lays across 



the keel. The cant frames do not generally have floor 
timbers but have their lower ends mortised directly into 
the deadwood or other piece of material against which 
they rest. 

The sided and moulded dimensions of frames and 
also distance center of one frame is from center of next 
one, called timber and space, is specified for all sizes of 




Fig. 40 

vessels (see Table 3b), and Fig. 41 defines the meaning 
of terms Sided, Moulded, and Timber and Space. 

Explanation of Terms 

The sided measure of a frame is width or thickness of 
material of which it is composed measured on fore-and- 
aft line when frame is in position in vessel. 

Moulded measure of a frame is width or breadth of 
material of which frame is composed measured along a 
transverse line when frame is in position in a vessel. The 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



53 



term means the measurement of side on which the mould 
of shape of frame is placed. 

Timber and space means the longitudinal space, or 
room, occupied by the timber of one frame added to the 
space between it and the next frame. 

On Fig. 28 I show a transverse view of an assembled 
square frame, each piece of which is identified. 

Beginning at the lower (keel) end of a frame I will 
describe each piece and explain how the various pieces 
are shaped and fastened together. 

8k\ The Floor or Floor Timber 

This is the name of the piece of timber that crosses 
keel and serves to tie a frame on one side of keel with 
one on the other. On the illustration the floor is clearly 
marked. 

The floors of the midship frame usually, in flat-floored 
ships, extend out to about one-fourth the breadth on each 

TIMBER Alto 
SPACE I _ -^^ 




MOUL 



side of keel, but it must be remembered that if the floors 
are doubled (two floors placed alongside of each other) 
each will have a long and a short arm, the long arm of 
one floor being on side of keel that the short arm of 
adjacent one is. The reason for this is explained in 
description of frame timbers. 

Floors are secured to keel with bolts, and if notched 
over keel their lowest points must exactly reach to 
bearding line of rabbet. The distance from bearding line 
of rabbet of keel to the upper part of floors, at their 
center line, is called the cutting down, or throating. 

Dimensions of floors and their fastenings are given 
in Tables 3b and 3d. 

8k-. The Frame Timbers 

The pieces of timber of which a frame is composed 



must be disposed in such a manner that they can be 
fastened together securely.- This is done by shifting the 
butts and bolting the pieces together in the manner illus- 
trated on Figs. 28 and 42a and explained below. 

The floor on illustration is a double one, the dash line 
marked near keel across it indicating the end of a short 
arm, and the full line a little further out indicating end 
of a long arm. 

The first futtock is butted against the end of short arm 
of floor and the upper end of this futtock extends to 
dotted line next above the full line that indicates end of 
long arm of floor. This permits lower portion of first 
futtock to be bolted to portion of long-arm floor that 
extends beyond the short arm of adjacent floor. The 
lower end of second futtock butts against long-arm end 
of floor and upper end of this futtock extends some 
distance above upper end of first futtock. The lower 
end of second futtock is fastened to portion of upper end 
of first futtock that extends beyond end of long arm of 
floor. In this manner each succeeding futtock overlaps 
and is bolted to the one below, and thus any short grain 
of wood at the end of a futtock is strengthened by the 
long grain of piece that overlaps it. On illustration the 
even numbered futtocks are marked for identification, 
and location of odd numbered ones is indicated by dash 
lines and numbers only. 

Bolts are used to fasten the futtocks to floor arms and 
to each other, and if maximum strength is desired round 
coaks are inserted between the overlapping portions of 
futtocks. 

All fastenings of futtocks should be located in posi- 
tions that will keep them clear of knee and waterway 
fastenings, and if filling frames are to be used the heads 
and ends of bolts that are located where filling frames 
will be must be countersunk flush with surface of wood. 

8k^. Filling Frames 

This is the name given to short frames located between 
the frames proper and extending from keel to about the 
turn of bilge. Their use is to strengthen the transverse 
bottom framing of vessel, but originally they were used 
in conjunction with caulking to make the whole of bottom 
of a vessel's transverse framing watertight. 

The old method of using filling frames was to make 
these frames extend from keel to orlop deck location and 
to completely fill spaces between frames proper. Thus 
the whole of bottom and bilges of a vessel was made one 
solid mass of wood, and when the seams between the 
various frames and filling frames were caulked with 
oakum the whole bottom framing of vessel was made 
watertight. Construction of this kind requires a very 
large amount of material, and the weight of a vessel con- 
structed in this manner is much greater than that of a 
vessel constructed in accordance with modern ideas of 
what is proper and necessary. In present-day construc- 
tion of large vessels one filling frame, or at most two, 



54 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 42. The Dimensions Are: L. O. A. 200 Ft., Length on Deck 177 Ft., Breadth 36 Ft. 8 In. She l3 to be Rigged With Porr Masts 



is placed between each two regular frames, the filling 
frames extending out to about turn of bilge. 

In small and moderate sized vessels the filling frames 
are frequently omitted entirely. 

In addition to these filling frames, filling pieces are 
placed in the wake of fore, main, and mizzen rigging, 
wherever a valve connection passes through the bottom or 
side of vessel, where a knee will not coincide with a 
regular frame, and wherever an opening of any kind is 
cut through side or bottom. 

8k*. Cant Frames 

I have already mentioned that some of the frames are 
canted out of perpendicular. I will now explain the 
reason for doing this. 

When referring to the transverse framing a vessel is 
considered as being divided into two principal parts, one 
part being named the square body frame and the other 
the cant body frame. Along the square body (the part of 
a vessel where the shape of cross-section changes very 
little) the frames stand perpendicular at right angles to 
center line of keel, and parallel to each other; and along 
the portions of a vessel where cant frames are located the 
frames are canted, or swung around to an angle, thus 
increasing the distance they are apart at deck line. Cant 
frames are canted forward at bow, and aft at stern, the 
number of cant frames varying in each vessel and depend- 
ing upon fullness at deck relative to fullness along dead- 
wood at stem and stern. The reason that forward and 
aft frames of a wooden vessel are canted is, that in the 



parts where deck outline merges into stem, and around 
the curve of an elliptical stern square timbers would have 
to be beveled to an excessive degree to make planking lay 
against the frames for their full width, and this exces- 
sive beveling would greatly weaken frames ; or if frames 
were a sufficient width to allow for beveling an excessive 
amount of material would be wasted. 

By inclining, or canting, each frame so that its outer 
face parallels, as near as possible, the deck outline the 
amount of bevel necessary to make plank fit against a 
frame for its full width is greatly reduced and additional 
strength of frame is obtained without adding to the ma- 
terial. Cant frames at bow always cant forward and 
those at stern cant aft. 

On Fig. 4 2 I show views of forward cant frames in 
position. You will note by referring to illustration that 
no change is made in spacing of lower ends of cant 
frames, but by canting the actual interval (space) be- 
tween upper ends of frames increases, and as outer face 
of frames more nearly follows shape of vessel's out- 
line, they oflfer a greater resistance to pressure of waves 
at bow and at stern. 

The lower ends of cant frames are always "boxed" 
into deadwood about i^ inches deep, except in range of 
a shaft hole, and each cant frame is bolted through dead- 
wood. 

Before the days of steel ships it was usual to cant all 
frames ahead and aft of the middle body, but modem 
wooden shipbuilders do not consider it necessary to cant 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



55 



f«.-lTTMMC1 roP KEEl--iC«« TTC 




Fig. 42a. Midship Constrnction Plan of Four-Masted Schooner Building For J. W. Somervllle, Designed by Cor & Stevens 



more than a few frames at extreme bow and a few at ex- 
treme stem. 

The old method is certainly the best but it entails a 
greater amount of work both in the mould loft and when 
erecting the frame. 

81. Hawse Pieces 

Hawse pieces are pieces of timber used to fill in 
between the knightheads and the foremost cant frames. 
Their use is to give solid wood for the hawse pipe to pass 
through and fasten to. 

In reality hawse pieces are cant frames that close the 
openings between forward cant frames from the knight- 
heads aft as far as necessary to give good solid fastening 
for hawse-pipe flanges. The lower ends of hawse timbers 
are bolted to the apron and the several hawse timbers are 
edge-bolted together, care being taken to keep bolts clear 
of positions where^ breasthooks and hawse holes are 
located. On Figs. 25 and 26 hawse pieces are marked 
and on Fig. 42 they are very clearly shown. 

8m. Keelsons 
8m^ Main 

The keelson is a timber placed immediately over keel 
on top of the floors, over which it is sometimes notched, 
and extending from forward deadwood to after dead- 



wood. It unites in one solid structure the keel, floors 
and deadwoods. 

The main keelson is usually built up of a number of 
pieces scarphed together, and when laying out a keelson 
it is necessary to locate the scarphs in positions that 
will not bring them immediately over a keel scarph. The 
scarphs are usually nibbed and have a length equal to at 
least two frame intervals (double the room and space). 
Some of the fastenings of scarphs must pass through both 
floors and keel, and if the maximum strength of construc- 
tion is desired two or three circular coaks should be fitted 
into each scarph. The lips of scarphs are fastened with 
two short bolts that do not pass through keel. 

At forward end of vessel the main keelson usually 
scarphs into deadwood and is then secured to apron by 
means of a stemson knee. Aft the main keelson scarphs 
into deadwood and in some vessels the sternson knee 
rests upon main keelson and serves to fasten its after end 
to stern-post. 

The main keelson is fastened in place with bolts that 
pass through floors and into keel, and in vessels that are 
well constructed additional strength is given to the whole 
structure by coaking the lower piece of main keelson to 
each floor and filling that it crosses: 3-inch diameter 
coaks are used for doing this. 

If the main keelson is built up of two or more tim- 
bers placed on top of each other the pieces should be 



50 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



coaked together with square coaks before the through 
floor and keel fastenings are driven. 

On Figs. 25, 28, 35 a main keelson is shown in its 
proper position in a vessel. 

8m^. Sister Keelsons 

Sister keelsons are generally placed each side of and 
close to main keelson, extending fore-and-aft parallel with 
main keelson to where the reduction in width of floor of 
vessel reduces their depth to about 6 inches. 

These keelsons, in properly constructed vessels, are 
coaked to floors and filling timbers with circular coaks, 
then bolted to floors and fillings and edge-bolted to main 
keelson. Scarphs of sister keelsons are cut and fastened 
the same as main keelson scarphs. On Fig. 28 sister 
keelsons are shown in place. 

8m^. Boiler or Bilge Keelsons, 

In all vessels having machinery, two or more boiler 
or bilge keelsons are run parallel with sister keelsons and 
suflSiciently apart to form the lower timber of engine and 
boiler foundations. These keelsons are coaked and 
fastened to all frames and filling they cross, and are al- 
ways extended as far as possible forward and aft, because 
by doing this the strain caused by weight of machinery, 
as well as the local vibrations caused by the rotation of 
engine crank are spread over a wide extent of the struc- 
ture. 

8m*. Rider Keelsons 

Rider keelsons are placed on top of main keelsons 
for the purpose of giving additional strength to the whole 
longitudinal structure of a vessel. In Chapter V on Strains 
I explained that hogging and sagging strains can best be 
resisted by adding strength to the longitudinal members 
of a vessel's structure, and this the rider keelson does. 

On Fig. 28 a rider keelson is shown in position. 

Rider keelson scarphs and fastenings are similar to 
those in keelsons, and of course scarphs must be prop- 
erly located so as not to coincide with keelson or keel 
scarphs. 

Power of resistance against hogging and sagging 
strains is increased when rider keelson fastenings are 
diagonally driven at varying angles from the perpen- 
dicular. 

8n. Stem SON 

The stemson is the piece of material, a natural knee, 
placed in angle formed by apron, upper piece of dead- 
wood and forward end of keelson. It acts, as an addi- 
tional support for stem and serves to properly tie keelson 
and forward deadwood to stem and apron. 

The fastenings go through stem, apron and stemson 
at one end, and keel, deadwood, keelson and stemson at 
the other. 

It is advantageous to use coaks in addition to the 
metal fastenings, and of course all fastenings should be 
through "bolts clenched on rings. 

On Fig. 25 the stemson is clearly indicated. 



80. Sternson 

The sternson bears the same relation to stern-post that 
stemson does to stem. It is used to strengthen stern- 
post and is, in the case of vessels having a shaft log, 
placed on top of log and serves to hold log in position. 

On Fig. 25 a sternson knee is shown; but in present- 
day practice stemson and sternson knees are now seldom 
used, as an examination of illustrations and construction 
details shown in this book will indicate. 

8p. Diagonal Steel Bracing of Frame 

Steel straps are fastened diagonally across outside of 
the frame of a vessel for the purpose of strengthening 
vessel against strains that tend to change its shape longi- 
tudinally. (Hogging or sagging strains.) These straps 
are let into frames flush, cross frames at about 45° in- 
clination, and are fastened with at least one bolt through 
each strap into each frame, and to each other with rivets 
wherever two straps cross. The dimensions of straps, 
their number and location varies with the size of the ves- 
sel. (See Table 3a in Chapter III.) 

On Fig. 25 is shown by dotted lines the general direc- 
tion of diagonal straps. In large vessels, in addition 
to diagonal straps, it is usual to insert a steel strap arch 
on inside of frames. This arch begins at stem near to 
deadwood, rises in a curve to lower side of upper deck 
beams at about midships, and from these descends in a 
curve to near deadwood at stern-post. This strap is let 
into frames flush and is fastened in place with one bolt 
into each frame. Bear in mind that these and the 
diagonal straps are supplemented later by one or more 
of the planking fastenings at each frame going through 
both strap and frame. 

8q. Planking 

Planking is the name given to outer covering of the 
transverse frame. It is put on in strakes that run from 
stem to stem, each strake being properly proportioned 
in width from bow to midship and from midship to 
stern. In other words, the planks are not parallel for 
their entire length but have their widths graduated in 
such a manner that the number of planks required to fill 
space at stem, which is the narrowest space to fill, will 
also fill space at midship section, which is the widest 
space to fill. A single plank that runs from stem to stern 
is called a strake of planking. Below I give names and 
description of principal planks. 

8q'. Garboard 

The plank next to keel is named the garboard. The 
lower edge of this plank is fitted into rabbet of keel, stem, 
and stern-post, and it is usual to edge-bolt this plank to 
keel, in addition to fastening it in the usual manner to all 
frames at crosses. The garboard is generally made of 
thicker material than rest of planking, as you will note by 
referring to Fig. 42a. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



57 



In a large vessel there may be two or three thick 
strakes next to garboard proper. In such cases each 
strake is slightly thinner than garboard proper, and it is 
correct to refer to all these thick strakes as being gar- 
board strakes. Technically there can be only one gar- 
board strake, but as it is impossible to obtain one plank 
sufficiently wide to cover the space that thick strake next 
to keel should cover, the term garboard is used when re- 
ferring to all thick strakes next to keel. 

On Fig. 42a -three thick strakes are shown and you 
will note how each succeeding plank is slightly thinner 
than the last one put on. When planking a vessel the 
garboard is the first bottom plank put in position, and 
after vessel is planked the excess thickness is "dubbed off" 
for a few feet at bow and stern. 

8q^. Sheer Strake 

The top strake of planking is called the sheer. This 
is usually the first strake of planking put on. 

As this plank is an important one in the assemblage 
of planks that aid in resisting longitudinal strains its 
strength should be at a maximum, and for this reason 
butts of sheer strake should also be scarphed and edge- 
bolted instead of being butted in the manner that planks 

.. ., Outside plankui^-- , , 
,,--'' / ( InteriuiL oiecoj ^-^ '---^ 




•r" — * -~ * » » » ■ # J^ 



j \.^\.~^ tWrs^f>ftvVj^^^ 



" : i/ iteoJ.' 




of other strakes are joined. On Fig. 43 is shown a 
proper method of scarphing and fastening a sheer strake. 
The scarph, as you will note, is a nibbed one that ex- 
tends across three frames and after planks are fastened 
in position the scarph is edge-bolted between frames, the 
edge-bolts passing through sheer and into next plank 
below. * 

Sq". The Wales (an old term) 

This name applies to an assemblage of planks that 
covers the frame from immediately below sheer strakes 
(the three or four top strakes used to be termed sheer 
planking) to bilge planking, which commences at or near 
to bilge. The term is seldom used by shipbuilders of 
the new school. 

The wales were always somewhat thicker than the rest 
of planking and it was usual to designate wale strakes 
according to their location. Thus the wale strakes lo- 
cated where channel fastenings are, were named channel 
wales. The planks below were named the main wales, 
and below these again were the diminishing strakes, so 
called because it was here the planks began to be dimin- 
ished in thickness and merge into bottom planks located 
immediately below the diminishing strakes and which 
filled space between them and garboard strakes. 

On Fig. -28 I have identified the various assemblages 
of planks by marking names against them. 

New Planking Names 

The present-day method of planking is similar to the 
old in many respects, but as all planks between sheer and 
garboard strake are alike in thickness and method of 
fastening, the old distinguishing names for the thicker 
planks have become obsolete and now all planks between 
top of garboard and bilge are known as bottom plank- 
ing, and that from bilge to under side of sheer as top- 
side planking, or side planking. 

On Fig. 42a illustration shows the new planking 
method with names of assemblage of planks marked for 
identification. 
8q*. Caulking 

Caulking is the operation of making seams of planking 
watertight by forcing oakum into the seams by means of 
a caulking iron and mallet. In caulking the thickness of 
plank regulates the quantity of oakum that should be 
driven into each seam or butt joint. The following table 
gives number of threads of oakum for planks from 10 
inches down to i inch thick. 



Ijiij ii 1^ w i;»ji) liis!) j!iiai |;S^ lij p tiiw 

Fig. 43 









Number of 


Number of 








Double Threads of 


Single Thread 


Thick 


ness of Pis 


nk 


Oakum 


Spunyarn 




10 


inches 


13 


2 


B 


9 




12 


2 





8 




II 


2 


. 


7 




10 


2 


.o_« 


6 


(( 


8 


2 


•n c J 
c rt 1 


S 


tt 


6 


2 


«-5, 


4 


" 


5 


2 


<U 


3 




4 


I 


rt 


2j 


^2 " 


3 
2 


__ 


^ 


2 


tt 







I 


it 


I 


— 



ss 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Double Threads, Double Threads. White 






Deck. 





Black Oakum 


Oakum or Cotton 


9 inches 
8 " 




II 
10 





5 " ^ 

t '■ ■ 

2/ " 




9 

7 
S 
4 
3 

2 


I 
I 
I 

I 




Single Threads. 
Black Oakum 


Single Threads, White 
Oakum or Cotton 


4 inches 




3 


I 


3 " 
2^ inches 




2 

2 


I 
I 


2 " 




I 


I 



In order that the proper quantity of oakum may be 
driven all seams to be caulked are made tight at the 
bottom and open at surface. This is .called allowing the 
seam. 

The necessary seam for plank of any thickness may 
be found by drawing two lines, lo inches long, so that 
they meet at one end, and are yi inch apart at the other ; 
if the thickness of plank be set off from the point where 
lines meet, the distance lines are apart at this place will 
be the open seam that must be allowed. The progressive 
manner of caulking is, by first driving wedge-like irons 
into the seams to open them on the surface. This opera- 
tion is called raiming or reeming. After this, the spun- 
yarn, white oakum or cotton, is driven, if any, and then 
the number of black threads, which are then hardened, or 
what is called horsed up; this is done by one man hold- 
ing, in the seam upon the oakum, an iron, fixed in a 
handle, called the horse iron, and another driving upon it 
with a large mallet, called a beetle, that the oakum may 
be made as firm as possible and be below the outer sur- 
face of the plank. It is of importance, in order to give 
firmness to the caulking, and to prevent decay, that the 
threads be driven into the seam as far as possible, or 
driven home, and not choked, as is sometimes the case. 
The whole of the oakum driven should form a wedge 
and be what is called, well bottomed. 

Ott Fig. 44 are shown men engaged in caulking out- 
side planking seams of a vessel's bottom. 

Inside Planking of a Vessel 

Sq". Ceiling 

This is the name given to planking that covers inside 
of the frames of a vessel. It begins below clamps and 
covers the entire inside of frames from clamps to keel- 
son. 

On Figs. 28, 43 and 43a methods of fastening the 
ceiling are clearly shown and on Fig. 42a is shown 
present-day method of ceiling a vessel which I will now 
describe. 

Immediately next to keelson is laid the limber stroke, 
which is a strake of ceiling placed in such a position that 
by removing portions of it access to limber chains or 
watercourses can be obtained. (See Fig. 28.) 

Immediately next to limber strake begins the ceiling 




Fig. 44 

proper and this extends to just below turn of bilge where 
the bilge ceiling begins. The bilge ceiling is of thicker 
material than ceiling proper and extends up until curve 
of bilge is passed, when the thinner ceiling again begins 
and extends up to air course left directly under clamps. 
Ceiling extends from bow to stern, is put on in 
strakes that fit tightly against one another, and is se- 
curely fastened to frames and filling, some of the fasten- 
ings going through both frames and outside planking. 
On Fig. 43b is shown interior view of a vessel with 
bottom ceiling in place. 

8q'. Fastening the Planking 

It is necessary to describe the fastenings both outside 
and inside (ceiling) planking at one time because many 
of the fastenings go through outer plank, frame, and 
inner plank. Correct fastening of planking is essential 
for strength, and not only must the fastenings be ample 
in number and of proper size, but they must be properly 
located and driven. 

First I will call your attention to a most important 
detail of fastening frequently overlooked by shipbuilders 
of the present-day. 

All plank fastenings are driven through holes bored 
with an auger. Up to within the last year or so these 
fastening holes were bored with hand-operated augers, 
and the regulations for proper sizes of holes (based upon 
experience) stipulated that holes should be bored % inch 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



59 




Fig 43a. Laying Ceiling 

(for i-inch fastening) smaller than fastening. This in- 
sured that fastening would fit tightly into hole and hold 
properly after it was driven. This regulation for fiand- 
bored fastening holes is absolutely sound and correct, but 
when it is applied to machine-drilled holes it is incorrect 
and results in fastenings being loose and insecure. 

When a fastening hole is drilled with an auger at- 
tached to an air-driven tool the auger should be one or 
two sizes SMALLER than the one used for boring for 
same sized fastening by hand. The smaller size augei 
is necessary when a machine is used because the higher 
speed of rotation, coupled with the difficulty of holding 
auger perfectly vertical and steady, nearly always causes 
the hole to assume an oblong shape and to become slightly 
larger than size of auger. 

Whenever a fastening hole is to be bored with a ma- 
chine-operated auger use an auger one size smaller 
than is specified for hand-operated augers. 

Two kinds of fastenings are used for connecting 
planking to the frame; 2vood (called treenails) and 
metal (copper, composition metal, or iron), and the fasten- 
ings can be spaced either single, double, or alternate 
single and double. 

By single fastening is meant each strake having one 
fastening of each kind into each frame; by double fasten- 
ing is meant each strake having two fastenings of each 
kind into each frame, and by alternate fastening is meant 
each strake having one fastening of each kind in every 
other frame and t\Vb fastenings of each kind into each 
frame between single fastened frames. 

On Fig. 45 is shown sections of planking with single, 
double, and alternate fastenings through each strake. 
Before the advent of steel ships the larger wooden ves- 
sels were nearly always double fastened, medium-sized 
ones were double fastened above water and alternate 
fastened below, and the smaller ones were alternate 
fastened above water and single fastened below. This 



practice was an excellent one and with this modification 
should be followed in these days : Wherever fastenings 
of knees, clamps, shelf, pointers, or riders pass through 
frame and outer planking the planking fastenings should 
be only sufficient in number to draw planking to its posi- 
tion against frames. 

The reason for this modification is: The through 
fastenings of parts mentioned must have a clear' passage- 
way through frames and must have proper amount of 
solid wood surrounding them. If double fastenings of 
planking are driven in places where other fastenings must 
pass through, one of two things may happen, — either the 
additional fastenings will cut an excessive amount of 
wood from frames and thus weaken the frame, or else 
the fastenings of planking will interfere with knee and 
other additional fastenings. 

It is well to bear in mind this important fact — treenail 
fastenings resist transverse strains better than metal, but 
the metal will better resist direct separation strains. It 
therefore is apparent that a wise combination of the two 
kinds of fastenings is most desirable. 

As the inside planking (ceiling) is not laid at the 
same time that outside planking is a certain proportion 
of both outer and inner planking fastenings must be 
driven into frames only. 

The usual manner of fastening is somewhat along 
these lines : The outer planking is first fastened with a 
certain number of metal fastenings that pass through 




Fig. 13b. Edge Bolting Ceiling 



60 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Single Fantening. 



~^ I'-i M M n r-1 rn M M r^ i^- ^^ M M ''H 



:o :;o ', ',o :io :;o 



rjrfi^MAwnaijg 



^^^^ Iw^J Iv^ 1-^ twv^ t-vw^l U-v^ U/iA^ ^,^A4 l-wW U\^ ^J tw\J '"^ ^A^ 
X Dump * Bolt. 

Fig. 45. Planking Fastenings 



planking and into frames for about two-thirds of their 
depth, a certain number of treenail fastenings are then 
driven through outer planking and frames and wedged 
tight. These fastenings are only sufficient in number 
to securely hold planking in position until inner plank- 
ing (ceiling) is wrought. 

The ceiling is first fastened with a minimum number 
of short fastenings that only pass through ceiling and 
into frames. After ceiling is in place the planking fasten- 
ings that go through outer and inner planking and frame 
are put in, the metal ones being clenched and the wood 
ones wedged. 

To fasten butts through bolts, treenails and short 
welts are used. Butts are usually cut upon the middle 
of a timber and are fastened with one treenail and one 
short bolt through the butt of each plank into butt tim- 
ber (timber butt is cut on) and one through bolt, called 
a butt bolt, in timbers nearest to butt timber. 

On Fig. 46 is shown a properly cut and fastened butt 
and below the illustration are given rules for spacing 
butts. 

Now a few words about wedging treenails. 

After treenails are driven their ends are cut off flush 
and wedged with hardwood wedges, the wedges serving 
the double purpose of expanding ends of treenails and 
thus increasing resistance to separation of ^he two or 
three pieces of material that the treenails fasten together ; 
and of caulking the ends. 

Very large treenails used to be caulked with three 
wedges forming a triangle, and small ones with two 
wedges crossing each other at right angles,. but in these 
days the practice is to use the cross wedges on very large 
treenails and a single wedge on the smaller ones. Tree- 
nails must drive tight, meaning by this, be driven through 
holes that are somewhat smaller than the treenail. On 
Fig. 47 are shown a number of treenails ready to drive. 

8r. The Clamps 

The clamps are two or three thick planks extending 
the whole length of frame and located immediately under 
each tier of deck beams, their use being to help support 



deck beams and add strength to the structure along point 
of joining of a deck with side framing. 

In sailing vessels the deck beams very often rest 
directly upon clamps and are fastened to them and to 
frame of vessel with hanging knees. These knees are 
shown in outline on Fig. 28. 

In ships driven by steam and in many of the larger 
sailing crafts the clamps form a backing for shelf on 
which the deck beams rest. 

Each tier of beams has its clamps and shelf. (See 
Fig. 28.) 

The upper edge of each set of clamps is usually 
located at proper height to allow deck beams to be let 
in about one inch, or if it is not intended to let beams in, 
the upper edge is placed high enough for beams to have 
a full bearing. 

If maximum strength is desired clamps should be 
coaked to frames, each assemblage of clamps should be 
edge-bolted between timbers and butts should be scarphed ; 
the scarphs being sufficiently long to extend over and 
fasten to three frames. All scarphs should be properly 
edge-bolted. 

Clamps are usually first fastened to frames only, and 
after they are firmly set in their proper position addi- 
tional fastenings that go through outer planking, frame 
and clamp, are driven from outside and clenched on 
clamp. 

8r^. Air Course 

This is an opening left immediately under lowest 
clamp plank for the purpose of allowing air to circulate 
freely around the frames. (See Fig. 28.) 

8s. The Shelf 

This is the name given to a heavy continuous timber, 
or a combination of two or more timbers, that extends 
from bow to stern at each tier of deck beams and is 
fastened to inner face of upper clamps in a position that 
will allow deck beams to have a full width bearing on 
upper face of shelf. 

On Fig. 42a the shelf is shown in position under 
a deck beam. Shelf timbers are usually scarphed in the 
same manner that clamps are, and are securely fastened 
to clamps, frames and outer planking. 

The duty of a shelf is to resist strains tending to ex- 
tend the vessel, to support deck beams and form a secure 
base for securing them to. 

8s\ Shelf Fastenings 

Shelves are fastened in the same manner that clamps 
are and, in addition, they are fastened to clamps with 
metal fastenings driven through shelf and into at least 
two of the clamp timbers. (See Fig. 42a.) 

8t. Deck Beams 

Deck beams are horizontal timbers that extend across 
a vessel and support the decking. The ends of deck 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



6i 



} rs. ' r 



m 



Fig. 46. Butt Fastenings 

beams rest upon shelf and clamps and are strengthened 
by means of hanging knees (vertical knees), one end 
of which fastens to beams and the other to clamps, ceil- 
ing, and frames at side. In addition to these hanging 
knees a certain number of horizontal ones, called lodge 
knees, are fastened at designated positions throughout 
length of vessel. On Fig. 28 the vertical knees are 
shown in place, and on Fig. 27 is shown some lodge 
knees. 

Along center line of vessel the deck beams are sup- 
ported by pillars or stanchions that have their lower ends 
firmly resting on and secured to keelson and their upper 
ends secured to a longitudinal deck stringer and to the 
beams. Separate longitudinal stringers and stanchions 
are fitted between each tier of beams, and the stanchions 
of each tier are always located immediately over one 
another. Thus the whole center line of deck framing is 
supported and tied longitudinally and to the keel struc- 
ture. 

In some vessels the ends of stanchions are kneed to 
deck frames and to keelson, and in others they are secured 
with deck straps. (See Fig. 50 for method of using 
strap at upper end and knee at keelson.) 

Sometimes a system of supports and diagonal fore- 
and-aft bracing, or trussing, is used between orlop deck 
beams and keelson, and sometimes a fore-and-aft longi- 
tudinal bulkhead with openings through it, at stated in- 
tervals, extends from keelson to orlop deck beams. The 
supports above orlop deck are in both these methods of 
construction stanchions fitted as already described. 

In some steam-driven vessels longitudinal stringers 
are located in line with the outboard sides of hatch open- 
ings and practically form a part of hatch framing. In 
vessels constructed in this manner it is usual to place 
sister keelsons immediately below these side stringers and 
to erect stanchions between the sister keelsons and longi- 
tudinal stringers. 

In many cases it is necessary to join two or more 
pieces of timber together to form a deck beam. When 
this is done the beam is termed a two. or three-piece beam 
and the scarphing is done in one of the ways shown on 
Plate Vile. 

When laying out a scarph for a deck beam it is essen- 
tial that length of scarph be sufficient to insure that joint 
(scarph) has ample strength when fastenings are in 
place. 

Below I give a brief list of suitable dimensions for 
beam scarphs and fastenings of beams about 40 feet in 
length. 











Quart'd Deck 




Orlop Deck 


Lower Deck 


Upper Deck 


and Forec'tle 


Name 


Beams 


Beams 


Beams 


Beams 


Length of 










scarph 


8 feet 


7-8 ft. 


7—8 ft. 


8—7 ft. 


Depth of lip 


3 inches 


3 inches 


3 inches 


3 inches 


Bolts in lip 


2 of Ys" 


2 of Vi" 


2 of Yi" 


2 of Yi" 


Bolts in middle 


3 of i%" 


3 of i%" 


3 of I" 


3 of Ys" 


Through Ends 


4 of 1K2" 


4 of iVa" 


4 of lY," 


4 of iYa" 



8t\ Fastening the Knees and Deck Beams 

Deck beams are fastened to shelf with bolts that pass 
through beams into shelf and are riveted along under- 
side of shelf. 

The hanging knees are fitted to underside of beams 
and to side of vessel and fastened with through rivets 
driven at varying angles. On Fig. 50 knee fastenings are 
clearly shown. When designating parts of hanging knees 
the proper terms to use are: 

The Arm. — Meaning by this the end of knee fitted 
against beam. 

The Bady. — Meaning the portion of end of knee fitted 
against clamps. and side of vessel. 

Lodge or lodging knees usually have their arms fitted 
against side of beam and body fitted against clamp. The 
fastenings' of lodge knee arms are bolts that pass through 
arm of knee and beams, and of body bolts that pass 
through knee, clamp and frame. 

Fastenings of knees are designated as being either in- 
and-out, or fore-and-aft, depending upon whether they 
are driven through side of vessel or through the beam. 
Those used to fasten body of knee to side are termed 
in-and-out bolts and those used to fasten arm of knee to 
beams are termed fore-and-aft. 

There are usually from five to seven in-and-out bolts 




Fig. 17. Tieenalls Beady to Drive Into Ceiling Frame and Flanking 



62 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 

—ARRANGEMENT Of IRON STRAPPING — 




riAONSTRAP^W* 



SE.CTION SHOWlNSIRQWaTPapplMg 
VXWMPPEP ABOUND BILSE. *.BECU«F.B 

TOPi-ooR tiivipi.e:r 



Fig. 49. Diagonal Straps 



used in a hanging knee, each bolt being driven at an 
angle that will cause it to take the shortest distance be- 
tween knee and outside of planking. All but one or two 
of these bolts are driven from the outside and clenched 
on inside, and all in-and-out fastenings are driven, and 
knee secured to side of vessel, before the fore-and-aft 
fastenings are driven and secured. This is done to in- 
sure that knee fits snug against side of vessel. 

The fore-and-aft fastenings should consist of from 
three to five bolts passing through both knee and beam. 

The in-and-out bolts in lodging knees should never 
be fewer than one in each timber, and the knees should be 
sufficiently long to cross at least four timbers. If an ex- 
ceptionally strong job of work is desired the fore-and-aft 
bolt fastenings should be reinforced by using circular 
coaks. On Table VHP is entered the minimum number 
of pairs of hanging knees to use in vessels of named 
tonnage. Table VHP 

Number of Hanging Knees 





To Hold 


To Upper 




To Hold 


To Upper 




Beams 


Deck Beams 




Beams 


Deck Beams 


Tons 


Paira 


Pairs 


Tons 


Pairs 


Pairs 


150 


— 


4 


600 


10 


14 


200 


4 


6 


650 


10 


15 


250 


5 


7 


700 


II 


16 


300 


6 


8 


750 


II 


17 


350 


7 


9 


800 


12 


18 


400 


8 


10 


900 


13 


20 


450 


8 


II 


1000 


14 


22 


500 


9 


12 


1 100 


15 


24 


550 


9 


13 


1.150 


17 


26 



8t-. The Framing of Decks 

The framing of deck consists of athwartships beams, 
half -beams, longitudinal carlings and ledges. Dimensions 
of beams vary with their length. On Table VHP is given 
dimensions of beams, and method of framing is clearly 
shown on Figs. 27, 28, 42a and 50. 

In general one half-sized beam is placed between each 
two main beams except in spaces between beams that 
form the hatchways and around masts, where there are 
generally two half-beams placed between each two beams. 

All deck beams should be crowned, those of the upper 
decks having the greatest amount of crown. 

Deck beams are crowned because the crown causes 
water to quickly flow to the waterways, where it passes 
clear through the scuppers and in addition to this trans- 
verse strength is increased by crowning beams, especially 
if, as is sometimes done, the beams are crowned while 
being placed in position. 

It is advantageous to let ends of beams into shelf in 
the manner shown on Fig. 42a. 

8t^. Framing of a Hatchway 

Fig. 27 clearly illustrates the proper way to frame a 
hatchway of a medium-sized vessel. In larger vessels 
the center line longitudinal deck stringer mentioned in 
paragraph 8th extends longitudinally across hatchway 



WOODEN SHIPBUILDING 



6j 




Fig. 50. Construction Flan of Section of Steam Trawler by Cox & Stevens 



practically dividing it into two portions, and when the 
side longitudinal stringers are used they form a support 
for the coaming. 

Sf*. Framing of Mast Partners 

Mast partners is the name given to the framing 
around hole in deck through which mast passes. The 
framing must be strong and solid because it has to with- 
stand the strains of both mast and bitts that are generally 
placed close to a mast in sailing vessels. 

On Fig. 27 is shown the usual method of framing a 
mast partner of a sailing vessel. 

8t*. Framing of Decks Around Stem and Stern 

At stem the deck framing of each deck terminates in 
a solid block of wood, or a natural knee, called a breast- 
hook. This breasthook is securely fastened to stem and 
apron and to the clamps it rests against, the fastenings 



through clamps passing through knightheads, fra'me and 
planking. The tops of breasthooks are rounded to the 
same crown that has been given to deck beams. 

On Fig. 51 is shown details of forward deck framing 
and on Fig. 52 is shown some wood and steel knees used 
when framing a vessel. 

Around the stern it is necessary to have solid wood 
to receive the deck and fastening. If the vessel has a 
transom stern the upper transom is always shaped and 
rabbeted to receive ends of deck planks and their fasten- 
ings. If an elliptical stern the upper piece of stern fram- 
ing is shaped to receive deck ends and their fastenings. 
St". Framing of Decks under Deck Winches, Capstans 
and Anchor Engine 

It is always necessary to strengthen the deck frame 
at and around locations of deck winches, anchor windlass 
and capstans. This is done by filling in between the deck 



64 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



beams and supporting this tilling by bolting longitudinal 
planks to the deck beams it crosses. The filling and 
planks should extend some distance outside the space that 
will be occupied by deck windlass or other piece of equip- 
ment, and of course the filling must cover the entire 
space between under side of deck and upper surface of 
the supporting planks. The deck is laid on this filling 
and after deck is finished and caulked wood foundation 
timbers are fitted on deck, the upper surface of these being 
arranged to receive the holding down bolts of windlass 
or other piece of equipment. 

When the piece of equipment is very heavy supporting 
stanchions are added under the deck beams. 

8u. The Waterways 

The waterways are pieces of timber that rest on deck 
beams and fit in angle made by deck beams and side of 
vessel. Waterways extend from forward to after ends 
of each deck, are worked to the shape of inside of vessel 
and are securely fastened to deck beams and shelf or 
clamps beneath the beams ; they should be edge-bolted into 
frames. 

In some vessels filling-in pieces are fitted to fill the 
space between shelf and top of beams and from side of 
ship to where inner edge of waterway will be located. 
When this is done the waterways can be fastened to shelf 
between beams and thus additional strength is gained. 

Waterways are always made of thicker material than 
the deck, and scarphs of waterways should always be 
vertical, have nibbed ends, or be hooked, and be edge- 
bolted. 

On Fig. 28 is shown a detail of waterway construc- 





Fig. 61. Bow Framing 



Fig. 52 

tion and method of fastening, and on Figs. 26, 53, and 
54 waterways are shown fitted in place alongside frames. 
8u^. Lock or Thick Strokes 

These are strakes of decking that adjoin the water- 
ways. They are thicker than deck proper and are joggled 
over beams. This joggle is clearly shown on Fig. 42a. 
These strakes extend from bow to stem and are fastened 
vertically with two fastenings through every beam, and 
horizontally with one bolt in every second timber. (Note 
it is usual to leave room for these fastenings by omitting 
a fastening from every frame to which thick strakes will 
be fastened.) 
8u^. Decking 

The upper or main deck planking should be composed 
of clear straight-grained material put on in greatest 
obtainable lengths. Deck planks are usually worked fore- 
and-aft and the laying is begun at or near to center line 
of vessel. The ends of deck planks that butt against 
thick or lock strakes of waterways should be let into 
thick strake about 2 inches, thus eliminating a feather 
edge and giving a good seam for caulking. On Fig. 55 
the ends of deck planks are shown let into thick strake 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



05 




Fig. oS. Deck framing and Waterways 

of waterway. Deck planks are laid with seams for caulk- 
ing and are fastened to beams with at least two spikes 
into each beam. 

Butts are square cut on center of a beam and should 




be bolted. Rules for spacing butts of deck planks and 
caulking seams conform to those laid down for outer 
planking of frames. 

Table VHP 
Siding and Moulding of Beams 



Length of 


Hold Beams 


-• Deck 


Beams 


Beam 


Sided and Moulded at 


Sided and 


Moulded at 


Amidships 


Moulded Ends 


Moulded 


Ends 


Ft. 


In. In. 


In. 


In. 


10 




4/. 


3^ 


II 




5 


4 


12 




5'/4 


454 


13 




hA 


4/2 


'4 




5J4 


454 


15 


"i" m 


6% 


554 


i6 


8/2 7 


6/2 


S/2 


17 


m rA 


6J4 


5/2 


i8 


9^ iVa 


7 


554 


19 


9% 8 


7% 


6 


20 


10 syi 


7A 


(>y* 


21 


io'/4 8>4 


7J4 


6A 


22 


10^ 9 ■ 


8 


6/2 


23 


II 9^ 


^Va, 


6M 


24 


II J4 954 


8/2 


7 ^ 


25 


11V4 9% 


8/2 


yVA 


26 


12 10 


8^ 


7% 


27 


12^ 1054 


9 


7'A 


28 


I2l'i 10^ 


9 


7V^ 


29 


12^4 I0J4 


•9J4 


7H 


30 


13 II 


9/2 


8 


31 


i3'/4 ii'/4 


9/2 


8 


32 


1354 ii'/4 


9J4 


sVa 


33 


13^ 1 1/2 


10 


f4 


34 


14 11^ 


10 


81/2 


35 


I4'/4 12 


I0'4 


8/2 


36 


WA 1254 


10^ 


8/2 


37 


1434 12Vi 


10^ 


8)4 


38 


15 12^ 


loYi 


854 


39 


15^ 12^ 


I0'/4 


9 


40 


155^ 13 


10^ 


9 




Fig. 54. 



Showing Waterways in Main Deck Forward of Auxiliary 
Scbooner 



Fig. 55. Ends of Deck Let Into Waterways 



Chapter IX 

Building Slips and Launching Ways 



9a. Building Slip Foundation 

The ground upon which a vessel is built is termed 
the building slip, or berth, and the fixed timbers that 
carry vessel from building slip into the water are called 
launching ways. 

Both building slip and ways must have a firm founda- 
tion and be laid at proper inclinations; and one of the 
most important details in connection with laying out a 
shipyard is correct planning and construction of building 
slips and ways. 

The first essential is that the foundation be sufficiently 
solid to bear the maximum load that will have to be car- 
ried, and this solidity must be alike for the entire length 
and width of building slip and ways. 

The universally adopted and most practical method 
of getting the necessary solidity of foundation in a small 
shipyard is to drive a sufficient number of rows of piles 
into the ground at proper locations to support keel block- 
ing, ways and staging, spacing them as close as neces- 
sary to attain the desired end. The tops of the piles are 
then cut off at proper height and capped with timbers, 
placed at right angles to launching direction, extending 
sufficiently far out each side of keel position to cover 
keel and launching way piles and allow all bilge, bottom, 
and staging supports to be placed on them. 



When constructing a building slip of this kind the 
ground is leveled to some desirable inclination and piles 
driven and cut off to inclination selected for slip, then 
the athwartships caps are placed over piles and fastened 
and slip filled in with cinders, or other suitable material, 
to a proper height to make a good platform for the men 
working under vessel during construction. 

Very often the portion of shp from land end down to 
where stem of vessel will be when being built is filled 
in level with top of caps, then from this point to a little 
below the low-water level the slip is floored over for 
about three-quarters of its width. From the low-water 
level the slip extends into water a sufficient distance to 
give the required launching depth of water over ends of 
launching ways, this portion of slip consisting of rows of 
piles, to act as bearers for launching ways, cut off at 
proper inclination and height and capped longitudinally. 
Cross capping is not generally used here, because it is 
likely to interfere with launching of vessel. Fig. 56 
shows plan of such a building slip. 

9b. Inclination of Slip,' 

While the contour of ground upon which a building 
slip is placed, the length of ground available for the land 



.i'. 



o ,- 



yC 



'-■-^ ^' 



d ^ \ <•> -\r- O , 



- ''-fiSit 




Tig. 66 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



67 




Fig. 57. Steel and Concrete Building Slips, N. Y. Shipbuilding Comp any, Camden, N. J 



end of slip, depth of water at end of slipway, and width 
of channel available for free launching purposes, are 
things that must be carefully considered when selecting 
the most suitable inclination for building slip, the inclina- 
tion that keel will be laid at, and inclination of 
launching ways necessary to insure a successful launch- 
ing of the largest and smallest vessels likely to be built 
upon the slip must also be considered as a part of the 
problem. 

The nearer the longitudinal inclination of slip is to the 
average inclination of launching ways the better. An 
inclination of about 4° to the horizon seems to be ex- 
cellent for slips that are used for the construction of 
vessels of moderate tonnage and length. 

In reality the inclination of slip floor is a matter of 
minor importance so long as the inclination is one that 
will give a good working platform for men and permit 
proper shoring and securing of keel blocks and launch- 
ing ways. 

On slips constructed in manner described, the keel 

blocking and launching ways are set up for vessel and 

arranged at inclinations that are considered most suitable. 

A more costly kind of building slip is constructed in 

this manner: 



After the ground is piled in manner already explained 
the piles are cut off at, or near to, the average launching 
inclination and sufficiently low down to bring top of cap 
timbers a few inches below the desired level of build- 
ing slip floor. The cap timbers are then used as supports 
for a flooring which is laid, longitudinally, over that 
portion of slip, except its center where keel will come, 
that is above the low-water level. 

The longitudinal planking of slip floor that comes 
near places where launching ways will be laid is generally 
made out of much heavier material than floor proper 
and forms a permanent longitudinal stringer, or founda- 
tion, on which the launching ways can be laid. 

The portion of slip below low-water point is con- 
structed in manner already described. 

A still more costly and permanent style of building 
slip is one constructed on concrete foundations set on 
piles cut off some distance below the level of ground. 

Slips constructed in this manner are generally covered 
with a steel structure and fitted with traveling overhead 
crane for handling material used in the construction of 
vessels. 

Fig- 57 is an excellent illustration of a slip of this 
kind. 



68 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 







Thousands of Piles Are Driven Into the Marsh on Which to Build the Piers. The Picture on the Left Shows the Piling Tor Pier and That on 

the Bight Shows Pier Completed and Beady For Use 



In all cases when laying out a building slip it is very 
necessary to carefully plan for economical moving and 
placing of construction material in position on vessel. 

For a small shipyard one of the most economical 
methods of doing this is to lay rails on one or both 
sides of slip and from slip to places in yard where the 
material will be converted and got ready for erection. 
Then by using a traveling hoist of sufficient capacity the 
heaviest piece of material can be moved and lifted into 
position without having to use costly hand labor. If a 
method of this kind is used, level runways for the rails 
on which hoist will travel must be erected each side of 
slip and sufficient space allowed between adjacent slips 
to permit hoist to pass between the vessels and be 
properly operated. 

The number of piles required for a slip will vary 
with nature of ground and weight of vessel to be carried 
and should be carefully calculated before commencing 
work. 

9c. Information About Piles 

Piles are made from trunks of trees and should be 
straight and not less than 6 inches in diameter for light 
foundation or 9 inches for heavy ones. The woods 
generally used for piles in the Northern States are oak, 
spruce, hemlock, Norway pine, Georgia pine, and occa- 
sionally elm, gum and bass wood. In Southern States 
oak, Georgia pine and cypress is extensively used. While 
there does not appear to be much difference in the 
durability of these woods under water, oak makes the 
most satisfactory piles and next to it the ones made of the 
hardest wood. This is especially so if the ground is hard 
and driving is difficult. 

All piles should be cut from growing timber, should 
be butt cuts and only have bark peeled and knots trimmed. 
It is probably best to remove the bark though there is 
some difference of opinion on this point. The specified 
sizes are diameters at stated distance from ends, and 
length. Oak piles should be of either white, burr or post 



oaks; they should not have over 2 inches of sap wood and 
should be at least 9 inches in diameter at 6 feet from butt 
for piles less than 28 feet and 12 inches in diameter for 
piles 30 feet and over and the taper should be uniform 
and gradual from butt to top, the top being not less than 
five-eighths of greatest diameter. 

Norway and tamarack piles should not be less than 10 
inches diameter for a 30 foot, 14 inches for a 36 foot, 
and 16 inches for a 40 foot at butt. 

Cedar piles 30 feet long should not be less than 14 
inches in diameter at butt. 

Piles are prepared for driving by sawing ends square 
and pointing the lower end, or by capping the upper end 
and shoeing the lower should the hardness of ground and 
length of piles warrant doing this. 

In soft ground a square-ended pile seems to drive 
better and straighter than one that has been pointed. 

When driving into compact soil, such as gravel or stiff 
clay, the lower end of pile should be pointed and shod 
with iron. 

And in cases when the ground is so hard that pile 
drives less than 6 inches at each blow the head should be 
capped with a ring of iron to prevent its splitting. 

The usual method of driving piles is by a succession 
of blows given with a block of cast iron which slides up 
and down between long uprights mounted on a machine 
called a pile driver. The machine is moved over the 
place where pile is to be driven, the pile is placed under 
hammer, small end down, and held there while the machine 
lifts the weight (called the hammer) to required distance 
above pile and then lets it drop on pile. The hammer is 
raised by steam power and dropped by releasing a catch 
when it has reached tiie desired height. 

The weight of hammers used for driving piles for 
slipways is between 1,200 and 2,000 lb and the fall 
varies from 5 feet to 20 feet or over. 

When driving piles care must be taken to keep them 
plumb and to regulate the drop of hammer to suit nature 
of soil. When soil is mud penetration becomes small, the 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



6g 




The Ficturo on the Left Shows the Ground on Whi:h Shiyways Now Stand, 



That on the Right Shows the Shlpways Completed. 



fall should be lessened and blows given in rapid succes- 
sion. When a pile refuses to drive before it has reached 
the required depth it should be cut off and another pile 
driven close alongside. 

A pile that has been driven to a depth of 20 feet over 
and then refuses to move under several blows of the 
hammer falling about 15 feet can be considered satis- 
factory. 

The most reliable way to ascertain the carrying power 
of piles is by actual experiment with piles driven into 
the ground where the slip is to be built. This experi- 
ment can be made by driving about two piles a selected 
distance apart, connecting them together and building a 
rigid platform on top. Then by loading platform until 
the weight begins to sink piles further into the ground 
the maximum carrying weight per square foot of surface, 
or per pile, will be ascertained. This carrying weight 
must be in excess of the requirements. 

The carrying weight value of piling can be determined 
with a sufficient degree of accuracy for ordinary condi- 
tions by making use of this formula: 

2 W H 

Safe carrying load in pounds =^ 

S + I 
W = Weight of hammer in pounds. 
H ^= fall of hammer in feet. 

S = average penetration of pile in ground during 
last five blows. 

Assuming that a 1,000- lb hammer is used and that 
average penetration for last five blows is 6 inches and 
fall is 15 feet, the safe load for pile is 4,286 lb. 
2 X 1,000 X 15 30,000 

= = 4,286 lb. 

6+1 7 

This rule is a fairly accurate one to use when aver- 
age conditions pi'evail, but it must be recognized that 
nature of soil largely determines length of pile necessary. 
The following table of bearing value of piles in 
various kinds of soils will prove of value as a guide: 



Nature 
of Soil 



Length of 

Pile in 

Feet 



Average 
Penetration 
in In. Last 
Five Blows. 

Inches 



Load in 
Tons Pile 
Carried. 

Tons 

... 6 
... 7 

... 9 
. . .12 
. . .12 
...18 



Average Dia. 

in Inches 

Whole 

Length. 

Inches 

Mud 30 8 2 ... 

Soft earth 30 8 i!^... 

Soft clay 30 8 i ... 

Quicksand 30 8 ^2..- 

Firm earth 30 8 Yi- ■ ■ 

Sand 20 8 Solid. 

Gravel 15 8 Solid 18 

It is safe to say this : No pile should be less than 5 
inches in diameter at small end and 10 inches at large 
for 20 feet length of driving, or 12 inches for 30 feet, 
and no pile should be expected to carry more than 
18 tons, even under the best conditions of ground and 
location. 

Piles for foundations of building slips should not be 
spaced closer than 2 feet 6 inches. If spaced closer than 
this there is danger of the ground being broken up and 
holding power of adjacent piles lessened. A good plan 
is to use two, three, or four rows of piles under center 
of slip to act as supports for keel blocks; two, three, or 
four more closely spaced rows each side to form supports 
for launching ways, and additional intermediate and out- 
side piles if ground is soft and weight to be carried is 
excessive. 

Of course the cross caps will connect these rows of 
piles and make a level and evenly supported athwartships 
bearing surface for keel blocks and launching ways. 

The longitudinal spacing will depend somewhat upon 
weight to be carried and length of vessel that will be 
built on ship, but it should always be remembered that 
spacing must be sufficiently close to allow two cross caps 
to be used as supports for the lower pieces of each keel 
block in cases where blocking has to be sufficiently high 
to warrant cribbing it. 

9d. Length .^nd Width of Building Slips 

The length of that portion of the building slip that 
is above high-water mark should be at least one and a 
half times the length of longest vessel that will be con- 
structed on slip ; and there must always be sufficient dis- 



70 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Tig. 58. Three Wooden Ships , That Were Launched From the L. 
Shattuck, Inc., Yard at Portsmouth, N. H. 



H. 



tance between stern-post and water to allow vessel to 
attain a safe launching velocity before it reaches a depth 
of water sufficient to reduce speed to a point where the 
slightest obstruction might cause vessel to stick on ways. 
The distance that longitudinal underwater portion of slip 
extends out must be sufficient to give firm support to 
launching ways until vessel becomes water-borne, or 
"tips." Therefore determine launching draught of the 
largest vessel likely to be built on slip, and have the 
ends of slipway extend out a sufficient distance from 
shore to give more than the required depth of water 
when tipping occurs. The tipping can be considered to 
occur when the longitudinal center of vessel is over ends 
of way. Fig. 56 outer end of landing ways. 

The width of building slip must be sufficient to permit 
the building of the widest vessel, the erection of proper 
staging, and the handling of material on each side. 

Four important width measures must be selected. 

1st. — The width of blocking necessary to support keel. 

2d. — The width required for launching ways and dis- 
tance the center of ways will be out from center line of 
keel. 

3d. — The extreme width of slip necessary for erecting 
staging around vessel. 

4th. — The additional width required for handling 
material along sides of slip. 

The first can be considered to be about 4 feet, there- 
fore, piles should be sufficiently closely spaced through- 
out the whole length of slip, for 2 feet each side of its 
center line, to carry all the weight that must be supported 
on keel blocks during construction. 

Launching ways are generally placed about one-third 
extreme breadth of a vessel apart. So consider that one- 
sixth the width of widest vessel likely to be built on slip 
as distance that center of launching ways supporting 
piles must be out from center line of slip and have one 
line of piles driven along this line, two lines of piles out- 
side of it, and three or four lines inside of it. This wili 
give six or seven lines of piles for supporting launching 
ways and a sufficiently wide support to take care of 
ordinary variations of width of launching ways. 



Another View of the Shattuck-Bullt Ships and the Long Line of Building 
Ways at Fortsmonth, N. H. 

Fig. 3 going down the ways. 

The width necessary to erect staging around vessel 
should be added to extreme width of vessel, and the width 
required for handling material should be measured from 
outside of staging supports. 

Always leave ample room between adjacent slips for 
the operation of hoist and handling the largest pieces of 
material. 

9e. Inclination of Keel Blocking 

Keel blocking is the name given to the blocks upon 
which a vessel's keel is laid and weight of vessel carried 
until it is transferred to the launching ways immediately 
before launching. The height of keel blocks must be 
such that bottom of vessel's keel and frame will be suffi- 
ciently high above the ground of slip, or slip floor, for 
the workmen to do the necessary construction work, and 
the inclination relative to slip and launching ways must 
be such that the forefoot of vessel will clear the lower 
end of slip by at least 10 inches when vessel is being 
launched. Bear in mind that the inclination of top of 
keel blocks determines the inclination keel will have dur- 
ing launching, and that the keel of vessel does not have to 
be at the same inclination as launching ways or building 
slip floor. 

To determine the required height and inclination of 
keel blocks proceed in this manner: 

Lay out on a piece of drawing paper, to proper scale, 
lines to indicate correct length and inclination of slip 
floor and inclination that you intend the launching ways 
to have. Next mark points on these lines where fore- 
foot, midship section and stern-post of vessel will be 
located during construction. Tlie height that keel of 
vessel must be above ground to insure ample working 
space under vessel for the men who will do the construc- 
tion work must next be determined, and it is best to 
determine this height for the midship section position 
because that will be flattest and widest point of bottom 
of vessel. 

Having determined the height keel must be above 
slip floor at midship section, measure oflf this height on 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



71 



drawing, and also measure off at lower end of slip a 
distance of at least 10 inches above the floor of slip line. 
A line drawn through these two points will indicate 
the correct inclination for keel blocking measured in a 
straight line, and if the bottom of keel does not extend 




Fig. 59. 



Canibas. 10,000-Ton Freighter Launched From the Texas S. S. 
Company's Yard at Bath, Me. 



below this line you can be sure that there will be ample 
clearance above slip during launching. 

To insure that you understand this explanation I have 
drawn Fig. 60. 

On this illustration I show a longitudinal outline of 
vessel. The line B.L. is drawn horizontal and only for 
the purpose of insuring that inclined lines are marked at 
correct inclinations to the horizontal. 

The line S.S. indicates top of slip floor and is drawn 
at correct slip inclination. 

The line W.W. indicates inclination of launching ways 
and is drawn at their proper inclination and height rela- 
tive to line S.S. 

The line S.K.F. indicates selected height and inclina- 
tion of keel blocks, S being the location of stern, K the 
midship section position, and F the position of forefoot 
of vessel during construction. The line S.K.F. is con- 
tinued past end of launching ways and if it nowhere falls 
below the line W.W. and the line W.W. is nowhere 
nearer to S.S. than 10 inches, the forefoot of vessel will 
clear end of building slip when vessel is launched. By 



measuring from S.S. to S.K.F. at proper intervals height 
of keel blocks to a straight line can be ascertained. 

9f. Keel Blocking 

During construction the entire weight of a vessel is 
carried on a row of temporary building blocks placed 
immediately under keel at the proper inclination. These 
keel supporting blocks are generally placed about 4 feet 
apart, and each block is built of pieces of timber placed 
one on top of another until the desired height is obtained. 
When the vessel is not exceedingly heavy, or the keel 
blocks not excessively high each keel block can consist 
of pieces of timber placed on top of each other, the 
lowest one being placed immediately on a cross cap of 
slip foundation; but when the vessel is heavy or keel 
blocks have to be erected to a height that would make 



Sli^ fLoaa. 






g 



v^^\m 



m 



s^ 






'-'/y^m^J-' -~) 



rig. 61 

it difficult to keep single blocking in position, cribbing is 
resorted to and each keel block is placed on the center 
of a crib of timber resting on at least two of the cross 
timbers of the slip foundation and built up of pieces of 
timber laid alternately lengthways and athwartships. 
The whole structure of each keel block must be securely 
fastened together, and as all of the keel-supporting block- 
ing must be removed before vessel can be launched, the 
blocks or cribbing must be erected in such a manner that 
they can be removed from below the keel after the entire 
construction work is completed. 

Fig. 61 shows illustration of keel blocking set up on a 
building slip, a portion of the blocking being cribbed. 

9g. Launching Apparatus 

The launching apparatus may be divided into two 
principal parts — the launching ways and the cradle or 




Fig. 60 



72 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Keel Blocks Being Laid 

temporary framework which slides down the launching 
ways and supports vessel during its movement down the 
ways. The launching ways consist of two continuous 
runways of hard wood (oak, maple or hard pine), planed 
perfectly smooth and laid at such an inclination that 
vessel will move freely down the ways as soon as she 
is free to do so. If the inclination of lavmching ways 
is greater than inclination of building slip floor, the 
ways must be securely supported on blocking or cribbing 
placed on top of slip foundation timbers. Of course the 
launching ways must be securely fastened and shored 
to prevent them moving sideways or lengthways during 
launching. 

The determining factors for inclination are: 
1st. — The weight of vessel. The smaller the weight 
the greater the inclination should be. 

2d. — The speed in feet per second that vessel is 
wanted to move at during launching. The available width 
of channel and depth of water where vessel will take 
the water must be carefully considered and a launching 
speed selected that will be sufficiently great to insure that 



vessel will take water properly and not so great as to 
cause vessel to travel too great a distance after she is 
water-borne. 

In practice it has been found that one-half inch to 
a foot is a dangerously slow inclination for even the 
largest vessels. 

Five-eighths of an inch to the foot will give a moderate 
and easily controlled safe launching speed for vessels 
weighing between 800 and 1,200 tons. 

An inclination of three-quarters of an inch to a foot 
will give a good, safe, free launching speed for moderate 
weight vessel, or a speed that will be sufficient to insure 
freedom from danger of sticking, and if there is suffi- 
cient width of channel to allow this inclination it is an 
excellent one to select. 

Seven-eighths of an inch to a foot will deliver a vessel 
into the water at a high rate of travel and should not be 
used except in cases when it is necessary that vessel move 
very fast, or there is danger of the weight of vessel 
forcing the lubricating grease out from between the 
launching and sliding ways. 

The following particulars of launching speeds will 
prove of value as a guide: 



Table of Launching Data 



Length 

of Vessel 

in Feet 



Launching 
Weight 
in Tons 



Inclinittion 

of Launching 

Ways per Foot 

Inches 



Launching 
Speed Feet 
per Second 



.5/8 . 
.3/4 . 
.9/16. 
.5/8 . 

.5/8 . 
.9/16. 
.9/16. 



.12* 

• 15 

• IS 
.16 

• 17 
.16 
.18 



200 250 

225 350 

250 560 

275 675 

310 875 

32s 1,200 

350 1,800 

*Too slow. 

A velocity of 12 feet per second is very slow; one 
of about 15 feet per second is a good speed to use in 
cases where it is desired to control the launching or stop 
vessel gently; 16 to 18 feet per second is an excellent 
speed for use when width of launching channel is suffi- 
cient to allow vessel to move a little distance out before 
being stopped. 




Fig. 62 



Schooner O. A. SomervlUe, Designed by Cox & Stevens, 
Beady For Launching 



Schooner G. A. Somervllle Afloat 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



73 



Above 1 8 feet per second should not be used unless 
there is ample room for launching or it is necessary to 
have vessel move very swiftly down the ways. 

9h. Breadth of Surface of Launching Ways 

The width of surface of launching ways must always 
be proportioned to weight of vessel because the whole 
of launching weight of vessel must be carried on launch- 
ing ways, and if weight per unit of surface is too great 
the lubricating materials placed between launching and 
sliding ways will be forced out and vessel may stick on 
ways. 

The width of launching ways should be such that 
maximum pressure on each square foot of surface that 
is beneath the sliding ways does not exceed 2^ tons. 

Suppose, for instance, that launching weight of a 
certain vessel is 8oo tons, the length of launching cradle 
surface that will bear on ways is 200 feet, and we desire 
that pressure per square foot during launching does not 
exceed 2 tons. 

As there are two launching ways the weight each 
must support is 400 tons, and as length of each sliding 
way is 200 feet a surface of 2 feet is sufficient to carry 
the weight without exceeding the named pressure per 
square foot. 



gi. Distance to Placf. Launching Ways Apart 
A distance of about one-third the extreme breadth of 
vessel from center to center of ways, measured at their 
upper end, will give excellent results for vessels of ordi- 
nary form of cross section. The lower end of ways 
must be 2 or 3 inches further apart than the upper ends, 
this increase of distance being nece^ary to take care of 
the slight spreading of cradle that occurs when weight 
of vessel is transferred from keel blocks to cradle, and 
to insure that the cradle will move freely down the 
ways. 

In addition to this, the upper surfaces of the launch- 
ing ways should be inclined inwards about yi inch to a 
foot for the purpose of reducing the danger of ways 
being forced outwards when weight is transferred to 
them. 

When a vessel moves along the launching ways there 
is always a tendency to slide sideways, as well as towards 
the water, the side tendency being due to the outward 
pressure on bilge ways which is always present, though 
not dangerous unless it should happen that one of the 
launching ways is placed slightly higher than the other 
or the bilge blocking of cradle is not wedged up alike 
on both sides. Perfection in these matters cannot be 
obtained, so, by giving the ways a slight inclination of 
surface inward, and spreading them a little at the lower 




rig. 63. Launching of i Motoxshlp at the St. Helens Yards, Near Port ind, Ore. Another One Hundred and Fifty of These 3,000-Ton Vessels 

Have Been Ordered. They Are Fitted With Heavy-Oil Engines 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




q 10 II 

a lb ^ " - 
ends, danger from these two causes is reduced to a 
minimum. 

I will now illustrate and explain the launching appara- 
tus used when launching a moderately sized vessel stern 
first. 




Fig. 64 



Fig. 64 shows a cross section of launching apparatus 
placed in position under vessel. I have selected a section 
through one of the forward sections and show the vessel 
resting on cradle. 

Fig. 65 shows longitudinal view of same vessel and 
one side of cradle in position ready to wedge up. 

9J. Descriptive Explanation of Figs. 64 and 65 

No. I indicates top of slip floor (already described). 

No. 2 indicates supporting piles (already described). 

No. 3 indicates athwartships caps placed on piles 
(already described). 

No. 4, keel blocking upon which vessel rests during 
construction (already described). 

No. 5. Launching Ways placed in position for 
launching. 

No. 6. Launching Ribbands that run full length of 
launching ways to prevent the sliding, or bilge, ways 
from sliding sideways. These ribbands are strips of oak 
or hard wood bolted to launching ways. The butts of 
ribbands should not coincide with butts of launching 
ways. 



Fig. 65 



No. 7. Ribband Shores placed at frequent intervals 
along outside of launching ways. Their use is to hold 
launching ways in place and prevent the ribbands being 
torn off. Note that one end of shores rests partly 
against ribband and partly against launching w^y, and 
the other is firmly braced against side of slip or piles 
driven into ground for that purpose. 

The abovenamed pieces form the lower line of sup- 
ports and are the fixed portion of the launching apparatus. 

The upper, or movable, portion of the launching 
apparatus forms a cradle for the vessel to rest in and a 
carriage that will glide smoothly along the launching 
ways and convey vessel from the slip to the water. 

No. 8. Sliding, or Bilge, Ways. These are oak, or 
yellow pine logs that rest on launching ways. Two or 
more logs are required on each launching way, and the 
surface that rests on launching ways must be planed 
perfectly smooth, and ends of each log slightly rounded 
to prevent their catching in launching ways should there 
be a slight irregularity at any joint. The pieces of slid- 
ing ways butt against each other and are usually fastened 
together with rope, or chain lashings passed through 
holes bored in ends of each piece. The sliding ways 
form a base for the cradle upon which the whole weight 
of vessel is carried while being launched. The length 
and width of sliding ways must be such that pressure 
on their under surface does not exceed 2^^ tons per 
square foot. The sliding ways must be slightly longer 
than cradle and should not be less than three-quarters of 
the length of vessel. The lubricating material is placed 
between launching and bilge ways. Note that when ves- 
sel rests on cradle the outer edge of bilge ways does not 
bear hard against the launching ribbands. There is about 
^ inch between. 

No. 9. Sole Piece. Planks of hard wood that ex- 
tend from end to end of cradle to form a bearing sur- 
face for the large wedges that are used to raise vessel 
off keel blocks immediately before launching. The sole 
piece planks are fitted so that when their inner edge 
rests firmly upon the sliding ways the outer edge is 
about ^ inch open. This opening is for the purpose of 
giving a good bearing surface for the wedges. The sole 
piece planks are made the width sliding ways. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



75 




Fig. 66. 



Coyote, Wooden Ship Built by tlie Foundation Company. She Is 281 Ft. Long and Is the First of a Big Fleet Building at This 

Company's Plant on the Passaic Biver 



No. lo. Slices, or Large Wedges, placed between 
sliding ways and sole piece planks. 

No. II. Packing or Filling, that fills space from top 
of sole piece plank to bilge along the middle length of 
vessel. The quantity and length of this filling depends 
upon shape of vessel. This filling is the width of sole 
plank. 

No. 12. Poppets are upright pieces of timber placed 
abaft and before the packing. The packing extends for- 
ward and aft to points where the distance between bilge 
and sole plank becomes too great for the use of solid 
packing. From these points bilge of vessel is supported 
by means of logs of timber, called poppets, which are 
placed about 15 inches apart and stand upright or at a 
slight rake. The lower ends of poppets rest upon the 
sole planks and their upper ends against planks that are 
fitted snugly against the vessel's planking, and both ends 
of poppets are securely fastened to these planks and held 
in position by cleats, bolts and tenons. You will note 
that the extreme forward and after poppets stand at a 
rake. This helps to resist the upsetting tendency. 

No. 13. Poppet Ribbands. The poppets are held to- 
gether, fastened to the packing, and braced longitudinally 
by pieces of planks called poppet ribbands. One is gen- 
erally placed near bottom and one near top of poppets, 
though when poppets are short a single wide ribband is 
sufficient. The ribbands extend well onto the planking, 
are let into both filling and poppets and securely fastened 



with bolts, thus tying filling and poppets together and 
making one firm structure, longitudinally, of each side of 
cradle. 

No. 14. Poppet Chains, or Lashings. To prevent 
the upper ends of poppets working outwards when 
weight of vessel is transferred to cradle, chains are passed 
under the keel of vessel, one end of each chain being 
fastened to a poppet on one side of vessel and the other 
end fastened to corresponding poppet on the other side. 
The number and size of chains to use depends upon size 
and shape of vessel's underbody. The greater the dead- 
rise the greater the tendency will be for the hull to wedge 
cradle outwards and therefore the greater the number of 
chains required to keep cradle in place. For a vessel 
of moderate size with normal deadrise there should be 
at least two chains secured to forward poppets, two to 
ends of packing and two to the after poppets. Of course 
the chains must be brought up taut against under side of 
keel before they are fastened, and it is always advisable 
to place a piece of hardwood packing between chain and 
keel to prevent chain cutting into keel when strain is 
put on chains during launching. Very often it is advis- 
able to make one end of each chain fast with a removable 
pin extending above water, thus insuring that the chains 
can be quickly loosened and cradle separated should it be 
found difficult to remove cradle from under vessel after 
she is afloat. 

No. 15. Dog Shore. This is a shore that prevents the 



76 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 67. Chetopa Flnnging Into the Water, and Alcona Waiting For Her Turn 



sliding ways and cradle moving between the time vessel 
is raised off keel blocking and time of launching. This 
shore is placed at the upper end of ways, its lower end 
resting against the launching ribband (6) and its upper 
end against a cleat securely fastened to the side of sliding 
ways. The under side of the cleat that is fastened to 
bilge ways must be kept well above the top of launching 
ribband, because it must pass over and clear of ribband 
during launching. 

No. i6. Sole Piece Stops. These are pieces of hard 
wood bolted to sliding ways for the purpose of prevent- 
ing side and end movement of sole piece planks. The 
top of these stops must be a sufficient distance below top 
of sole piece plank to enable wedges to be driven. 

No. 17. Holes bored in ends of sliding ways to re- 
ceive ropes which are led on board to secure bilge ways 
when they float after vessel is launched. 

I will now briefly describe the preparations for launch- 
ing a vessel. 

The launching ways are first set in position and 
secured, then ribbands and ribband shores are placed 
and fastened. When placing launching ways it is well to 
bear in mind that if their upper surface is given a camber 
of about 2 inches per 100 feet of length the danger of 
vessel sticking, should ways settle, will be greatly 
lessened. 

Next the sliding ways, sole pieces, sole piece stops, 
packing, poppets and poppet ribbands are fitted in place, 
and poppet chains, lashings, wedges, and dog shores got 
ready. Everything is fitted and fastened properly, and 
ropes or chains for removing cradle from under vessel 



after she is afloat are led and arranged. For this purpose 
wire ropes or chain, of sufficient length to extend from 
upper end of building slip to the point in water where 
vessel will be fully water-borne, are fastened to upper 
ends of bilge ways, the other ends of ropes being fastened 
to an anchor or piles set into ground at upper end of slip. 

These ropes or chains are led inside of the sliding 
ways and stopped up out of the way with rope yam. 
As the ropes are only sufficiently long to allow cradle to 
move freely until vessel is water-borne, they will stop 
the cradle when that point is reached, and as the vessel 
can still continue to move she will leave the cradle and 
thus allow it to float clear. 

When everything is fitted and fastened properly, the 
cradle is removed from under vessel and sliding ways 
are turned bottom side up and clear of launching ways. 
The surfaces of launching ways and sliding ways are 
next thoroughly covered with tallow and soft soap; the 
tallow being to fill the pores of wood and give it a 
smooth surface, and the soft soap to lubricate the sur- 
face. Oil is added to the soap to insure more perfect 
lubrication. Several coats of hot tallow are applied, 
time being given to allow each coat to soak well into 
the wood. 

The sliding ways are next placed back in position and 
the exposed surfaces of launching ways covered with 
boards to protect the tallow and soap from dirt until 
time of launching arrives. 

The dog shores are next placed and secured and 
additional temporary stops placed against lower ends of 
ways. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



77 




Fig. 68. Lake Silver, at the Great Lakes Engineering Works at Ecorse, on the Ways Ready For Her Sideways Plunge 



Next the pieces of cradle are put back into position 
and refastened, and ends of wedges entered between sole 
plank and sliding ways and driven up until the cradle 
rests firmly against hull. 

The poppet chains and lashings are now placed and 
everything prepared for transferring the weight of vessel 
from keel blocking to cradle. 

The weight of vessel still rests upon the keel blocks 
and should rest there until immediately before the time 
set for launching, when gangs of men are arranged 
along each side of vessel, and at a given signal the wedges 
are driven home evenly and weight of vessel gently 
transferred from keel blocks to cradle. Every other 
keel block and bilge shore is first removed and blocking 
moved clear of keel, and when this has been done the 
wedges are again driven and the remainder of keel blocks 
and shores are taken down. 

The whole weight of vessel now rests on sliding ways 
and the vessel should be released as soon as possible, 
because if launching is delayed there is danger of the 
pressure due to vessel's weight forcing the tallow and 
soap out from between the ways and thus reducing its 
lubricating value. ' 

The temporary stops are removed immediately after 
the men are clear of the bottom of vessel, and then, by 
simply cutting or releasing the dog shore, vessel will be 
free to move by its own gravity toward the water. 

In all cases it is well to make provision for starting 
vessel, should she refuse to start immediately the dog 
shore is released. For this purpose air or hydraulic 
rams, jack screws, or balks of timber handled by gangs 



of men can be used. The most important thing to re- 
member is, never to delay a moment if vessel refuses to 
start, and to make sure that the rams, screws, or balks 
of timber are applied simultaneously and with equal force 
to each side of vessel. 

Of course proper provisions must be made for stop- 
ping vessel when she is afloat. This is usually done by 
means of drags, weights or anchors operated from on 
board the vessel. 

9k. Concluding Remarks 

In all cases it is necessary to insure that damage will 
not result to hull from excessive strains that occur dur- 
ing launching. The easiest way to do this is to place 
shoring inside of hull near the places where excessive 
strains are likely to arise. 

As vessel enters the water, the water that surrounds 
it exerts a supporting force that will lift stern clear of 
ways just as soon as the total buoyancy becomes greater 
than the total weight. If the length of ways is sufficient 
to support the whole length of cradle until buoyancy of 
water acting on immersed portion of hull is sufficient to 
lift vessel clear of cradle there will be no tipping moment, 
but the force of buoyancy will cause a great pressure on 
the fore poppets and portions of hull and ways that is 
nearest to them, and if the structure of poppets, hull 
and ways is not sufficiently strengthened at this point 
one of three things may happen : ' / 

Either the ways may spread out ; 

Or the fore poppets may collapse ; • 

Or the hull may be fqcced in and se^a 




Accoma, Wooden Ship Bnilt by tbe Foundation Company, Sliding Down the Ways Into the Passaic River 





Pig. 70. A Broadside Launching at the Ecorse Yard, Great Lakes 



WOODEN SHIP -BUILDING 



79 




Fig. 69. Launch of tlie Mezoil, a S.OOOTon Vessel, Built by the Alabama-New Orleans Transportation Company at Violet, La., For the Mexican 

Petroleum Company 



If, however, the ways are so short that the longitu- 
dinal C.G. of hull and cradle weight will pass beyond 
their ends before buoyancy is sufficient to cause a lifting 
moment in opposite direction, there will be a tipping mo- 
ment, and it is clear that the ends of launching ways will 
become a fulcrum, and if they are not sufficiently strong 
to support the strain and weight caused by tipping, the 
ways may give way or they may spread out. If the ways 
are able to stand the strain and the inclination of ways 
and depth of water is sufficient to allow vessel to sink 
deep into water before lifting, the bow of vessel may 
lift clear of cradle and immediately afterward the up 
force of buoyancy may be sufficiently strong to bring 
the bow down onto the launching ways with considerable 
force. So in this case also it is necessary to insure 
against damage to hull by placing internal shores and 



braces along the portion of hull that is near to fore 
poppets. 

9I. Bro.adside Launching 

In many yards on the Great Lakes vessels are con- 
structed with their keels parallel with water front and 
therefore it is necessary to launch sideways in place of 
endways as is usual along the coast. When a vessel has 
to be launched sideways or "broadside" ways are evenly 
distributed under the whole length of vessel and launch- 
ing cradle rests on these ways at right angles to their 
line of direction. 

On Fig. 68 launching ways and cradle is clearly 
shown and on Fig. 70 Lake Janet is shown just entering 
the water. 



Chapter X 

Building a Ship 



Having described each principal part of a vessel's 
construction, I will in this chapter describe the proper 
way to build a vessel in a modern shipyard. By building 
a vessel I mean management and supervision as well as 
the actual construction and equipment work. 

loa. Explanatory 

To become successful as a builder of wooden vessels 
one must have a t horou gh knowledge of ship construction, 
of what constitutes a fair day's labor and of material; 
and in addition to this, the ability to plan work ahead of 
requirements, and to manage and supervise men is of 
prime importance. It is not necessary that all of this 
knowledge and ability be possessed by one man but it is 
very necessary that the one or more men who direct 
work and manage the yard be fully competent in the 
things I have mentioned. It is an error to imagine that 
success in building a vessel largely depends upon the 
mechanic's ability to do work properly. Unless properly 
managed and someone with brains directs them, the most 
competent workmen are more likely to make a failure 
than less competent men managed and directed in a 
proper manner. 

So I will commence at the beginning and explain some 
of the fundamental essentials for success in ship-building. 
Ship-building is a business that calls for coordination of 
the work of men in many trades and the use of many 
different kinds of material. In addition to this, the build- 
ing of a ship covers a period of several months at least, 
and any failure, during this whole period, to have material 
on hand when required, to supervise and plan properly, 
or to have the proper number of men at work and work 
done in proper order, is very likely to cause delays and 
increase cost. 



For the purpose of this explanation I will suppose that 
a certain vessel owner desires to have a wooden vessel 
built. The owner can do one of two things. He can 
either go to a naval architect, explain his ideas and have 
a set of plans and specifications prepared and then get 
builders to submit prices for building the vessel in accord- 
ance with the architect's plans and specifications, and 
under his supervision, or he can go to a builder, or to 
several builders, and get him, or them, to submit prices 
for building the vessel from their own plans and specifi- 
cations and under the supervision of an inspector ap- 
pointed by the owner. 

It is a point of controversy as to which is the better 
method, but this much has been definitely settled — if is 
much less costly and more satisfactory if the vessel's plans 
and specifications are properly prepared and approved 
before construction li'ork is commenced. Therefore, even 
if the owner adopts the second method he should insist 
upon plans being prepared and specifications being prop- 
erly drawn up before work is commenced. 

Plans are for the purpose of conveying to workmen 
the owner's intentions as to shape, construction and finish, 
and by preparing all of the plans beforehand, it is possible 
to convey to the builder, his superintendents, his fore- 
men, and workmen, a clear picture of the whole building 
problem, and thus they learn, before work is commenced, 
what has to be done and the way it is intended it shall 
be done. 

In a book of this kind it will be out of place to enter 
into a long explanation of the preparation of plans, but 
as it is necessary that you understand what is meant by 
Plans and Specifications, I will briefly describe the plans 
and specifications prepared by naval architects. 




^•nininls Sblpballdlng Company's Plant at Portland, Ore. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



8i 



lob. Plans and Specifications Briefly Described 
A set of Plans and Specifications prepared by a naval 
architect generally consist of: 

(a) Lines drawing, or drawing to show the shape of 
vessel. This drawing shows profile, cross-section and 
half-breadth water-line, views of vessel's shape, and has 
attached to it a table of measurements, called Offset table, 
from which the mould loftsman can obtain measurements 
for "laying down" the lines full size. 

(b) Construction drawings, or drawings that show 
the designer's intentions regarding the way structure is to 
be fitted and fastened together. There are usually several 
construction drawings, each being devoted to illustrating 
some particular part of the structure. In general one 
drawing shows the longitudinal views of framing of keel, 
keelsons, frames, decks, etc. ; another shows transverse 
views of framing, another the general arrangement of 
cabins, another longitudinal and transverse views of the 
completed vessel, another the details of machinery and its 
piping, another the installation of sanitary piping, etc.; 
another the electrical wiring and installation, and another 
rigging, spars and details of fittings pertaining to them. 
Of course, each drawing is to scale and has marked on 
it sufficient measures and written explanations to enable 
the builder to fully understand the designer's intentions. 
It is impossible to write all necessary explanations and 
measurements on the plans, therefore, the designer always 
attaches to them a complete, clearly written explanation 
of every essential construction detail. This written ex- 
planation is called the Specifications. 

On Fig. 200 illustration is shown the lines drawing 
of a large schooner prepared by Crowninshield and on 
Fig. 201 is shown a number of the construction detail 
drawings of a large motor-driven vessel prepared by Cox 
& Stevens. 

An examination of these drawings will serve to ex- 
plain, more clearly than can be done in words, the proper 
way to prepare drawings of wooden vessels. 

Now, I will assume that the drawings have been pre- 
pared and contract signed for the construction of a 
wooden vessel of about 250 feet in length. 



The first and really one of the most important things 
the manager of yard should consider is whether the equip- 
ment of his plant is ample to enable vessel to be built at 
low cost and in the available time, and the next is the 
proper planning of supervision, of building methods, of 
methods for keeping track of costs and progress of work, 
of obtaining materials and workmen, and of financing the 
job from the day it is started until the day vessel is de- 
livered to owner and contract completed. 

Many present-day failures and shipyard difficulties 
can be traced to some mistake in planning, or neglect to 
give proper and careful consideration to management 
details. 

Assuming that the builder has the ways ready, and a 
certain amount of machinery and material on hand, he 
should, during the time the contract is being discussed, 
carefully consider these things and map out some definite 
plan of procedure to follow in case the contract is given 
to him. 

1st. — He should determine whether the machinery in 
his plant is sufficient to enable vessel to be built economi- 
cally and as rapidly as necessary. 

2d. — He should go over available facilities for re- 
ceiving material and handling it after it is received, and 
determine whether they are adecjuate. 

3d. — He should carefully estimate the approximate 
quantities of material required, the approximate dates for 
delivery, and it is also advantageous to find out tenta- 
tively, where materials can be obtained and their approxi- 
mate prices. 

4th.— He should ascertain whether methods of keep- 
ing track of materials, progress of work, and costs, are 
adequate and sufficiently simple to enable every employee 
to keep informed of the things he must know, and the 
things he is responsible for. Bear in mind that all these 
things should be considered before it is even certain that 
contract will be awarded. 

To the man who is used to doing work in a haphazard 
manner or without properly planning it beforehand it 
may seem wasteful of time to plan every detail before 




The Plant of the Tiarloi Shlpbnilding Company at Cornwells, Fa. 



82 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



work is commenced, but I can assure you that the most 
successful builders of wooden vessels are the men who 
carefully think out the whole building problem before 
beginning work. 

Before proceeding further, I will more fully explain 
the four items referred to above. 

(ist.) Machinery in Shipyard 

In these days, machinery is universally used in all 
modern shipyards, and the better and more complete the 
machinery equipment is the greater the speed of produc- 
tion and the lower cost will be. 

While machinery requirements of each yard will vary, 
it is safe to say that these machine tools are necessary in 
a modern shipyard used for the building of wooden 
vessels, and of course there must be ample power to drive 
the machines under the most adverse conditions of service. 
When figuring upon power requirements, do not make the 
mistake of underestimating. This is a common fault, 
due largely to the builders of the machines forgetting that 
the average shipyard woodworking machine tools must 
work on rough and heavy timbers and the mechanics 
running the tools are more likely to force them to the 
limit of speed and power than the mechanic handling a 
similar tool in a joiner shop. 

Here is a list of tools that are considered essential in 
a modern shipyard. I have listed them under three head- 
ings : Shipyard Proper, Joiner Shop, and General, and 
against each is marked the approximate amount of power 
required to drive under normal service conditions. 

Shipyard 

48" Band-saw, shipyard type with beveling arrangement. . 20 

38" Band resaw 10 

Automatic cut-off saw 15 

Self-feed circular rip saw 25 

Four-sided timber planer 45 

Double surfacer 17 



Beveling and edging raachine^Shipyard type 25 

Band-saw 38" ordinary type 10 

Rip-saw ordinary type 10 

Planer single surfacer 7 

Joiner Shop 184 

Band-saw 36" 10 

Small rip-saw 15 

Universal bench-saw 5 

Planer and matcher 25 

Joiner 10 

Four-sided moulder 20 

Buzz planer 5 

Single planer or surfacer 12 

Tenoner, Mortiser 20 

Sander 10 

Hollow chisel mortiser 4 

Chain mortiser 4 

Wood lathe, Saw sharpener and gummer. Band-saw setter 

and filer, Emery wheels. Grindstone 5 

General 145 

Air compressor, air coupling, air hose 

Air compressor, air piping, air hose 

Six go-tt) air hammers 

Two extra heavy air hammers 

Six air-driven wood boring machines 

Six electrical drills 

Fifty Hydraulic jacks of various sizes 

Power bolt cutter 10 

Hand bolt cutters 

Bolt header 10 

Two or more Hoisting Engines with wire cables, manila 

ropes, blocks and falls 

One or more Traveling Hoist with tracks laid to slipways 

and woodworking machine shops 

Shaving exhaust blower 35 to 50 

Portable forges 

Power punch 10 

Additional tools that can be advantageously used : 

Portable electrically driven timber planer 

Portable electrically driven deck planer 5 

Air-driven caulking tools for caulking decks 



<.-■ >*,^i:x:;s;s^ 




ThrM Wooden Cargo Carriers on tba Way* at the Yards of the St. Helens ShipbulldinK Co. at St. Helens, Oregon. The S. T. Allard Is in 

the Center and the City of St. Helens on the Left 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



83 




Fig. 71. A Squadron of Electric Carriers at the Yard of the Peninsula 

Shlphulldlng Company. These Handy Vehicles Are Wonders In 

the Way of Time-Savlng and Transportational Flexibility 

This list is merely a general one for the purpose of 
giving information about tools that should be available 
in a modern shipyard. The powers given are taken from 
actual installations of electrically driven tools installed 
in a modern shipyard. It should be remembered that, 
while it is only occasionally that more than 50% of the 
tools will be in operation at one time, it is not safe to 
assume that the total power required will ever fall below 
the actual total for all tools. As a modern shipyard is 
frequently called upon to do machine work on metals, a 
few metalworking machine tools should be installed. Be- 
low I give list of power required to drive modern metal- 
working machine tools : 

56" X 56" X 12' planer will require 20 

42" X 42" X 20' planer will require 15 

30" X 30" X 8' planer 10 

24" X 24" X 6' planer 5 

10' boring mill 20 

7' boring mill I5 

so" boring mill 7 

62" lathe 10 

48" lathe 5 

32" lathe 4 

24" lathe 3 

18" lathe 2 

5' radial drill 5 

Four spindle gang drill 7 

40" vertical drill 2 

Milling machine 3 

• No. 6 Niles bending rolls 35 

Double punch and sheers 10 

Angle sheers ( double) 10 

12" straightening rolls 15 

No. 4 punch 10 

No. 2 punch 5 

18" shaper 5 

Milling machine 3-5 

Grinding machine 3-6 

22' bending rolls driving 35 

lifting 10 

Regarding installation of machinery. Electrically 
driven tools are preferable to belt driven, especially in 



woodworking shops, and in all cases the location of tools 
should be chosen with a view to every tool being acces- 
sible and available for use without it being necessary to 
stop one tool to enable material to be properly handled 
at an adjacent one. In addition to this, every tool should 
be so located that the largest timbers can be machined and 
finished without excessive handling Being necessary. The 
entering end for rough timber should always be located 
nearest to receiving end of yard and exit end nearest, or 
in the direction of assembling and erecting end of yard. 

Labor-saving devices for handling timbers, such as 
portable rollers, tables, and cranes, should be available 
for use at every machine where heavy timbers will be 
handled. 

(2d.) Facilities for Handling Material 

If a shipbuilder attempts to handle material by hand 
he is almost certain to make a failure of the job because 
costs will be so high that it will become impossible for 
him to do business at a profit. About 1,250,000 feet of 
timber has to be handled three or more times during the 
construction of a 275-foot wooden vessel. First, from 
the vessel or cars, that delivers it to yard, to the assorting 
and piling locations ; second, from the timber piles to saw- 
mill ; third, in the sawmill, and then from sawmill to as- 
sembling and working platforms or stations, and from 
there to the vessel for erection in position. You can 
readily understand how labor cost will mount and delays 
occur when the handling and routing of material has not 
been properly thought out and planned beforehand. Here 
are a few suggestions that have proved of value: First, 
carefully consider the possible locations of receiving and 
storage points and select those which will enable the ma- 
terials to be handled the minimum number of times and 
routed from receiving point through sawmill to assembling 
point and from there to building slip in the most direct 
manner. 

The first sorting or grading of lumber for parts it 
can be best utilized for, and for quality, should be done at 
the receiving point when material is received. By doing 
this much confusion and unnecessary handling of material, 
after it is piled, will be avoided. 

Second, carefully consider how the materials can be 
best handled over every point of this routing and the 
means you will adopt for handling it. For handling tim- 
bers from a vessel's hold, or from a car, by lifting power- 
operated derrick booms are useful, or if the timbers have 
to be unloaded from a vessel through bow cargo ports, 
it may be that a large portion of the cargo can be most 
economically handled by means of a power-operated port- 
able winch and wire rope passed through ports, the tim- 
bers being hauled endways from vessel and onto timber 
trucks that will haul it to storage piles or sawmill. In 
either case it is very necessary that the conveyors used for 
moving timbers from vessel or car to its first stopping 
place be power-driven. Electrically driven timber trucks 
running on light steel rails or a traveling steam-driven 



84 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



hoist can be used advantageously, so also can auto tim- 
ber trucks. Bear in mind that this handling of material 
from vessel to the piling points requires, in a majority of 
cases, the handling of full loads. For the second han- 
dling from the piling points to the sawmill, lighter trucks 
can be utilized because in the majority of instances partial 
loads will be hauled and delivered from piles of material 
that has already been sorted for quality and dimensions. 
Light motor or electrically driven timber carriers are 
wonderful labor-savers for transporting material to saw- 
mills and from them to the assembling and erecting points. 
On Fig. 71 is shown some of these vehicles. 

For the actual handling of material in sawmill, there 
are many very satisfactory devices available, some being 
power driven and others calling for the use of manual 
labor while the piece of timber is actually being machined. 

For the handling of heavy straight materials through 
saws and beveling machines, the best kind of devices are 
those which operate by power and have both vertical and 
horizontal movement, capable of adjustment for speed, 
height and direction. For the less weighty materials, 
and for handling timber through band-saws, moulders and 
planers, plain rollers and tables that can be quickly ad- 
justed in position are best. When possible to do so, 
the materials should be handled direct from machine 
through which it passes, onto the truck or conveyance 
that will move it to assembling or erecting points. To 
allow material to be piled on floor of sawmill and then 
handled a second time from floor to truck or conveyor 
is wasteful of time and adds to expense, therefore a num- 




Flg. 72. Traveling Holsti uid Tracks In Shipyard 



ber of light trucks or conveyors is preferable to ones only 
adapted for carrying heavy loads. 

At the assembling platforms for frames at points 
where the heavier timbers will be shaped and fastened 
by the shipbuilders, and at the slipway where vessel is 
being erected, means should be provided for handling 
materials economically and rapidly, and I do not know 
of a better way to do this than by using light, portable 
steam-driven hoists or cranes that travel on rails. The 
rails can be laid along the most desirable routes and the 
hoists can pick up and move the finished pieces in the 
shortest possible time and with a minimum of hand 
labor. 

Hoists of the kind referred to are clearly shown in 
operation on tracks shown on Fig. 72. 

From this brief description you can readily understand 
the importance of carefully planning the handling and 
routing of materials as a means for reducing labor costs 
and speeding up production. 

I do not know of anything that looks more inefficient 
than to see a large number of workmen handling and haul- 
ing material by hand power, and the men assigned to do 
this kind of work are neither satisfied with their job or 
efficient workmen. In addition to this the sight of men 
moving along at low speed tends to slow up work of other 
and more efficient workmen. 

Before passing to my next explanation I want to 
emphasize this point : It is very necessary that after you 
have planned the method of handling and routing material 
you should take pains to make every foreman and work- 
man clearly understand your plan and the reason for hav- 
ing it, and of course the plan should be made as simple 
as possible because the simpler it is the more quickly the 
average workman will understand it. 

(3d.) Estimating Amounts of Materials Required 

Estimating, if done accurately, is a great saving of 
time and labor. By estimating, I mean determining 
quantities, kinds and dimensions of material needed for 
constructing and outfitting the entire vessel; and if the 
estimate is prepared in a proper manner and with a view 
to it being of greatest value, each piece of material should 
be listed. First, for kind, dimensions, quality and quan- 
tity, and second, in the order in which it is needed. The 
kind, dimensions, quantity and quality list is generally 
prepared by the estimator, and the order in which ma- 
terial is needed list under the immediate direction of 
superintendent, and on this list should be clearly stated 
the dates each piece of material should be in the ship- 
yard ready for use. 

I have generally found that if the second list is pre- 
pared with a view to using it in all departments for keep- 
ing track of available material, it will prove a valuable 
aid to checking materials and eliminating delays due to 
non-delivery of materials. How this is done can best 
be explained by describing the way one shipbuilding firm 
prepares the list and uses it to check the purchasing 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



85 



department's work and deliveries. In yard referred to a 
clerk, under the direction of superintendent, prepares a 
list of materials, on which is listed the quantities of ma- 
terials required for each principal part of vessel and the 
date each item should be in the yard. On this list there is 
placed against each item three blank spaces, or squares, 
onto which is pasted different colored pasters. When an 
item of material is ordered a blue paster is fastened in 
the first square opposite item, and on it is marked three 
dates — the first indicating date ordered, the second date 
delivery of material is promised, and the third a safe date 
when material .should be shipped for delivery on date 
promised. In second blank square, against an item a red 
paster is fastened whenever shipment date arrives and 
material has not been shipped. The safe date for ship- 
ment is usually several days ahead of actual date ship- 
ment must be made, thus allowing time for making in- 
quiries. In third blank Space, against each item is 
fastened a brown paster when materials are in yard 
ready for use. Thus by having a boy paste the neces- 
sary colors against each item at the beginning of each 
day, it is possible, at a glance, for each head of a depart- 
ment to see if materials are ordered, are shipped in time 
to insure delivery, or are in yard ready for use. This 
system is so simple that the smallest yard can use it and 
it is capable of being advantageously used in the largest 
yards. 

It is unwise and unsafe to try and build a vessel 
without using some system for keeping track of material 
that has been ordered, and the system should always be 
one that will enable the purchasing department and heads 
of construction to keep track of deliveries and require- 



ments, and the superintendent and men in charge to keep 
check on purchasing department and on materials in yard. 

(4th.) Methods of Keeping Track of Materials, Progress 
of Work, Etc. 

These should be adequate and sufficiently simple to 
enable the heads of departments to keep posted upon 
every detail of work progress. One" of the best methods 
to use in a small shipyard is the combined numeral and 
color method. Before work on a vessel is started a 
tabulated list of each principal part of the work is made 
out, each item is given a number, and against each item 
is left four blank columns, or spaces, similar to the ones 
left on estimating sheets. 

The heading of blank columns being: 

1st column— ^Material in yard. 
2d column— *Work on material started. 
3d column— •Assembling in ship started. 
.4th column— ^Assembling in ship finished. 

When list is prepared the superintendent enters in 
each blank space dates that he estimates it is necessary 
to have materials in yard, work started, assembling begun, 
and assembling finished. 

This list now becomes the yard's prime estimate for 
work completion, and track is kept of progress of work 
by pasting various colored pasters in the squares left 
against each item. When material is in yard a brown 
paster is fastened in first column, but if there is danger 
of material not being delivered in yard on date entered 
against any item, then a red paster is fastened in space. 
It is the same with each stage of progress as indicated 
by headings above columns. Should date when work on 




'^:^^^mi^^^ 




Fig. 72a. Meacham & Babcock's Wooden Shipyard at SeatUe. Four 3.500-Ton Sliips Under Construction 



86 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



any piece of material arrive, and work not be started, a 
red paster is fastened in the space and this remains until 
work is started, when its place is taken by a paster having 
one half blue and the other brown — the blue indicating 
that work was started late. Of course on each paster is 
written dates to indicate start and completion. Thus by 
looking at the itemized sheet, it is possible for anyone 
interested in keeping track of work to see at a glance 
just how work on the vessel is progressing. A line of 
brown pasters in fourth column will indicate that all 
work is finished, and if pasters are partly brown and 
partly blue they will indicate that while work is finished 
it was not finished on date estimated. 

I mentioned that each principal item or division of 
work is given a numeral. This serves the double pur- 
pose of enabling each part to be quickly traced through 
each department or stage of work and kept track o^ by 
marking its numeral on the piece, and it also enables 
workmen to indicate on their time cards (if cards are 
used), by using numbers, the pieces they have worked 
on during each day. This facilities cost-keeping. 

At the beginning of this chapter I mentioned Manage- 
ment and Supervision, so perhaps it will be advisable for 
me to explain my meaning of these things. 

IOC. Management and Supervision 

Proper and adequate yard management and supervi- 
sion of workmen and the work is very essential. The 
manager of a shipyard should have a sufficient knowledge 
of ship-building and management of men to plan every 
detail of the work of supervision, and his knowledge 
should be such that he can fairly judge whether his sub- 



ordinates are properly attending to their duties and the 
work is progressing at estimated rate. 

I am now referring only to the production manage- 
ment. I have found that the only way to keep proper 
track of progress of work and costs is to have reports 
made daily and to have each superintendent and fore- 
man meet at least once a week for discussion of the 
various problems that arise from time to time. No 
manager can achieve success by trying to run his yard 
as a one-man problem, or without sincerely cooperating 
with his assistants and keeping them fully informed of 
his plans and intentions. 

The manager of a yard should carefully plan each and 
every detail of management and supervision beforehand, 
and having planned should explain everything to his 
assistants and insist that the management plan be adhered 
to. 

Some of the daily records that will be found of 
value are: 

I. — Records of number of men at work in yard and 
on each job of work. 

2. — Records of foremen in charge of work on each 
job and number of men under each. 

3. — Records of daily production of work in yard and 
progress of work on each job. 

4. — Records of materials in yard and on order. 

5. — Records of amount of material erected and cost. 

6. — Daily averages of production, of cost per unit, 
and of cost compared with selling price. 

7. — Records of men available for work should it be 
necessary to increase force. 

8. — Records of wasted material, and mistakes made 
in the various departments. 




The S. T. Allard Beady For LanncUng 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



87 



In planning management details, I have found it ad- 
visable to let each department keep their own records 
and then to have their records used as a base to actually 
check ever}' item. The simpler records are, and the more 
direct the information they give is, the more valuable they 
will prove. 

The superintendents of work should not only know 
the manager's intention but they should also be kept in- 
formed 'as to progress of work and its actual cost. In- 
formation of this kind should come direct from the 
manager's office and should be in such form that it can 
be used by the superintendent to check his prime records 
and figures. It is very important that superintendents 
keep in close touch with foremen in charge of work and 
see that the essential orders of yard are obeyed. One 
record that will prove very valuable to a superintendent 
is a short one giving the number of men used for han- 
dling material by hand power, the amount of material so 
handled and reason why it is necessary to use men in- 
stead of machine power. 

Another record that is of great value is one con- 
taining suggestions for improvements. Every man in the 
employ of a firm should be encouraged to make sugges- 
tions, and if any suggestion is of sufficient value to 
warrant it being adopted the maker of the suggestion 
should receive an adequate reward. It is very necessary 
that superintendents take the time and trouble to instruct 
foremen and leading men in charge of work as to their 
duties and methods of increasing output. Very few fore- 
men have any fixed ideas regarding methods of directing 
men and laying out work; and for this reason every 
superintendent should help foreman to learn the best 
methods of directing the men and planning work. One 
very necessary essential is to see that every one in charge 
of work is kept posted on progress and cost, and if there 
is combined with this figures taken from a preliminary 
estimate of cost in labor for each principal part of the 
work, each foreman will know whether he is ahead or 
behind the schedule. I have always found it valuable to 
have this information given to each foreman at least 
once a week. Management and supervision of work is 
a comparatively easy matter for the man who knows how 
to use his brains. Many foremen and superintendents 
forget that a few moments of thought given to each 
problem will often expedite work and lessen cost. 

lod. Actual Construction Work 

I will now begin my explanation of actual construc- 
tion work. Immediately after plans are ready, or re- 
ceived, they are sent to the mould loft and laid down 
full size; the mould loftsmen and their assistants then 
make the necessary full-sized template and patterns for 
the builders. 

Laying down a vessel's lines is enlarging them to full 
size, and making full-sized templates is making full-sized 
patterns of parts of vessel and pieces of construction 



material that have to be shaped in the sawmill or by 
workmen. On Fig. 73 is shown some of the templates 
made and work done in a mould loft. 

The laying-down and template work required for the 
construction of a wooden vessel is about as follows : 

(a) Lines must be laid down full size and faired. 

(b) The shape of each frame of vessel must be laid 
down full size and templates of the various futtocks and 
floors made. 

(c) The construction details of keel, keelson, stem, 
stern and other principal parts of the structure must be 
laid down and templates must be made of the pieces. 

(d) Accurate bevels must be taken of every frame 
and of every necessary detail. 

(e) Essential details of joiner work must be laid 
down full size and templates of the details made or 
detail rods laid out. 

(f) From time to time during the actual construc- 
tion work, it will be found necessary to refer to the full- 
sized construction and detail plans, therefore, it is ad- 
visable to keep details on mould loft floor until con- 
struction has progressed sufficiently to insure that they 
will not be needed. 

Just as soon as the mould loft templates are made and 
full-sized framing details are ready the work of con- 
struction can begin. 

When constructing a vessel it is usual to begin work 
on keel, stem, stern and frames simultaneously and then 
as the work progresses, the other pieces of material are 
got out in their proper order and sufficiently ahead of 
requirements to insure that they will be ready when 
needed. 

In this description I will follow the usual construc- 
tion procedure and describe each principal part of the 
work in the order in which it is usually done. 

loe. Keel Blocks 
Arranging blocks to receive keel is really a part of 
the construction work. These blocks are set out at proper 




Fig. 73. Mould Loft Work 



88 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. li. Assembling a Frame 

intervals along center of building slip and they must be 
arranged correctly as to location and height. The essen- 
tial things to remember when arranging keel blocks is 
to have them sufficiently high at lowest keel block to 
enable workmen to work under vessel, and at the same 
time their inclination must be in accordance with plans, 
and correct for the inclination of building slip and launch- 
ing ways. In chapter on Launching Ways this is ex- 
plained more fully. 

lof. Keel 
This is the principal longitudinal timber of a vessel 
and is the first timber to put in position. It extends 
from stem to stern and is the timber upon which the 
whole structure is erected. The dimensions of keel, and 
in fact of every piece of timber in a vessel, is usually 
stated in Construction Specifications. In almost every 
instance dimensions selected are the ones stipulated in 
Lloyd's rules. In selecting keel material these rules 
should govern : 

(a) The material should be durable when immersed 
in water, should be in as long lengths as possible, and 
scarphs should be located in such positions that they will 
receive the maximum support from other pieces of timber. 

(b) Scarphs of keel should always be nibbed and^t 
is advantageous to use coaks in keel scarphs. 

(c) Fastenings of keel scarphs should always be Suffi- 
cient in number and of proper size. Never use a fewer 
number of fastenings than is called for by Lloyd's rules. 

(d) The material used for a keel should be well sea- 
soned and free from knots and defects that lessen 
strength. Sapwood should not appear on any keel tim- 
ber. 

When getting out keel timbers it is usuaj, to omit 
cutting rabbet at ends, because this portion of rabbet can 
always be more accurately- cut after stem and sti^ posts 
are in place. 

On Fig. 29 a keel is shown being set in position on 
building blocks. ^^ 

The location of every frame, obtained from mould 



loft floor drawing, must be clearly marked on keel, and 
the fastenings of keel scarphs should be located in posi- 
tions clear of all frame fastenings. In a modern ship- 
yard, keel timbers are obtained slightly larger than re- 
quired dimensions and run through a four-sided plane 
to smooth surfaces and reduce the timber to proper 
dimensions. 

The scarphs can be partly cut on a shipyard band- 
saw, providing proper carriers for the keel timbers are 
used, and the saw is installed in a position that will 
allow room for keel to swing to right and left. In all 
cases it will be found necessary to complete the fitting of 
keel scarph by hand, and it is always advisable to paint 
or treat the surface of scarphs before fastening them to- 
gether. After keel pieces are placed in position on blocks 
they are fastened together by driving the scarph bolts 
and then the keel is aligned and secured in position on 
blocks. It is very necessary to have keel timber abso- 
lutely straight from end to end. 

While keel timbers are being got ready, work on stem, 
stern, deadwood, keelson timbers, floors and frames is 
proceeding and just as soon as keel is set in position the 
frames, and then the stem, stern, deadwood and keel- 
sons can be erected and fastened. 

lOg. Getting Out the Frames 

The frames of a wooden vessel are always composed 
of several pieces of timber, sawed to required shape and 
fastened together to form the frame. The lowest piece 
of each frame, called the floor timber, fits across and is 
notched over keel, and each succeeding piece from keel 
up is named a futtock and has a numeral added to in- 
dicate location relative to keel. Thus the piece next the 
floor timber is termed the first futtock, the piece next 
above, the second futtock, and so on upwards until the 
last piece is reached. The last or upper piece of each 




Fig. 76. Assembling a Midslilp Frame 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



89 




Fig. 76. SettlnK Up a Frame 

frame is called the top timber. On Fig. 28 each futtock 
is indicated. 

The method of fastening futtocks together is by doub- 
ling, allowing their ends to lap, and then bolting the 
doubled pieces together. On Fig. 28 is shown the various 
joinings of the piece and bolts that fasten them together. 
Frames built up in this manner are called double because 
the material is doubled in thickness by the lapping of 
joints. Thus a 6-inch sided doubled frame is practically 
12 inches sided measure. 

The shape of each frame is obtained from full-sized 
mould loft drawing, the templates and bevels being used 
by the millmen when they saw the pieces of material to 
proper shape. In a modern shipyard each and every 
piece of a vessel's frame is accurately beveled and shaped, 
inside and outside, in the sawmill, and all that the ship 
carpenters have to do is to assemble the pieces and place 
cross spalls in position to prevent frame getting out of 
shape during the erection work. 

On Fig. 74 is shown some workmen assembling the 
pieces of a forward frame. Note the bevel of outer edge 
and how the bolt holes are being drilled at an inclination 
from perpendicular, also on Fig. 75 is shown a midship 
body frame being assembled on one of the assembling 
platforms. Note the cross spalls. In some shipyards 
frames are assembled on platforms located some distance 
from the vessel, and in others they are assembled just 
ahead or aft of a vessel and then moved to their proper 
location and erected. 

There seems to be a preference for beginning the 
erection of a vessel's frame at or near to amidships and 
then working both aft and forward. 

I will describe the work of erecting a framfe in posi- 
tion. 

A timber runway or platform is placed each side of 
keel at a proper height and distance from center of keel 
line to enable workmen to use platform or runways for 



working on. On Fig. 76 such, a runway is shown and 
on Fig. yy men are shown moving the platform timbers. 
A frame is moved to its location on keel and laid down 
on platform, then by means of a derrick it is hoisted up- 
right and placed in position. When in position on keel 
it is necessary to plumb and secure the frame against 
moving. This work is done in th'e following manner: 
On the upper cross spall a center line is marked and when 
frame is in position, but before it is secured to keel, a 
plumb is dropped from center mark on spall. If the 
point of plumb bob strikes center longitudinal line marked 
on top of keel it indicates that frame is set plumb in one 
direction (transversely). To find out whether frame is 
plumb in longitudinal direction, measure distance at keel 
between plumb bob and frame and also distance from 
cross spall to keel ; then, knowing the inclination that 
keel is set on keel blocks and these two measures, it is 
an easy matter to calculate whether frame is properly 
plumbed or not. Of course measurements at keel and 
cross spall must be made from the same edge of frame. 

When frame is plumbed it must be secured against 
movement by placing shores against it, and then it can 
be secured to keel by driving one of the frame to keel 
fastenings. 

Bear in mind that the majority of keelson fastenings 
go through frames into keel and serve to secure both 
keelson and frames to keel, therefore, as it is undesirable 
to bore a large number of fastenings holes through 
frames, only the minimum number of fastenings should 
be driven when frames are first erected. After the first 
frame is set in place, the other frames are placed in 
position, the men working towards both bow and stern 
and regulating each frame by making measurements to 



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WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



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riK. 77. Moving a Framing Platform 

prove that "room and space" between frames is correct 
and frames properly set and "horned". The usual 
method of proving that a frame is horizontally square 
with keel is to "horn" it, or prove its accuracy by measur- 
ing from a point on keel, some distance ahead (or aft) 
of frame being horned, out to sheer line marked on each 
side of top timber of frame. If the frame is set correctly 
the distance from point on keel to starboard top timber 
sheer line on a frame will be identically the same as the 
measure from same point to port top timber sheer line. 
Of course plumb bob can also be used to prove accuracy 
in a transverse direction. 

As each frame is erected and secured, it is shored and 
held in position by fastening it to the adjoining frame 
with short cleats, and after several frames are erected 
they are regulated, faired, and held in position by fasten- 
ing ribband battens near to bilge, to sheer, and along 
bottom. On Fig. 78 bilge ribband batten is shown shored 
in position. 

While the frames of middle body are being erected, 
other gangs of men can be putting forward and after 
deadwoods in place and erecting the stem and stern 
posts, so that by the time cant frames are ready to erect 
the deadwood will be in position to receive them. 

I have already explained that cant frames are erected 
at varying angles to the perpendicular and are located at 
and near to bow and stern. On Fig. 80 the forward 
cant frames are clearly shown. Cant frames are shaped, 
assembled, and erected in the same manner that the 
square frames are, but it is usual to use harpin ribbands 
forward for the purpose of holding forward cants in 
position while being fastened, and to run in some short 
stern ribband aft to hold after cants in position. 

Cant frames are generally mortised into deadwood 
and fastened to deadwood or stem, or stem by means of 
bolts that pass through frames, deadwood, stem, or stern. 

In large vessels strength is added to the bottom fram- 
ing by inserting filling frames between the regular tim- 



bers of the frame. If you will turn to plans of vessel 
shown on Fig. 205, you will note that there is an open 
space between each frame. This open space is filled with 
floors or short frames that extend from keel to about the 
turn of bilge, the purpose of these being to strengthen the 
bottom of vessel and prevent dirt accumulating in open 
spaces between frames. In the days before iron and steel 
were used for ship-building it was usual to have the filling 
frames extend well above turn of bilge, to fit and wedge 
them closely against frames and then to properly caulk 
all the seams between frames, thus making the whole 
bottom of a vessel absolutely watertight before the plank- 
ing was put on, and greatly adding to strength to resist 
hogging and sagging strains. In these days, however, 
the use of steel diagonal straps and arches has, to a large 
extent, done away with the necessity for using filling 
frames as a means for strengthening the structures of 
small and moderate sized vessel. Filling frames should 
be used in large vessels. 

loh. The Stem, Apron and Deadwood 

The shapes of these are obtained from mould loft, 
and by using the templates and bevels made in mould 
loft the various pieces of material can be properly shaped, 
beveled, and partially finished in sawmill. The stem is 
usually composed of several pieces of material fastened 
together with through bolts in the manner designated 
on plans. Stem is assembled, rabbeted to receive plank- 




FiK. 78. Erecting a Stem 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



91 




Fig. 79. Stem, Deadwood and Frame Set Up 

ing, then raised to its position, plumbed and properly 
fastened. 

Now a word about fastening the large timbers of a 
vessel such as keel, stem, deadwood, frame, etc. 

In a modern shipyard nearly all hand drilling for 
fastening has been replaced by air-operated machine drill- 
ing, and it is very necessary to remember that the old 
hand drilling for fastenings rules do not give satisfactory 
results if followed when holes are drilled by air-operated 
machines. With hand-operated augers the practice is to 
use an auger that is one-eighth smaller than fastening, 
and this rule is satisfactory because the hole bored by a 
hand-operated auger is never very much larger than the 
actual size of auger and, the metal used for fastening 



being slightly in excess of designated size, the fastening 
will drive tightly and hold securely. But when air- 
machine augers are used the high speed of rotation, com- 
bined with the difficulty of holding drilling machine per- 
fectly steady and the necessity for withdrawing auger a 
number of times while boring a hole for a long fastening, 
usually causes the auger to bore ah oblong hole that is 
materially larger than auger. It therefore is essential 
that a smaller size of auger be used when boring holes 
with an air-operated machine than is called for by the 
hand-operated auger requirements. I believe the size 
of auger should be not less than 3/16-inch under fasten- 
ing, and I have found it sometimes necessary to use an 
auger ^-inch smaller. Much depends upon the skill 
of operator and the care with which he withdraws and 
inserts auger while hole is being drilled. 

On Fig. 81 and Fig. 8ia air-operated augers are 
shown in operation. 

A fastening that will drive easily into its hole is 
worthless and aside from its insecurity is liable to leak. 
The old practice of having the fastening hole so small 
that fastening will head perfectly while driving is an ex- 
cellent one to follow and the old rule that required each 
fastening to drive not over J4 inch under each of the last 
six full blows is also a most excellent one to adhere to. 

Many present-day defects in wooden vessel construc- 
tion are due to insecurity of fastenings, through the 
holes into which they are inserted being too large. 




Hg. 80. Wooden SMp-Bulldlng on the Pacific Coast. Tie City of St. Helens In Frame at the Yard of the St. Helens, Ore.. Shipbuilding Company 



92 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



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Fig. 81. The Little David Pneumatic Boring Machine Makes Light Work 

of the Deep Holes Required in the Giant Keelsons. The Operator 

Has to Have Only a Straight Eve and a Steady Hand, For His 

Task Is Rut to Guide the Tool 



Continuing Remarks About Stem 

On Figs. 78 and 79 a stem is shown in position and on 
Fig- 36 is shown two construction details of forward 
deadwood and stem of wooden vessels. 

loi. Stern-Post and After De.adwood Construction 

The shape of stern-post, its deadwood, and the count- 
er timbers for stern is obtained from templates made in 
mould loft and, as in the case of stem and its deadwood, 
the various pieces of material are sawed into shape and 
partly fashioned in the sawmill. The erection of stern- 
post and its adjoining timbers is done in this manner : 
First the stern-post and its knee is plumbed and secured in 
place and then the deadwood and counter timbers are 
placed in position and fastened. On Fig. 37 is shown the 
construction details of stern of a vessel and on Fig. 82 is 
shown photographs of stern-post framing. After stem 
and stern with their deadwoods are erected the cutting 
of rabbet is completed and then the whole frame is proved 
and regulated. 

Fig. 90 shows a vessel in frame ready for planking. 

loj. The Keelson Construction 

While the stem and stern-post are being erected and 
fastened, the lower keelson timbers should be got ready 
to fasten in place and just as soon as the frame is prop- 
erly erected and faired, the keelsons can be fastened in 
place. Keelson timbers are generally got out in sawmill 
in the same manner that keel timbers are got out, and 
scarphs should be nibbed ones. It is advantageous to 
coak all keelson scarphs. 

When laying out locations of keelson scarphs, it is 



essential to locate them in positions that are not too close 
to keel scarphs and to make scarphs extend over at least 
three frames. In addition to this scarphs of the rider 
keelson should be widely separated from those of keelson 
proper. 

It is advantageous to let keelson into floors for about 
one inch, because by doing this the keelson obtains a 
firmer base to rest upon and is strengthened against side 
movement. 

On illustrations Nos. 201, 202, 205, 206, 212 are 
shown details of three kinds of keelson construction. 

Fig. 201 shows the most advanced type of construc- 
tion, consisting of a combination of steel and wood ar- 
ranged in such a manner that the maximum of resistance 
against longitudinal strains is obtained with a minimum 
weight of material. 

The Fig. 201 keelson as you will note is a built-up / 
beam having its lower members secured to floors and its 
upper member fastened to steel plating that rests on, and 
is fastened to the ceiling of floor. The pieces of ceiling 
next to keelson fit against and edge-bolt through the 
steel plate web, thus tying the whole structure together. 
On Fig. 84 is shown another type of steel keelson con- 
struction, consisting of a top steel plate riveted to built- 
up side members composed of angles and plates. On Fig. 
84a cross-section details of a keelson of this kind are 
shown. The keelson construction shown on Fig. 202 
cross-section view is an all-wood keelson composed of 
three lower and three upper pieces of timber securely 
fastened together and to the floors of vessel. You will 
note by referring to the longitudinal view that both the 
upper and lower center keelson timbers extend from bow 
to stern and are properly scarphed into and securely 
fastened to deadwood forward and extend aft to form a 
portion of after deadwood. It is most important to have 
keelsons extend the whole length of a vessel and fasten 
them to forward and after deadwoods in such a manner 




Courtesy of IngersoU-Rand Company 

Fig. 81a. The Pneumatic Drift Bolt Driver Hammering Home a Long 

1>4-In. Bolt Through a Deck Ream and Its Supporting Sturdy 

Sill. The Bolt Disappears Into Its Hole With 

Astonishing Rapidity 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



93 



that there will not be any weakness of structure at points 
of termination of keelsons. 

On Figs. 205 and 206 are shown longitudinal views of 
large vessel keelson construction similar to the one shown 
on Fig. 202. In this construction the keelsons are com- 
posed of three tiers of timbers, instead of the two shown 
on Fig. 202, and you will note that the two lower tiers 
are put in place before stemson and after deadwood is, 
and that-the upper tier of timbers rests on and is fastened 
to stemson forward and deadwood aft. On Figs. 36 and 
37 are shown details of another method of scarphing 
upper piece of keelson to stemson and deadwood. 

On Fig. 212 is shown cross-section and longitudinal 
views of another type of wood keelson construction suit- 
able for a large vessel. This construction is composed 
of two lower tiers of timbers each of which is composed 
of three members edge-bolted together as well as being 
fastened securely to the floors. On top of these is 
fastened three additional tiers of timbers each being 
composed of one timber. Thus the whole keelson makes 
a solid structure of an inverted T shape all members of 
which extend from stem to stern. Under hatch openings 
it is usual to secure an additional short piece of timber 
on top of keelson and then cover the portion of keelson 
under opening with steel plates, for the purpose of pro- 
tecting it against damage when loading and unloading 
cargo. 

The essentials in keelson construction are : 

(a) To have the keelson sufficiently deep to with- 



stand longitudinal strains tending to hog or sag the 
whole structure. 

(b) To fasten keelson securely to keel frame, stem- 
son and to after deadwood, thus making keelson and all 
parts mentioned above one longitudinal member of the 
ship's structure, and at the same time adding strength to 
transverse members of structure. * 

loj'. Other Methods of Keelson Construction 

In some of the larger sailing vessels now being con- 
structed the keelson structure, in place of being straight 
on top, as shown on Fig. 212, is formed in the shape of an 
arch. In a keelson of this kind the three lower tiers of 
timber extend from stem to stern in manner shown on 
Fig. 212, and after these are secured an arch is built up 
on top of keelson by forming several timbers and bend- 
ing them in place on top of the lower tiers. Each suc- 
ceeding timber of the arch is longer than the one below, 
and the last, or upper, timber reaches to the stemson 
forward and deadwood aft, and is scarphed to these struc- 
tures. On Fig. 85 is shown details of this kind of keel- 
son construction. 

One objection to this kind of keelson construction is 
the large amount of material required for its construction, 
and another is the weakness at point of junction of for- 
ward end of arch with stemson. 

This arch construction is a development of the center 
line longitudinal bulkhead construction that has been tried 
out in several vessels. 




Pig. 82. Setting Up the Stern 



94 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Tig. 84. Steel Keelson 

I will now describe and illustrate the most advanced 
development of the arch type of keelson. 

On Fig. 86 is shown details of a longitudinal trussed 
keelson composed of wood and steel. Keelson of this 
kind has the advantage of possessing the maximum of 
strength with a minimum weight. Of course the mem- 
bers must be properly fitted and the whole structure se- 
curely fastened to keel, frame, stemson and stern framing. 
For a structure of this kind it is advantageous to revert 
to old timber bridge construction methods and use steel 
tie-rods and straps, details of a number of which are 
shown on Fig. 86a. 

Another advanced development of keelson construc- 
tion is an all-steel trussed keelson to which hold stan- 
chions deck beams and transverse framing are secured 
as well as the longitudinal members of the ship's struc- 
ture. This type of keelson construction is shown on Fig. 
87 and possesses many advantages over the wood keelson 
for large sailing vessel construction. 

Still another development is the reinforced concrete 
keelson. Deep keelson construction of the types referred 
to above are not suitable for vessels in which machinery 



is installed unless the top of machinery foundation is 
located sufificiently high to allow keelson to pass below 
engines and boilers without reduction of its height above 
keel. In the case of the steel trussed keelson the trussing 
along machinery foundation space can be arranged 'to 
allow machinery foundation timbers to be fastened to and 
strengthened by the keelson structure, and in one instance 
as keelson approaches the machinery space it is divided 
into two members which pass each side of machinery 
foundation space at a proper distance to allow the steel 
foundation to be members fitted between the two keel- 
son members. 

Details of this kind of construction are shown on Fig. 
43b. 

lok. Steel Strapping of Frame 

When frame is regulated it is faired inside and out- 
side by dubbing off irregularities and then, if steel 
diagonal straps or arch straps are to be used, they are 
fitted and fastened in place. 

In all vessels built of wood there is a continual ten- 
dency for the longitudinal members of structure to alter 
their shape and, especially in large vessels, no amount of 
additional wood material is capable of resisting this ten- 
dency to alter longitudinal shape as efficiently as steel 
straps will. It, therefore, has become usual to insert 
steel diagonal straps outside the frames of all wood ves- 
sels, and in larger ones these are supplemented by steel 
arch straps fastened inside or outside the frames. 

Method of crossing diagonal straps outside of frames 
is shown on Fig. 49 and on Fig. 88 is shown details of 
method of fastening straps to frames, at crossing points 
and to longitudinal sheer strap. 

Fig. 25 also shows steel diagonal strap locations 
marked by dotted lines, and on Table 3 A (page 21) is 
given dimensions of steel straps used on vessels of named 
sizes. 

Section 39, Lloyd's rules, specifies that proportion of 
breadth to length and depth to length shall regulate the 



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Motoishlp James Tlmpsou, Built by the O. M. Standlfer Construction Company at Portland, Ore. 

Designed by Coz b Stevens 



A Correctly-Sbaped Elliptical Stern 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



95 



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KEEL 



number of straps, that tonnage shall regulate the dimen- 
sions of straps, that lower ends of straps must reach to, 
at least, halfway between long floor heads and first fut- 
tocks and upper ends to upper tier of beams. All straps 
must be let in flush with outside edge of frames by re- 
moving a proper depth and width of wood from each 
frame at point where strap crosses. The steel strap arch 
is also let in and fastened to every frame it crosses. 
This arch should begin at stemson forward, rise in a fair 
sweep until it reaches the upper deck line near to the 
midship section, and from this point it should drop in a 
fair sweep until it reaches after deadwood a short dis- 
tance ahead of stern-post. 

You can readily understand that a vessel strapped 
with both diagonal and arch straps has a greater power 
of resistance against longitudinal strains than one con- 
structed in the old manner with caulked filling timbers for 
its entire length and a large number of wooden riders or 
iron. It is very essential to have tension of every strap 
as nearly alike as possible and to have all strap fasten- 
ings properly driven into frames. 

When straps are let into frames and fastened the work 
of planking can begin, and at the same time the ceiling, 
the deck beams and pieces that compose the deck fram- 
ing can be got ready. 

lol. Planking 

I have explained in Chapter VIII that planking 
is the name given to outside covering of frame, and 



that it is put on in planks called strakes, that run in fair 
curves from bow to stern. For thickness of planking to 
use see Tables given in Chapter III (page 21), and I 
also refer you to cross-sections of plans Nos. 201, 202, 
212, 213, on which are clearly marked the general dimen- 
sions of planking at various points from keel to sheer. 
When planking a vessel the garboarcf is the first plank to 
fit and fasten in place. 

loP. Laying a Garboard 

As the lower edge of garboard must fit snugly into the 
rabbet of keel it is necessary that the rabbet cut along 
keel, stem, deadwood and stern be properly faired before 
a garboard can be laid. The ship-carpenters usually fair 
this rabbet before taking measurements for garboard 
(called spiling), and when rabbet is fair garboard meas- 
urements are taken, a template made, if it is necessary 
to do so, and garboard planks got out to shape and fitted 
in place. 

The width of available material usually determines 
the width that garboard will be at its widest point, and as 
it is essential that width of garboard and of all planking 
strakes be properly proportioned from end to end, it is 
advisable that width marks for each plank be laid off at 
several frames before any planking is got out. This is 
done by carefully measuring from rabbet of keel to sheer 
around outside of midship frame and dividing this meas- 
urement by the number of strakes the plans specify 
that vessel's planking shall consist of. The widths of 
strakes at midship section are very often given on cross- 
section plan of vessel's construction (see Fig. 202, cross- 
section) and may vary at diflferent points, but the essen- 
tial thing to remember when laying out planking marks 
is to have the proper number of strakes at midship 
(widest) section. The planking marks are scribed across 
outside face of midship frame and when this has been 
done each line indicates where upper edge of each strake 
of planking must reach to at midship section. 

When midship section planking lines have been laid 
out measurements are taken around several frames located 
at equal intervals between midship, stem and stern, care 
being taken to have the same number of marks on all 
frames (except in cases where a strake of planking termi- 
nates before it reaches one of the marked frames). 
Thus when the selected frames have been measured and 




ng. 86. Arcbed Wood Keelson 



96 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



plank marks scribed across their outside faces, a series 
of lines appear on the outside of frames and each line 
indicates where a seam of planking will be located. 

Some shipbuilders make a practice of going still 
further and by means of battens and chalk lines they run 
each plank line and, when they have proved its accuracy, 
scribe it across the outside face of every frame. This 
is a most excellent plan and will sometimes enable greater 
planking speed to be made, because planking can be spiled 
well ahead of planking gang's requirements. 

To take the shape, or "spiling" for a plank all that is 
necessary is to tack a thin plank of material (about ^- 
inch thick), that is sufficiently wide to prevent its bend- 
ing edgeways, along the outside of frames and as near 
as possible to position where plank will fill. For gar- 
board this thin plank would be fastened with its lower 
edge an inch or so out from rabbet, then the ship-carpenter 
sets a pair of dividers to a width that will allow one point 
of dividers to rest against rabbet of keel and other point 
on pattern material, and without changing set of dividers 
he marks a series of points along the pattern material, 
always holding one point of dividers against rabbet of 
keel and marking point on material with other. Frame 
numbers, the width of plank at each frame, and setting 
of dividers, are marked on pattern material, before taking 
it to sawmill, for use when getting out the plank. Width 
of planking measure referred to is obtained by measuring 
distance from keel rabbet out to mark, on outside of 
frames, that indicates line upper edge of plank will 
follow. 

Of course a bevel board, on which is marked bevels 
that lower edge of plank should have, must accompany 
plank spiling batten. The bevels for lower edge of plank 
are obtained by placing an adjustable bevel along frame 
and adjusting it to fit properly against bevel of rabbet in 
manner shown on Fig. 89. Planking is usually marked out 
in the sawmill, and if bevels are indicated by degrees at 
each point the planks can be sawed to shape with properly 
beveled edges by using an adjustable beveling shipyard 
saw or one of the modern shipyard adjustable beveling 
heads. 

When garboard plank is shaped, its edges are finished 
by hand and then it is placed in the steam-box, well 
steamed to permit it to be bent readily in place, and then 



^•rr^M Pos^ 



hung in position, bent to fit snugly against the frames and 
secured by means of fastenings, wedges, jackscrews, and 
planking clamps. All of the wedges, screws, and clamps 
are allowed to remain in position until plank is "set" and 
fastenings are driven. 

Garboard strakes should have vertical scarphs all of 
which should be some distance, longitudinally, from keel 
and keelson scarphs, and at least three frame spaces 
away from any mast step. Scarphs of garboards must 
be edge-bolted to keel. 

Regarding the fastening of garboards. Garboards are 
fastened with at least one QJHc/j-bolt, or bolt riveted on 
washer, through every second frame timber in addition to 
the usual double treenail fastenings laid down in building 
rules. If a garboard strake is over 4 inches in thickness 
it must be edge-bolted to keel in every second frame space, 
and if the garboard is over 7 inches in thickness a second 
(garboard) strake, i or ij,-^ inch less thickness than first 
garboard, must be used, and this strake must be edge- 
bolted to first garboard in each alternate frame space. In 
large wooden vessels a third and sometimes a fourth gar- 
board strake is used. 

In all cases the excess thickness over and above that 
of bottom planking, that shows along edge of garboard 
strakes, is "dubbed off" even with bottom planking at 
stem and stern, and sometimes for the whole length of 
garboard. On Figs. 202 and 212 the garboard is "dubbed 
oflf" for its full length and on Fig. 213 is "dubbed oflF" at 
bow and stern only. Note difiference in appearance of 
edges on midship section views. 

10I-. Sheer Strake Wales and Other Planking 

The plank that follows sheer line of a vessel, named 
the sheer plank, is usually got out and fitted in place at 
same time that garboard is being fitted. The "spiling" 
is taken in the same manner as for garboard. Bear in 
mind that, as covering board (on deck) extends to out- 
side of planking, the upper edge of sheer plank must be 
beveled to same crown that deck frame has. 

The butts of sheer plank should be nibbed scarphs 
edge-bolted in manner shown on Fig. 43. 

On Fig. 90 is shown a vessel framed and ready for 
sheer strake, and on the ground alongside of vessel is 
shown some of the sheer strake planks scarphed ready to 





^-'f^'wi[»p^'i^r^si w\ mm. MHi \'>i^rm' '' ''^'^^Wm'w^%Kw\m\m 



MM-»^ ^=i 



Fig. 86. Trussed Wood Kaalson 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



97 



hang in place. Sheer planks are sawed to shape, beveled, 
hung and fastened in manner explained in garboard 
paragraph. 

The wales, as you will note by referring to Figs. 28 and 
201 and Table 3E (page 22), are somewhat thicker than 
bottom planking. The proper vertical extent of wales 
on vessels of usual proportion of depth to length is about 
one-third of vessel's depth of hold, but when a vessel is 
eight or more depths in length it is usual to increase ver- 
tical depth of wales to about two-fifths of depth of hold. 
Method of getting out and fastening wales is similar to 
that of balance of planking. 

■ In all cases the outside planking of a vessel must be 
put on in as long lengths as possible, because butts tend 
to weaken longitudinal strength of planking. While I am 
referring to butts, I will mention some safe rules to 
following in locating butts. 

1st. — All planking butts should come on middle of a 
frame and should be cut accurately and fastened securely. 

2d. — Butts of adjoining planks should not be nearer 
each other, in a longitudinal direction, than three frames, 
and two butts should not come on the same frame unless 
at least three full strakes of planking are between. 

It is advisable when a vessel is planked with fir or yel- 
low pine to make the after hoods of planks along the 
"tuck" and the forward hoods of bow planks that will 
require a great deal of twisting to get them in place, of 
white oak. Another detail of importance is to get out 
all planks with the required curvature, and thus do away 
with any necessity of having to "force" the planks edge- 
ways in order to make them fit snug against the adjacent 
plank. "Edge-setting" a plank is a detriment and will 
sometimes result in the plank breaking after it has been 
fastened in place. 

loP. Fastenings of Planking 

The number, sizes, and kinds of planking fastenings 
to use are given on Tables 3B, 3C, 3D, 3E, 3F (pages 
20 to 23), and methods of fastening are shown on Figs. 
45 and 46. 



Three kinds of fastenings are used for securing out- 
side planking of a vessel's frame. Wood treenails, through 
bolts zvith nuts and clinch bolts (bolts whose ends can be 
clinched or riveted over clinch rings or washers). 

Number of planking fastenings should always be 
proportioned to width of strake of plank. 

Planks above 11 inches must have at least two fas- 
tenings into each frame, called double fastening. Planks 
over 8 inches and up to 11 inches must have alternate 
dou])le and single fastenings; that is, have two fasten- 
ings in one frame and one fastening in adjacent one. 

Planks under 8 inches in width can be single fas- 
tened; that is, have one fastening driven through each 
frame. 

All butts' of planks must be fastened with at least 
two bolts going through the timber on which butt is cut 
and one bolt through each adjacent timber. These butt 
bolts must be riveted or have nuts set up on washers. 

Treenails used for fastening planking must be made 
of straight-grained well-seasoned hardwood (locust or 
other approved kind) and must be driven into holes that 
are sufficiently small to insure the treenail having a max- 
imum of holding strength. After treenails are driven 
their ends must be cut flush with outside of planking and 
inside of frame (or ceiling) and then wedged across 
grain with hardwood wedges. 

When fastening planking it is very necessary to give 
proper consideration to the relative positions of fasten- 
ings of outside planking, inside ceiling and of all knee 
and other fastenings that must pass through frame tim- 
bers, because if this is not done many fastenings may 
pass through a frame so close to each other that wood 
of frame will be cut away and both strength of frame and 
holding power of fastenings reduced. 

These rules should govern fastening of planking and 
ceiling : 

(a) Not less than two-thirds of treenail fastenings 
should go through outside planking, frame and inside 
ceiling or clamps. 

(b) At least one fastening in each frame should be. 
of metal, clinched or riveted on inside of frame timber. 




Fig. 86a. Tle-Bods and Stiaps 



98 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



In a number of present-day wooden vessels defects in 
planking fastenings are apparent, and these defects are 
in some cases so serious that the structural strength of 
vessel is much below requirements. Some of the more 
serious defects are due to 

(a) The use of augers that are too large for fas- 
tening diameter. 

(b) The use of an improper number and size of 
fastenings (usuaHy too few and too small). 

(c) The use of unseasoned planking material and 
improper spacing of fastenings. 

(d) Improper location of butts and improper butt 
fastening. 

(e) The omission of edge fastenings, especially 
through garboards. 

(f) Imperfect wedging of treenail fastenings. 

(g) Failure to properly clinch, or rivet, metal fas- 
tenings of planking. 

The augers used for plank fastenings should be suf- 
ficiently smaller than diameter of fastening to insure that 
fastening will require exceptionally hard blows to drive 
them. In my explanation of keel fastenings, I mentioned 
proper sizes of augers to use. The number of fastenings 
driven into each frame timber should not be less than 
mentioned in this paragraph and their diameters should 
never be less than given in table below : 

Planking Fastening 



Thickness of 
Planking 

l" 

2>4" 


Diameter of 
Bolts 

/" 


■ Diameter of 

Treenails 

I" 


3-3/2" 


M" 


i%" 


4-4/2" 


%" 


^Va" 


5-5/2" 

6" or over 


15/16" 
i" 


1/2" 



All planking material should be properly seasoned, 
because unless it is the natural shrinkage of wood during 
and aften construction will cause seams to open, caulk- 
ing to loosen, and thus leaks will develop and strength 
of vessel be greatly reduced. It is folly to use "green" 
planking material. While air-drying is best, it is better 
to resort to smoke or steam-drying than to use unseasoned 
material and in fact if properly and carefully done smoke 




/yg sr 



3^ 



tf 



^fCZ) 



^Jlmmj4^^mmm\ m^^ 




Fig. 87. TrnsBed Steel Keelson 



or Steam-drying does not detract from strength and dura- 
bility of planking material. 

Butts should always be located according to rules 
mentioned in this chapter. Edge fastenings should always 
be used along garboards, at butts of sheer and along 
sheer strake. 

Another method of fastening planking of vessels is 
when the plank is being put in place to use a sufficient 
number of spikes, "dump bolts," and treenails, to prop- 
erly hold the planks in place and after the ceiling has 
been wrought to, complete the fastening by putting in the 
balance of treenails and all the through bolts. The first 
fastenings, to hold planks in place, go through planking 
and into frame timbers, and the second fastenings through 
planking, frame timbers and ceiling. And still another, 
older method is to use a minimum number of spikes and 
some temporary fastenings (bolts with nuts) for the first 
fastenings, and when the ceiling is being put in place to 
withdraw the temporary fastenings, continue the boring 
of these fastenings holes through ceiling, and then put 
in the permanent planking fastenings through planking, 
frame timbers and ceiling. 

The principal things to bear in mind are : 

(a) To consider the fastenings of ceiling and plank- 
ing as being one and to so space the fastenings of both 
planking and ceiling that the maximum number will serve 
the double purpose of securing both planking and ceiling 
to the frame timbers. , 

(b) To so space all fastenings that there will be a 
minimum number of holes bored through the frame tim- 
bers. If the frame timbers are weakened too much by 
having an excessive number of fastening holes bored 
through them, the frames will not properly hold the fas- 
tenings and are also liable to break under the strains that 
are put on them when a vessel works in a sea. 

Space fastenings properly, bore the proper sized holes 
for every fastening, drive and rivet or wedge each fasten- 
ing properly, and use the proper number of fastenings 
and the vessel will have the maximum amount of strength. 
Figs. 46, 47 give illustrations of proper spacing methods 
for plank fastenings. 

Continuing Planking 

After garboards and sheer strake are fastened the 
balance of planking is got out, and as there is now an 
upper and a lower strake of planking in position (gar- 
board and sheer) planking can proceed from sheer strake 
down and from garboard strake up. 

All planks are "spiled" in manner that garboard is, 
and as each plank is fitted in place it should be tightly 
wedged against the next plank before any fastening is 
driven. Of course all seams of planking must be per- 
fectly tight inside, and open, for caulking, on outside, 
and care should be taken to have upper edge of each 
plank follow the line laid out for it. 

The last strake of planking to put in place is the 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



99 



shutter strake, so called because it "shuts" or closes the 
last space that planking has to fill. On Fig. 91 the 
shutter strake opening is clearly shown. 

After planking is completed and fastenings all secured, 
planking is ready for roughing off caulking and smooth- 
ing, but this work should be delayed until the last moment 
in order to give planking time to properly dry out. 

lol^. Double Planking (Fore and Aft) 
The foregoing explanation refers to single planking 
put on in the usual manner. There are, however, two 
other accepted planking methods that I will now explain. 
The first of these methods is the double fore-and-aft 
method of planking. In this method all planks run from 
stem to stern and are shaped in exactly the manner that 
the usual single thick planking is ; but in place of plank- 
ing being put on in one thickness it is divided into two, 
the combined thickness of the two being slightly less than 
the normal thickness of single planking. Thus if the sin- 
gle planking of a vessel is 4 inches, for a double-planked 
vessel the inner, or plank nearest to frame, would be 
i^ or ij-^ inches and the outer planking would be 2 
inches. 

A vessel is double-planked in this manner: 
The garboard and sheer strakes are got out of single 
thickness material in the usual manner, except that the 
upper edge of garboard and lower edge of sheer is rab- 
beted to a depth that leaves standing part along edge of 
same thickness as inner planking and about 2 inches in 
width. These planks are then fastened in place and 
spiling taken for inner planking. The inner planking is 
got out and fastened to frames with short fastenings suf- 
ficient in number and length to hold planks securely in 
place. 

The seams of inner planking are next caulked, sur- 
face of planking smoothed and then outer planks are 
got out in such a manner that their seams will run along 
middle fore-and-aft lines of all inner planks. Of course 



t^W\ 



at garboard and sheer the outer plank fits into rabbet 
already cut. The fastenings of outer planking go through 
both outer and inner planks and are secured in the usual 
manner. It is necessary to thoroughly paint or fill outer 
surface of inner planks and inner surface of outer planks 
before they are fastened. Bitumastic paint or one of 
the many wood preservations are used for this. After 
outer planking is in place, seams are caulked and plank- 
ing smoothed in the usual manner. It is evident that, 
as no seams go directly through from outside' to inside 
of a plank, the double planking offers greater resistance 
to longitudinal strains than single planking, but it is more 
expensive to lay and for this reason is not very often 
used. 

On Fig. 91a I show a sketch of a midship section out- 
line and portion of profile with details of double plank- 
ing clearly shown. 

iol°. Double Diagonal and Single Fore-and-Aft 
Planking 

This method of planking calls for the laying of two 
thin inner layers of planking diagonally from sheer to 
keel and one thick outer layer of planking fore-and-aft. 

For this method of planking, filling timbers must be 
added to frame to fill space between frame timbers along 
sheer and at keel. These additions are necessary because 
ends of diagonal planks terminate along keel and sheer, 
and there must be solid wood at these places to receive 
and hold the fastenings. 

The filling timbers that fill space between frame tim- 
bers need not extend more than a foot or so out from 
keel, or down from sheer. 

The two inner layers of planking are made of rela- 
tively thin material, the total thickness of the two being 
slightly more than one-third thickness required for single 
thick planking. Thus if single thickness of planking 
laid planking should be about 34-inch. The outer fore- 
and-aft planking thickness should be somewhat less than 



n^0\ h/rtkAl \4f\W 




OETAIL OF IRON STRAPPINa - 

Fig. 88 



*»■ -Suisai^-t-^ji . 



100 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



one-half the total thickness of planking required for sin- 
gle thick planking method, or about i}i inches thick if 4 
inches is thickness of single planking. 

When planking a vessel in this manner the diagonal 
planking is got out in planks about 8 or 9 inches wide 
and the first layer of diagonal planking is laid diagonally 
across frames, beginning at keel and extending to sheer 
at an inclination of about 45°. The planks are laid with 
tight seams and fastened with nails to every frame they 
cross. Where a butt comes an additional filling piece is 
secured between the frames and to this filling piece and 
its adjacent frame the butt end of plank is secured. 
When the whole frame is covered with .one layer of the 
diagonal planking the planks are smoothed, seams caulked 
and surface painted. 

The second layer is now put on diagonally in an oppo- 
site direction thus crossing inner layer at right angles. 
Outer diagonal layer of planking fastenings goes through 
inner layer into frames, and after this layer of planking 
is put on its seams are caulked and surface smoothed. 



The outer fore-and-aft planking is got out and put 
on in exactly the manner that single thick planking is, 
except that the fastenings of outer planking go through 
both diagonal plankings into frames. After outer fore- 
and-aft planking is laid, the three thicknesses of plank- 
ing are fastened together between frame timbers by 
means of short nails driven from inside into outer fore- 
and-aft planks or by means of nails driven from outside 
through the three thicknesses of planks and clinched; 
thus bringing all planks in close contact and adding 
strength to the planking structure. Of course the seams 
of outer planking are caulked and planking smoothed and 
finished in usual manner. 

All fastenings of double and triple planking should be 
of metal properly riveted, or clinched. 

On Fig. 91b I show details of this method of plank- 
ing. As regards strength of construction the combined 
diagonal and fore-and-aft method of planking possesses 
great strength, but it is costly to plank a vessel in this 
manner. 




Fig. 90. Flamed Ready For Sheei 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



lOI 



lom. Ceiling — Explanatory 

During the time a vessel is being planked ceiling 
material can be got ready and when a sufficient portion 
of bottom and topside planking is fastened in place work- 
men can begin to lay and fasten ceiling. 

The ceiling in a wooden vessel is for the double pur- 
pose of adding to structural strength and preventing dirt 
getting between frame timbers, it therefore is essential 
that ceiling be of proper strength, that it be properly 
laid and securely fastened, and that no openings be left 
between the seams of ceiling planks. 

Ceiling is usually laid in planks that run fore-and-aft, 
the planks being tightly fitted against each other and 
fastened to every frame. 

You will note by referring to cross-section drawings 
Figs. 202 and 212 that ceiling planks are thicker along 
bilges than along bottom and sides. This is usual and 
proper, because it is along the bilges that frames are 
weakest and strains are greatest. On Tables in Chapter 
III, I give proper thickness of ceiling to use at bottom, 
along side, and at turn of bilge. 

It is seldom necessary to make templates or mark a 
ceiling width scale on inside of frames, because ceiling 
planks are usually got out as near straight and one width 
from end to end as it is possible to have them. On Fig. 
92 is shown the first planks of bottom ceiling in place. 

In a modern shipyard sawmill ceiling planks can be 
beveled and got ready to fit in place by using an adjust- 
able head beveling machine. 

iom\ Laying Ceiling 

The first planks of ceiling laid are those which butt 
against keelsons unless vessel is to have a limber strake, 



in which case the first strake of ceiling is laid the width 
of limber strake out from keelson. On Fig. 212 cross- 
section limber strake is clearly shown next to keelson, 
and on Fig. 201 cross-section you will note that there is 
no limber strake. 

lom-. Explaining the Reason* Why a Limber 
Passage is Necessary 

Water will find its way into the holds of all vessels 
and it is necessary that pumps be installed for its re- 
moval. These pumps have suctions led to lowest point 
in each hold or compartment, and open passageways 
through which the water can freely pass to pump suc- 
tion are always arranged. In wooden vessels these 
passageways consist of openings cut across outside of 
frame timbers (these openings are clearly shown on Fig. 
212) and as it is necessary to have some method of 
cleaning out the openings, should dirt fill them, it is 
usual to either reeve a chain through all openings from 
bow to stern, leaving the ends in a convenient place for 
crew to take hold of them, haul chain backhand forth 
and thus clear limber openings of obstructions, or to 
leave removable boards over the frames and thus by 
removing a board crew can reach any obstruction in 
passage and clear it away. The best and most satisfac- 
tory method is to use both the chain and loose board. 

The passage cut along outside of frame timbers is 
named the limber; the chain that is run through passage 
is named a limber chain, and the boards placed over open- 
ing left between ceiling and keelson are named limber 
boards. 

The limbers are carefully cut before planking is put 
on, and limber chain is put in position before the strake 




Fig. 91. A 255-Foot AnxUlary Schooner, From Daslgns by Tuns, Lemolne k Crane. Planked Beady For Shutter 



102 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Frame timbers^ 




yy 



Fig. 91. Double Planking 

of planking that covers limber is fastened in place. Of 
course limber chain must be much smaller than limber, 
otherwise it would stop flow of water. Dimensions of 
limbers should not be less than 2^ inches wide by ij4 
inches deep and should be cut clear of a plank seam. 

lom^. Butts and Fastening of Ceiling 

Ceiling planks, especially along the bilges, should be 
of greatest possible length and all scarphs should be 
either hooked, nibbed, or locked. When cutting scarphs 
of ceiling planks consideration must be given to location 
of butts of outer planks, and all ceiling scarphs must be 
located some distance away from planking butts. 

Each strake of ceiling must be fastened to each 
frame with at least two (metal) fastenings in addition 
to the through planking treenail fastenings that have to 
be driven through outside planking, frame and ceiling. 

The bilge ceiling should first be fastened in place 
with a sufficient number of fastenings, driven into frames 
only, to hold it in position, and then through each frame 
and each bilge ceiling plank there should be driven from 
outside, one or two (metal) fastenings, and the inside 
ends of these fastenings must be riveted over clinch 
rings. 

In addition to this all bilge ceiling and a greater por- 
tion of bottom and side ceiling must be edge-bolted 
between frame timbers. On Fig. 212 cross-section view 
these edge-bolts, or drifts, are clearly marked. 

It is very essential that ceiling be laid with tight 



seams and that the whole mass of ceiling planks be 
secured together and to framing in such a manner that 
it will offer greatest possible resistance to both longi- 
tudinal and transverse strains. On Fig. 43b the scarph 
of a strake of bilge ceiling can be seen on right-hand 
side, and on left-hand side the ends of fastenings are 
clearly discernible. A central steel keelson is also very 
clearly seen in this illustration. 

I cm*. Air Course and Salt Stops 

If you will refer to Figs. 202 and 212 cross-section 
views, you will notice an open space left between strakes 
of ceiling immediately below the clamps, and you will 
also see on left-hand side of frame timber immediately 
above opening in ceiling a piece of wood that extends 
from inside of planking to outside of ceiling planks. 
The opening through ceiling is named an air course and 
is placed there to allow air to freely circulate around 
the spaces between frames. This air course is not a 
clear opening from bow to stern, but consists of a series 
of short openings at stated intervals. In other words, 
portions of the space are filled in and other portions 
left open. Air courses are usually between 3 and 4 
inches wide and their length is equal to the open space 
between frame timbers. The piece of wood that extends 
across frame is named a salt stop. 

The salt stop consists of short pieces of wood wide 
enough to reach from inside of planking to outside of 
ceiling and long enough to fill the open spaces between 
frame timbers. The purpose for which they are placed 




Oc/r£fi PL^fsJK 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



103 




Fig. 92. Ceiling Commenced 

there is to hold the salt placed between frame timbers 
when a vessel is salted. 

iom°. Salting 

Salting a vessel consists in filling all open spaces 
between frame timbers, from keel salt stops, with 
coarse rock salt. Salt is an excellent wood preservative, 
especially in damp places and where air cannot freely 
circulate, and it has been found that if all open spaces 
between the frame timbers of a vessel be filled with salt, 
the timbers will resist decay longer than unsalted tim- 
bers will. For this reason all insurance classification 
societies will add a named period (usually one or two 
years) to a vessel's classification if vessel is salted while 
on the stocks or building ways. When a vessel is to be 
salted, it is necessary to enclose the space occupied by 
limbers and chains, otherwise the salt will fill these 
spaces and clog the openings. 

It is advisable to salt a vessel. 

lom". Double and Triple Ceiling 

While it is the usual practice to use a single thickness 
of ceiling put on in manner explained, some of the more 
advanced builders are beginning to recognize the advan- 
tages of using double fore-and-aft ceiling, or triple (two 
diagonal and one fore-and-aft) diagonal and fore-and- 
aft ceiling. 

By the use of double ceiling the same strength of 
construction can be obtained by using ceiling having a 
total thickness of about seven-eighths of single ceiling 
thickness, and nearly all edge fastenings can be dis- 
pensed with. Of course first layer of ceiling planks 
must be fastened independently, and fastenings of second 
layer must be spaced to clear inner ceiling fastenings. 
In addition to the usual fastenings into frame timbers 
additional short fastenings should be driven along seams 



of planks to secure edges of second layer of ceiling to 
layer below. 

Triple ceiling without doubt has greater strength per 
unit of material than either single or double, and for 
this reason the total thickness of triple ceiling need not 
be more than three-quarters or five-eighths of single ceil- 
ing thickness. ^ 

When triple ceiling is used fiUing timbers must be 
fitted to fill open spaces between frame timbers along 
keelson, along sheer, and wherever a butt of diagonal 
laid ceiling will come. 

The first diagonal layer of ceiling crosses frame tim- 
bers at an inclination of about 45° and is fastened to 
frames with sufficient fastenings to firmly hold the 
planks in position. The second diagonal layer of ceiling 
crosses the first at right angles and is fastened securely 
to first layer and to frames. The third, fore-and-aft, 
layer is fitted and fastened in the manner explained for 
single thick ceiling, and as all of its fastenings go through 
the first and second diagonal layers the whole ceiling 
structure becomes one solid mass of wood that offers 
great resistance to both longitudinal and transverse 
strains. 

When triple ceiling is used it is not necessary to 
increase thickness of bilge ceiling. 

When double ceiling is used it is very necessary to 
thoroughly coat the upper surface of first layer of ceil- 
ing and under surface of second layer with a good wood 
preservative before the second layer is fastened in place. 
With the triple layer it is necessary to coat surfaces of 
the three layers of planks, the object being to prevent 
decay through moisture and stagnant air getting into 
pores of wood. 

Moisture, stagnant air and dirt are the three prime 
causes of decay in wood. 




Fig. 93. Canllclng Bottom Planking 



I04 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 94. Breast Hook 



lom^. Clamps and Shelf Pieces 

The clamps, auxiliary clamps, and shelf and lock 
shelf, is an assemblage of longitudinal timbers firmly 
fastened to frame timbers, and together, their use being 
to support deck beams and strengthen the hull along each 
deck. 

On Figs. 20I, 202, 212 cross-section drawings, differ- 
ent methods of assembling the pieces are clearly shown, 
and on Tables in Chapter III is given proper dimensions 
of materials to use for these parts. 

Clamps material is usually got out at the time ceiling 
material is, and in the same manner. 

Clamp and shelf material should be of the greatest 
possible length and all scarphs must be either locked, 
hooked, or keyed and edge-bolted, the length of each 
scarph being not less than six times the width of material. 
Clamps must be fastened to each frame timber they cross 
with not less than two through bolts riveted over clinch 
rings. 

The forward end of each clamp usually terminates 
at apron, and clamps at opposite sides of vessel are con- 
nected together by means of knees that are fitted against 
apron and between the clamps. These knees, called 
breast-hooks, are secured to apron and also to clamps 
and frame timbers. On Fig. 94 is shown an excellent 
method of securing forward ends of clamps by means 
of wood and steel breast-hook. 

The after ends of all clamps that do not merge into 
the framing of an elliptical stern should also be securely 
kneed to transom or stern framing. In addition to the 
clamp breast-hooks at stem there must also be at least 
one hook in the space between each deck and also at the 
forward termination of all pointers. 



lom*. Pointers 

These are built-up assemblages of timber located at 
bow and stern. The bow pointers begin at after end of 
apron and stemson, near to forefoot, and run aft and 
upwards in a diagonal direction until they reach a tier of 
deck beams. On Fig. 201 interior profile view, two bow 
and three stern pointers are clearly shown. 

At the stern the pointers begin at deadwood at vary- 
ing distances from keelson and extend upwards and for- 
ward. 

Pointers are usually constructed of several pieces of 
oak, or yellow pine, steam-bent to shape and fitted on 
top of each other, thus forming a solid laminated struc- 
ture of great strength. The painters lay on ceiling, are 
through bolted to ceiling frame timbers and planking, 
and should extend upwards to most convenient tier of 
beams and be kneed to clamp of that tier. 

Pointers are for the purpose of strengthening the for- 
ward and after portions of vessel against a tendency to 
"hog." 

In general pointers should be not over 6 feet apart 
at points of termination at bow or stern, should be fitted 
at an inclination of about 45°, and should be fastened to 
every frame timber they cross with two bolts. The 
proper dimensions of pointers is given on Tables in Chap- 
ter III. 

I am of the opinion that pointers of steel channels, 
or of angles and plates riveted together, are preferable 
to the wood ones because greater strength can be obtained 
from a given weight of material. 

ion. Deck Framing 

Deck beams can be sawed to shape and finished in the 
sawmill of a modern shipyard during the time that ves- 
sel's frame is being erected and planking is being put on. 

The deck framing of a vessel consists of transverse 
beams and half-beams, carlins, lodge and hanging knees, 




Fig. 95. view of Interior Showing Knees 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



105 




Fig. 95a. Large Knees Beady For Use 

hatch coamings and hatch framing; and in a vessel hav- 
ing more than one deck there must be a properly framed 
and fastened set of deck beams installed at every deck 
position. Details of framing of the various decks are 
always shown on longitudinal profile, and transverse con- 
struction plans somewhat in the manner they are shown 
on Fig. 20I plans. 

It is well to remember that in some vessels the lower 
tier of beams (called hold beams) are merely for the pur- 
pose of adding transverse strength and do not carry deck 
planking. 

The sided and moulded dimensions of deck beams 
vary with width of vessel and not with tonnage; and the 
spacing of deck beams should always correspond with 
spacing of frames. In other words, the ends of each 
deck's beams should bear against a frame timber and 
rest upon clamp and shelf pieces in one of the ways 
illustrated on construction drawings of Figs. 201, 202, 
212. On Fig. 28 and Fig. 27 are shown details of hatch 
and mast partner construction with parts marked for 
identification. 

In nearly all vessels it is necessary to support the 
deck beams along the center line of vessel. This sup- 
porting is done by erecting tiers of stanchions, at stated 
intervals, and fastening their ends securely. 



The lower tier of stanchions have their lower ends 
securely fastened to keelson and their upper ends to 
lower tier of beams. The next tier of beams are set up 
immediately over the lower tier ones and have their lower 
ends secured to deck and deck beam they rest on, and 
their upper ends secured to beams of deck above. Thus 
each succeeding stanchion is placed immediately above 
one below, with the result that the greatest possible sup- 
port along the longitudinal center line is given to the 
whole deck structure. 

It is very necessary that deck beams be properly 
crowned on their upper surface. The amount of crown 
is specified by the designer and is usually much less for 
lower deck beams than for the upper or exposed deck 
ones. 

If you will turn to Fig. 201 you will note that the 
ends of both tiers of deck beams are securely kneed to 
ceiling and framing. This is an excellent method of 
fastening deck beams, especially if the vessel is a large 
one. Fig. 95 is an exceptionally clear photograph of 
hanging deck knees in a vessel built from plans Fig. 201, 
and on Fig. 95a is shown some natural or root knees 
sawed to shape. 

On Fig. 212 cross-section view is shown another 
method of securing ends of deck beams. Here there are 
two shelves and two auxiliary clamps to take the place 
of the hanging knees, and as one of the shelves is what 
is termed a lock shelf, and the whole structure of shelves, 
clamps and beam is thoroughy well secured to each other 








FiK. 96. View of Main Deck, No. 1 Hatch 
From Forward House Looking Aft 



io6 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Tig. 97. The Pneumatic Hammer Driving Deck Spikes in Holes Which 

Have Been Drilled and Countersunk at the Same Operation by 

Another Little David. These Tools Make Short Work 

of Numerous Tasks 

and to frame timbers, the structure is amply strong to 
withstand strains that tend to separate the pieces. 
Now a few words explaining a lock shelf. 

icn^ Lock Shelf 

A lock shelf is a shelf to which the beam is locked by 
means of a key piece, or coak, or projection that fits into 
a corresponding depression in underside of beam. If 
you will look carefully at the Fig. 212 cross-section you 
will notice (dotted) end of lock piece projecting above 
upper surface of shelf and let into underside of beam. 
In my opinion hanging knees are stronger and preferable 
to the lock shelf and added shelf and clamp timbers. 

Bear in mind that lock piece can be used with advan- 
tage when hanging knees are used. 

Dimensions and number of hanging knees required 
for vessels of various sizes are given on Table VHP in 
Chapter. VIII. 

I have mentioned lodge knees, so I will next explain 
why they are used. 

lon^. Lodge Knees 

Lodge knees are used to prevent the deck beams turn- 
ing on their sides, and for the purpose of strengthening 
deck framing, near sides of vessel, against fore-and-aft 
movement. 

On Fig. 28 lodge knees are shown in position, and on 
deck framing of Figs. 201, 206, 207 lodge knees can be 
seen in position. 

ion''. Knee F.\stenings 

Knees of all kinds should be through fastened with 
bolts passing through knee, clamps, frame, and planking, 
and through knee deck beam, shelf, the fastenings being 
driven at inclinations that will enable the knee to resist 
strain from all directions. On Figs. 201, 202, 212 cross- 
section views lines of direction are clearly shown by 
dotted line that indicate fastenings. 



lOn*. Hatch Framing 

In every vessel that carries cargo there must be a suf- 
ficient number of openings through the decks to allow 
the cargo to be properly and quickly loaded and unloaded, 
each of the openings must be sufficiently large to permit 
the most bulky piece of cargo to pas's through it, and all 
of the openings must be arranged to enable the crew to 
make them absolutely watertight when vessel is at sea.' 

The openings through decks are named hatchways 
and it is usual to locate the hatchways in most convenient 
positions along upper deck and then to have the hatch 
openings through lower decks come immediately under 
the upper deck openings. By doing this it is possible to 
load or unload cargo on any deck or in hold with a mini- 
mum of labor. The dimensions of hatch openings having 
been determined it is necessary to properly frame around 
the openings, to make removable hatch covers to close 
the openings, and to have watertight paulins with neces- 
sary hatch battens with wedges fitted over the hatch cov- 
ers and arranged to fasten tightly around the hatch 
coamings. 

Fig. 27 is a detailed drawing of the framing of a 
hatch and each part is identified by name. On the dra\V- 




-Lo^Kr-ikchBciims.>[ 

Fig. 98 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



107 




Fig. 99. The Caulking Tool Can Be Held in Any Position and Is Able to 

Deliver 1,500 Taps a Minute. The Oakum Is Fed Mechanically, so 

That The Work of "Horsing It In" Can Be Done Eapidly and 

Thoroughly, No Matter Where the Seam Is Located 

ing referred to you will notice that the fore-and-aft deck 
pieces of hatch coaming stop at ends of opening and that 
the cross pieces are fitted into them. This is the proper 
method to use for a small sailing vessel, but in large ves- 
sels, especially those having a central superstructure or 



house, it is better to allow the upper deck fore-and-aft 
timbers of hatch coamings to extend in one piece from 
forward to aft and to let each cross piece into these fore- 
and-aft timbers. Then if supporting stanchions are placed 
directly under these fore-and-aft timbers, the maximum 
strength, which will, of course, come directly over the 
under deck fore-and-aft around, the hatch openings, is 
obtained without an unnecessary amount of material 
being used. 

With the construction shown on Fig. 27 there is a 
slight weakening of structure around hatch openings, but 
with the continuous fore-and-aft pieces of coaming sup- 
ported with stanchions there is no weakening. Of course, 
vyhen the continuous fore-and-aft pieces are used, the 
deck is practically divided longitudinally into three, and 
therefore there must be a sufficient number of openings 
cut in longitudinal timbers, between deck and lower edge 
of timbers, to allow water to pass freely across the deck 
and flow into water ways. 

On Fig. 96 is shown main deck hatch framing of a 
schooner and on Figs. 201, 202, 206, 207, 212, 213 are 
shown details of hatch framing used on vessels con- 
structed from these plans. 

On Fig. 201, upper deck plan, you will clearly see the 
continuous fore-and-aft members of hatch framing, and 
on Fig. 207, deck framing plan, you will note the con- 
tinuous under deck fore-and-aft members of the hatch 
framing. 



Chapter XI 

Ship Joinery 



Ship joinery is tlie art of cutting, dressing, framing, 
and finisliing wood for the external and internal finish- 
ing of a ship. The ship carpenters erect the structure 
that gives strength to the ship and their work cannot be 
removed without affecting the strength of structure, while 
that of the joiners is not intended to add to structural 
strength and therefore can be removed without affecting 
strength. 

As the finish and appearance of joiner work largely 
depends upon the care with which the work is done it is 
essential that woods used for joiner work be thoroughly 
seasoned, be properly cut, and be of kinds that will not 
warp or be affected by changes in temperature or by 
moisture in air. 

The best joiner woods available for use in U. S. A. 
are : Mahogany, teak, Q. S. oak, for natural wood finishes 
and parts that will be exposed to weather; and white 
pine, yellow pine, fir, cypress, cedar for parts that will 
be painted. 

While many of the joints and methods of doing work 
are in common use by both ship carpenters and joiner 
workers, it is wrong to suppose that a good ship carpenter 
can do good joiner work because the nature of the work 
is entirely different. The ship carpenter works on heavy 
materials and seldom devotes much time to finish of 
surfaces, while the joiner worker works with light ma- 
terial and has to continually think of finish and appear- 
ance of the work when it is completed. 

On sheet A joiner work illustration sheet, I show 
some commonly used joints, or joiner workers' methods 
of connecting pieces of wood. 

iia. Description of Sheet A Joiner Work 
Illustrations 

On this illustration sheet is shown a number of joints 
used by ship joiners. 

Fig. I shows a joint formed by planing edges of board 
perfectly true and inserting wood or iron pins (called 
dowels) at intervals along joined edges. The pin is 
shown by dotted line, and such a joint is said to be 
doweled. 

Fig. 2 shows a joint made by grooving edge of one 
piece of wood and forming a tongue upon another. A 
joint of this kind is commonly used for uniting pieces of 
flooring, partitions, etc. The shrinking of wood joined 
in this manner will cause joint to open, therefore, it is 
usual to run a bead, or V, along edge of one of the 
pieces and thus make shrinkage opening less noticeable. 



Bead is shown by dotted line on upper edge and V by 
dotted line on lower edge of Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3 is a double-tongued joint, now seldom used. 

Fig. 4 is a combined tongue-and-groove joint with 
rabbet. It is used on tight seamed floors when it is de- 
sired to fasten the pieces along their edges. 

In Fig. 5 the groove and tongue are angular. 

Fig. 6 is a kind of grooving and tonguing resorted to 
when the timber is thick, or when the tongue requires to 
be stronger than it would be if formed in the substance of 
the wood itself. In this mode of jointing corresponding 
grooves are formed in the edges of the boards, and the 
tongue is formed of a slip of a harder or stronger wood. 

Figs. 7, 8, 9 are examples of slip-tongue joints; the 
tongue in Fig. 9 is of wrought iron. 

Fig. 10 shows dovetail grooves, with a slip tongue of 
corresponding form, which, of course, must be inserted 
endways. 

Fig. II is a simple rebated joint. One-half the thick- 
ness of each board is cut away to the same extent, and 
when the edges are lapped the surfaces lie in the same 
plane. 

Fig. 12 shows a complex mode of grooving and tongu- 
ing. The joint is in this case put together by sliding the 
one edge with its grooves and tongues endways into the 
corresponding projections and recesses of the other. The 
boards when thus jointed together cannot be drawn 
asunder laterally or at right angles to their surface, with- 
out rending; but, in the event of shrinking, there is great 
risk of the wood being rent. 

In joining angles formed by the meeting of two boards 
various joints are used, among which are those which 
follow : 

Fig. 13, the common mitre-joint, used in joining two 
boards at right angles to each other. Each edge is planed 
to an angle of 45°. 

Fig. 14 shows a mitre- joint keyed by a slip-tongue. 

Fig. 15 shows a mitre-joint when the boards are of 
different thickness. The mitre on thicker piece is only 
formed to the same extent as that on edge of thinner 
piece; hence there is a combination of the mitre and 
simple butt joint. 

Fig. 16 shows a different mode of joining two boards 
of either the same or of different thickness. One board 
is rebated, and only a small portion at the angle of each 
board is mitred. This joint may be nailed both ways. 
In Fig. 17 both boards are rebated, and a slip-tongue 
is inserted as a key. This also may be nailed through 
from both faces. 



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WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Figs. 18. and 19 are combinations of grooving and 
tonguing with the last-described modes. These can be 
fitted with great accuracy and joined with certainty. 

Fig. 20 is a joint formed by the combination of mi- 
tring with double grooving and tonguing, shown in Fig. 
12. The boards must in this case be slipped together end- 
ways, and cannot be separated by a force applied at right 
angles to the planes of their surfaces. 

In all these mitre-joints the faces of boards meet at 
the angle, and the slight opening which might be caused 
by shrinkage would be scarcely observable. In the butt- 
joints which follow, the face of the one board abuts 
against the face of the other, the edge of which is con- 
sequently in the plane of the surface of first board, the 
shrinkage of which would cause an opening at joint. To 
make this opening less apparent is the object of forming 
the bead-moulding seen in the next five figures. 

In Fig. 21 the thicker board is rebated from the face, 
and a small bead is formed on the external angle of 
abutting board. 

In Fig. 22 a groove is formed in the inner face of 
one board and a tongue on edge of the other. 

In Fig. 23 the boards are grooved and tongued as in 
the last figure. A cavetto is run on the external angle of 
abutting board, and the bead and a cavetto on the in- 
ternal angle of other board. 

In Fig. 24 a quirked bead run on edge of one board, 
and the edge of abutting board forms the double quirk. 

In Fig. 25 a double quirk bead is formed at the ex- 
ternal angle, and the boards are grooved and tongued. 
The external bead is attended with this advantage, that 
it is not so liable to injury as the sharp arris. 

In Figs. 26 and 27 the joints used in putting together 
cisterns are shown. 

Figs. 28 and 29 are joints for the same purpose. They 
are of the dovetail form, and require to be slipped to- 
gether endways. 

Figs. 30 to 35 show the same kind of joints as have 
been described, applied to the framing together of boards 
meeting in an obtuse angle. 

Figs. 36 and 37 show methods of joining boards to- 
gether laterally by keys, in the manner of scarphing; and 
Fig. 38 shows another method of securing two pieces, 
such as those of a circular window frame-head by keys. 

The methods of joining timber described are all more 
or less imperfect. The liability of wood to shrink ren- 
ders it essential that the joiner should use it in such 
narrow widths as to prevent this tendency marring the 
appearance of his work ; and, as even when so used it will 
still expand and contract, provision should be made to 
admit of this. The groove-and-tongue joint admits of a 
certain amount of variation, and the grooved, tongued, 
and beaded joint admits of this variation with a degree of 
concealment, but the most perfect mode of satisfying both 
conditions is by the use of framed work. 

Framing in joinery consists of pieces of wood of the 



same thickness, nailed together so as to inclose a space 
or spaces. These spaces are filled in with boards of a less 
thickness, termed panels. 

On sheet B joiner work illustrations is shown method 
of framing joiner work partitions, doors, etc. 

lib. Description of Sheet B Joiner Work 
Illustrations 

In Fig. ih, a a,b b shows framing, c c raised panel and 
c plain panels. The vertical pieces of the framing a a 
are termed styles, and the horizontal pieces b b are 
termed rails. The rails have tenons which are let into 
mortises in the styles. The inner edges of both styles and 
rails are grooved to receive the edges of panels, and thus 
the panel is at liberty to expand and contract. Framing 
is always used for the better description of work. Wide 
panels should be formed of narrow pieces glued together, 
with the grain reversed alternately. They should never 
exceed 15 inches wide, and 4 feet long. These dimensions, 
indeed, are extremes which should be avoided. 

The panels may be boards of equal thickness through- 
out, in which case the grooves in the styles and rails are 
made of sufficient width to admit their edges, as in Fig. 
2b dotted line. These are termed flat panels. Flush 
panels, again, have one of their faces in the same plane 
as the face of framing, and are rebated round the edges 
until a tongue sufficient to fit the groove is left. Raised 
panels are those of which the thickness is such that one of 
their surfaces is a little below the framing, but at a cer- 
tain distance from the inner edge, all round it, begins 
to diminish in thickness to the edge, which is thinned off 
to enter the groove. The line at which the diminution 
takes place is marked either by a square sinking or a 
moulding. All these kinds of panels are sometimes 
combined. 

Flush panel framing has generally a simple bead stuck 
on its edges all round the panel, and the work is called 
bead flush. But in inferior work the bead is run on the 
edge of the panels in the direction of the grain only, that 
is, on the two sides of each panel, while its two ends are 
left plain; this is termed bead butt. The nomenclature, 
however, of the various descriptions of framed, and of 
framed and moulded work, will be best understood by 
reference to the annexed figures. Fig. 2b dotted line is the 
flat panel. In this the framing is not moulded, and is 
termed square. In Figs. 2b and 3b the same framing is 
shown with a moulding stuck on it. In Fig. 4b the same 
framing is shown with a moulding laid in or planted on 
each side. In Fig. 5b a bead flush panel is represented ; 
Fig. 6b a raised panel with stuck mouldings ; and Fig. 7b a 
panel raised on one side with stuck mouldings. 

lie. Dovetailing 

Dovetail-joint. — ^This joint has three varieties: — ist, 
the common dovetail, where the dovetails are seen on each 
side of the angle alternately; 2d, the lapped dovetail, in 



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WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



113 



which the dovetails are seen only on one side of angle; 
and, 3d, the lapped and mitred dovetail, in which the joint 
appears externally as a common mitre-joint. The lapped 
and mitred joint is useful in salient angles, in finished 
work, but it is not so strong as the common dovetail, and 
therefore, in all re-entrant angles, the latter should be 
used. 

The three varieties of dovetail-joint above enumerated 
are illustrated on sheet C joiner work illustration. 

Description of Sheet C Joiner Work Illustrations 
Fig. I, No. I is an elevation of the common dovetail- 
joint ; No. 2, a perspective representation ; and No. 3, a 
plan of the same. 

In all the figures the pins or dovetails of the one side 
are marked a, and those of the other side are marked b. 

Fig. 2, Nos. I, 2, 3. — In these the lap-joint is repre- 
sented in plan, elevation, and perspective projection. 

F'?- 3. ^os. I, 2, 3. — In these figures the mitred dove- 
tail-joint is represented in plan, elevation, and perspective. 
The dovetails of adjoining sides are marked respectively 
B and c in all figures. 

Fig. 4, Nos. I, 2 and Fig. 5, Nos. i, 2, show methods 
of dovetailing an angle when sides are inclined. The 
pins of one side are marked a and those of the other 
B on all figures. 

I id. Hinging 

Hinging is the art of hanging two pieces of wood to- 
gether, such as a door to its frame, by certain ligaments 
that permit one or other of them to revolve. The liga- 
ment is termed a hinge. 

Hinges are of many sorts, among which may be enu- 
merated butts, rising hinges, casement hin!.;es, chest 
hinges, folding hinges, screw hinges, scuttle hinges, shut- 
ter hinges, desk hinges, back fold hinges, and center-pin 
or center-point hinges. 

As there are many varieties of hinges, there are also 
many modes of applying even the simplest of them. In 
some cases the hinge is visible, in others it is necessary 
that it should be concealed. In some it is required not 
only that the one hinged part shall revolve on the other, 
but it shall be thrown back to a greater or lesser distance 
from the joint. 

On illustration sheets D, E, F, joiner work are shown 
a great variety of hinges and methods of hinging. 

Description of Sheet D Joiner Work Illustrations 

Fig. I, No. I, shows the hinging of a door to open 
to a right angle, as in No. 2. 

Fig. 2, Nos. I and 2, and Fig. 3, Xos i and 2. These 
figures show other modes of hinging doors to open to 90°. 

Fig. 4, Nos. I and 2. These figures show a manner of 
hinging a door to open to 90°, and in which the hinge is 
concealed. The segments are described from center of 
hinge g, and the dark shaded portion requires to be cut 
out to permit it to pass the leaf of hinge g f. 

Fig. 5, Nos. I and 2, show an example of center-pin 



hinge permitting door to open either way, and to fold 
back against the wall in either direction. Draw a fo at 
right angles to door, and just clearing the Hne of wall, 
or rather representing the plane in which the inner face 
of door will lie when folded back against wall ; bisect 
it in /, and draw / d the perpendicular to a b, which make 
equal to a f or f b, and d is the place of the center of 
hinge. 

Fig. 6, Nos. I and 2, another variety of center-pin 
hinging opening to 90°. The distance of b from o c is 
equal to half of a c. In this, as in the former case, there 
is a space between door and wall when the former is 
folded back. In the succeeding figures this is obviated. 

Fig. 7, No. I. Bisect the angle at a by the line a b; 
draw d e and make e g equal to once and a half times 
ad; draw f g aX right angle to e d, and bisect the angle 
f g ehy the line c g, meeting ab inb, which is the center 
of hinge. 

No. 2 shows the door folded back when the point e 
falls on the continuation of line / g. 

Fig. 8, Nos. I and 2. To find the center draw a b, 
making an angle of 45° with the inner edge of door, and 
draw c b parallel to the jamb, meeting it in b, which 
is the center of hinge. The door revolves to the extent 
of quadrant d c. 

Description of Sheet E Joiner Work Illustrations 
Fig. I, Nos. I and 2; Fig. 2, Nos. i and 2; and Fig. 

3, Nos. I and 2, examples of center-pin joints, and Fig. 

4, Nos. I and 2, do not require detailed description. 

Fig. 5, Nos. I, 2, and 3, show the flap with a bead a 
closing into a corresponding hollow, so that the joint can- 
not be seen through. 

Fig. 6, Nos. I, 2, and 3, show the hinge a b equally 
let into the styles, and its knuckle forming a part of the 
bead on edge of style b. The beads on each side are equal 
and opposite to each other, and the joint pin is in the 
center. 

Fig. 7, Nos. I, 2, and 3. In this example, the knuckle 
of hinge forms portion of bead on style b, which is equal 
and opposite to the bead on style a. 

In Fig. 8, Nos. i, 2, and 3, the beads are not opposite. 

Description of Sheet F Joiner Work Illustrations 

Fig. I, shows the hinging of a back flap when the 
center of hinge is in the middle of joint. 

Fig. 2, Nos. I and 2, shows the manner of hinging a 
back flap when it is necessary to throw the flap back from 
the joint. 

Fig. 3, Nos. I and 2, is an example of a rule-joint- 
hinge. The further the hinge is imbedded in the wood, 
the greater will be the cover of joint when opened to 
a right angle. 

Fig. 4, Nos. I and 2, shows the manner of finding the 
rebate when hinge is placed on the contrary side. 

Let / be the center of hinge, a b the line of joint on 
the same side, h c the line of joint on the Opposite side, 



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ii6 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



and b c the total depth of rebate. Bisect b c m e and 
join e f ; on e f describe a semicircle cutting a b in g, and 
through g and e draw g h cutting d c in h, and join d h, 
h g, and g a io form the joint. 

Fig. 5, Nos. I and 2, is a method of hinging employed 
when the flap on being opened has to be at a distance 
from the style. It is used to throw the opened flap or 
door clear of the mouldings of coping. 

Fig. 6, Nos. I and 2, is the ordinary mode of hinging 
shutter to a sash frame. 

lie. Mouldings 

A few of the principal ornamental mouldings used 
by joiners is illustrated and described in this chapter. 
The names given to the mouldings are the proper archi- 
tectural ones and the methods of laying the mouldings out 
are described in detail. 

Grecian and Roman versions of the same mouldings 
are shown on sheet G joiner illustrations. 

Fillet or Listel right-angled mouldings require no de- 
scription. 

The Astragal or Bead. — To describe this moulding, 
divide its height into two equal parts, and from the point 
of division as a center, describe a semicircle, which is the 
contour of the astragal. 

Doric Annulets. — The left-hand figure shows the 
Roman, and the right-hand figure the Grecian form of 
this moulding. To describe the latter proceed thus: — 
Divide the height b a into four equal parts, and make 
the projection equal to three of them. The vertical divi- 
sions give the lines of the under side of the annulets, and 
the height of each annulet, c c, is equal to one-fifth of the 
projection ; the upper surface of c is at right angles to the 
line of slope. 

Listel and Fascia. — (Roman.) — Divide the whole 
height into seven equal parts, make the listel equal to 
two of these and its projection equal to two. With the 
third vertical division as a center, describe a quadrant. 
(Grecian.) — Divide the height into four equal parts, make 
the fillet equal to one of them, and its projection equal to 
three-fourths of its height. 

Caz-etto or Hollow. — In Roman architecture this 
moulding is a circular quadrant ; in Grecian architecture 
it is an elliptical quadrant, which may be described by 
any of the methods given in the first part of the work. 

Ovolo or Quarter-round. — This is a convex moulding, 
the reverse of the cavetto, but described in the same 
manner. 

Cyma Recta. — A curve of double curvature, formed of 
two equal quadrants. In the Roman moulding these are 
circular, and in the Grecian moulding elliptical. 

Cyma Reversa. — A curve of double curvature, like the 
former, and formed in the same manner. 

Trochilus or Scotia. — A hollow moulding, which, in 
Roman architecture, is formed of two unequal circular 
arcs, thus : — Divide the height into ten equal parts, and 



at the sixth division draw a horizontal line. From the 
seventh division as a center, and with seven divisions as 
radius, describe from the lower part of the moulding an 
arc, cutting the above horizontal line, and join the center 
and the point of intersection by a line which bisects ; and 
from the point of bisection as a center, with half the 
length of the line as radius, describe an arc to form the 
upper part of the curve. There are many other methods 
of drawing this moulding. The Grecian trochilus is an 
elliptical or parabolic curve, the proportions of which are 
shown by the divisions of the dotted lines. 

The Torus. — The Roman moulding is semi-cylindrical, 
and its contour is of course a semicircle. The Grecian 
moulding is either elliptical or parabolic ; and although 
this and the other Greek mouldings may be drawn, as we 
have said, by one or other of the methods of drawing 
ellipses and parabolas, described in the first part of the 
work, and by other methods about to be illustrated, it is 
much better to become accustomed to sketch them by the 
eye, first setting off their projections, as shown in this 
plate, by the divisions of the dotted lines. 

Description of Sheet H Joiner Work Illustrations 

The figures in this plate illustrate various ways of 
describing the ovolo, trochilus or scotia, cyma recta, 
cyma reversa, and torus. 

Fig. I. — The Quirked Ovolo. — The projection of the 
moulding is in this case made equal to five-sevenths of its 
height, as seen by the divisions, and the radius of the 
circle b c i% made equal to two of the divisions, but any 
other proportions may be taken. Describe the circle b c, 
forming the upper part of the contour, and from the point 
g draw g h, to form a tangent to the lower part of the 
curve. Draw g a perpendicular to g h, and make g f 
equal to the radius d f of the circle b c, join / rf by a 
straight line, which bisect by a line perpendicular to it, 
meeting g a in a. Join a d, and produce the line to c. 
Then from a as a center, with the radius a c or a g, de- 
scribe the curve c g. 

Fig. 2. — To draw an ovolo, the tangent d e, and the 
projection b, being given. 

Through the point of extreme projection b, draw the 
vertical line g h, and through b draw b c parallel to the 
tangent d e, and draw c d parallel to g h, and produce 
it to a, making c a equal to c d. Divide e b and c b each 
into the same number of equal parts, and through the 
points of division in c 6 draw from a straight lines, and 
through the points of division in e b draw from d right 
lines, cutting those drawn from a. The intersections 
will be points in the curve. 

Fig. 3. — To draw an ovolo under the same conditions 
as before, vis., when the projection f, and the tangent c g, 
are given. 

The mode of operation is similar to the last: f d is 
drawn parallel to the tangent c g, and c d parallel to the 
perpendicular a b, d e is made equal to c d, and d f and 
c) f are each divided into the same number of equal parts. 



Fi^ 2. 



Fi^.2.'J/°l. 




Fig. 3. J^l. 



Fig.S.JV'Z. 



Fiq. 2.^-^2. 




Ftq 4 JV''2 



Fig.S.MZ 



Fig. S JT'J. 






Fix^.e.jf.i 



Fig. 6. JfZ 





Sheet F. Joiner Work Hinging 



Homan/ 



Fillet orLLfleL. 



Gr&cicuv. 



Astray aL or BexiAi. 



Doric AnnuZets . 




T 



Lisleiy cundj Fadcu . 




Caveito or Hollow. 



I 





Ovolo or QiLorlo RouTid. 




Cymcu Rectcb. 





Cyrruv Reverso/. 



T' 





L._^ TrocMLas or ScoUcu. p-^_^ 





Torus. 



Sbe«t O. Joiner Work Monldlngs 




Sheet H. Joiner Work Mouldings 



120 



^WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Fig. 4. — In this the same things are given, and the 
same mode of operation is followed. By these methods 
and those about to be described, a more beautiful contour 
is obtained than can be described by parts of circular 
curves. 

Fig. 5. — ^Divide the height b a into seven equal parts, 
and make a r equal to 6 o i J^ of a division ; join c r, and 
produce it to d, and make c d equal to 8^ divisions. 
Bisect c d in i, and draw through i, 4 i at right angles to 
c d, and produce it to e ; make i e equal to b 0, and from 
e as a center, with radius e c or e d, describe the arc c d. 
Then divide the arc into equal parts, and draw ordinates 
to c d, m 1 f, 2 g, 2i h, 4 i, etc., and correspondmg ordi- 
nates f k, g I, h m, i n, to find the curve. 

Fig. 6. — The height is divided into eight equal parts, 
seven of which are given to the projection d c. Join d and 
the fifth division e, and draw d o at right angles to d e. 
Make d f equal to two divisions, and draw / g parallel to 
d e, then d f \s the semi-axis minor, and d g the semi-axis 
major of the ellipse; and the curve can either be tram- 
melled or drawn by means of the lines a h, m k, p, 
being made equal to the difference between the semi-axis, 
as in the problem referred to. 

Fig. 7. — To describe the hyperbolic ovolo of the Gre- 
cian Doric capital, the tangent a c, and projection b, being 
given. 

Draw d e g k a perpendicular to the horizon, and 
draw g h and ^ / at right angles to d e g k a. Make g a 
equal to d g, and e k equal to d e; join h k. Divide h k 
and / h into the same number of parts, and draw lines 
from a through the divisions of k h, and lines from d 
through the divisions of / h, and their intersections are 
points in the curve. 

Fig. 8 is an elegant mode of drawing the Roman 
trochilus. Bisect the height /; b in e, and draw e f, 
cutting ^ c in /; divide the projection h g into three 
equal parts, make e equal to one of the divisions, and 
/ d equal to two of them, join d 0, and produce the line 
to a. Make d c equal to d g, and draw c b, and produce 
it to a. Then from rf as a center, with radius d a or d g, 
describe the arc g a; and from o as a center, with radius 
o a, describe the arc a b. 

Fig. 9 shows the method of drawing the .Grecian tro- 
chilus by intersecting lines in the same manner as the 
rampant ellipse. 

Fig. 10 shows the cyma recta formed by two equal op- 
posite curves. By taking a greater number of points as 
•centers, a figure resembling still closer the true elliptical 
curve will be produced. 

Fig. 1 1 shows the cyma recta formed with true ellipti- 
cal quadrants, or they may be trammelled by a slip of 
paper. 

Fig. 12 shows the cyma reversa, obtained in the same 
manner. The lines c d, e h are the semi-axes major, and 
the line n is the semi-axis minor, common to both 
curves. 



Figs. 13 and 14 show the cyma recta used as a base 
moulding, and Fig. 15 the Grecian torus. 

I if. Stairs 

Stairs are constructions composed of horizontal planes 
elevated above each other, forming steps; affording the 
means of communication between different decks of a 
vessel. 

Definitions. — The opening in yvhich the stair is placed, 
is called the staircase. 

The horizontal part of a step is called the tread, the 
vertical part the riser, the breadth or distance from riser 
to riser the going, the distance from the first to the last 
riser in a flight the going of the flight. 

When the risers are parallel with each other, the stairs 
are of course straight. 

When the steps are narrower at one end than the 
other, they are termed winders. 

When the bottom step has a circular end, it is called a 
round-ended step; when the end is formed into a spiral, 
it is called a curtail step. 

The wide step introduced as a resting-place in the 
ascent is o landing, and the top of a stair is also so called. 

When the landing at a resting place is square, it is 
designated a quarter space. 

When the landing occupies the whole width of the 
staircase it is called a half space. 

So much of a stair as is included between two landings 
is called a flight, especially if the risers are parallel with 
each other : the steps in this case are fliers. 

The outward edge of a step is named the nosing; if it 
project beyond the riser, so as to receive a hollow mould- 
ing glued under it, it is a moulded nosing. ■ 

A straight-edge laid on the nosings represents the 
angle of the stairs, and is denominated the line of nosings. 

The raking pieces which support the ends of the steps 
are called strings. The inner one is the wall string; the 
other the outer string. If the outer string be cut to 
mitre with the end of the riser, it is a cut and mitred 
string ; but when the sti'ings are grooved to receive the 
ends of the treads and risers, they are said to be housed, 
and the grooves are termed housings. 

Economy of space in the construction of stairs is 
an important consideration. To obtain this, the stairs 
are made to turn upon themselves, one flight being carried 
above another at such a height as will admit of head room 
to a full-grown person. 

Method of Setting Out Stairs 

The first objects to be ascertained are the situation of 
first and last risers, and the height wherein the stair 
is to be placed. 

The height is next taken on a rod; then, assuming 
a height of riser suitable to the place, a trial is made, by 
division, how often this height is contained in the height 
between decks, and the quotient, if there be no remainder, 
will be the number of risers. Should there be a remain- 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



121 






Sbeet I. Joiner Work Handrails 



der on the first division, the operation is reversed, the 
number of inches in the height being made the dividend, 
and the before-found quotient the divisor, and the opera- 
tion of division by reduction is carried on, till the height 
of riser is obtained to the thirty-second part of an inch. 
These heights are then set of? on a measurement rod as 
exactly as possible. 

It is a general maxim that the greater the breadth of 
a step the less should be the height of the riser ; and con- 
versely, the less the breadth of step, the greater should 
be the height of the riser. Experience shows that a step 
of 12 inches width and SJ4 inches rise, may be taken as 
a standard. 

It is seldom, however, that the proportion of the step 
and riser is exactly a matter of choice — the room allotted 
to the stairs usually determines this proportion; but the 
above will be found a useful standard, to which it is 
desirable to approximate. 



A proportion for steps and risers may be obtained by 
the annexed method : — 



Treads in 


Risers in 


Treads in 


Risers in 


s 


9 


12 


53^2 


6 


8/2 


13 


5 


7 


8 


14 


4J4 


8 


7^ 


IS 


4 


9 


7 


16 


3/2 


lO 


6/2 


17 


3 


II 


6 


18 


2/2 



Set down two sets of numbers, each in arithmetical 
progression ; the first set showing the width of the steps, 
ascending by inches, the other showing the height of the 
riser, descending by half inches. It will readily be seen 
that each of these steps and risers are such as may 
suitably pair together. 

The landing covers one riser, and therefore the num- 
ber of steps in a flight will be always one fewer than 



122 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



the number of risers. The width of tread which can be 
obtained for each flight will thus be found, and con- 
sistent with the situation, the plan will be so far decided. 
A pitch-board should now be formed to the angle of in- 
clination: this is done by making a piece of thin board 
in the shape of a right-angled triangle, the base of which 
is the exact going of the step, and its perpendicular the 
height of the riser. 

If the stair be a newel stair, its width will be found by 
setting out the plan and section of the newel on the 
landing. 

Then mark the place of the outer or front string, and 
also the place of the back or wall string, according to the 
intended thickness of each. This should be done not only 
to a scale on the plan, but likewise to the full size on the 
rod. Set off on the rod, in the thickness of each string, 
the depth of the grooving of the steps into the string; 
mark also on the plan the place and section of the bottom 
newel. 

When two flights are necessary, it is desirable that 
each flight should consist of an equal number of risers ; 
but this will depend on the form of staircase, situation, 
height of doors, and other obstacles to be passed over 
or under, as the case may be. 

I ig. Handrails 

The height of the handrail of a stair, as the following 
considerations will show, need not be uniform throughout, 
but may be varied within the limits of a few inches, so 
as to secure a graceful line at the changes of direction. 
In ascending a stair the body is naturally thrown forward, 
and in descending it is thrown back, and it is only when 
standing or walking on the level that it maintains an up- 
right position. Hence the rail may be with propriety 
made higher where it is level at the landings, the posi- 
tion of the body being then erect, than at the sloping part, 
where the body is naturally more or less bent. 

The height of the rail on the nosings of the straight 
part of the stairs should be 2 feet 7j4 inches, measuring 
from the tread to its upper side; to this there should be 
added at the landings the height of half a riser. 

In winding stairs, regard should be had, in adjusting 
the height of the rail, to the position of a person using it, 
who may be thrown further from it at some points than 
at others, not only by the narrowing of the treads, but 
by the oblique position of the risers. 

Sections of Handrails.— In Sheet I. some of the usual 
forms of the sections of handrails are given. To de- 
scribe Fig. 3, divide the width 6 6 in twelve parts, bisect 
it by the line a b, at right angles to 6 6; make c b equal 
to seven, a c equal to three such parts, and b i also equal 
to three parts ; set off one part from 6 to 7, draw the 
lines 7 i on each side of the figure; set the compasses 
in 4 4, extend them to 6 6, and describe the arcs at 6 6 



to form the sides of the figure; also set the compasses 
in B, extending them to a, and describe the arc at a to 
form the top ; make / b equal to two parts, and draw the 
line k I k; take four parts in the compasses, and from the 
points 4 4 describe the arcs e f, then with two parts in 
the compasses, one foot being placed in k, draw the inter- 
secting arcs g h ; from these intersections as centres, de- 
scribe the remaining portions of the curves, and by join- 
ing k i, k i, complete figure. 

In Fig. 4 divide the width c D into twelve equal parts ; 
make 6 m equal to 6 parts; 6 b and m h respectively, 
equal to two parts, and m i equal to three parts; make 
e h and h f respectively, equal to two parts ; then in / 
and e set one foot of the compasses, and with a radius 
equal to one and a half parts, describe the arcs g g ; from 
the point m, with the radius m a, describe the arc at a 
meeting the arcs g g, to form the top reed of the figure; 
from 2 with a radius equal to two parts, describe the side 
reeds c and d; draw i d parallel to a b; and with a 
radius of one part from the points d d describe the reed 
d for the bottom of the rail, which completes the figure. 

Fig. 5 is another similar section of handrail. The 
width 6 6 is divided into twelve equal parts as before; the 
point 4 is the center for the side of the figure, which is 
described with a radius of two parts ; a m is made equal to 
three parts, and b w to eight parts, and m n equal to 
seven parts ; then will a b be the radius, and b the center 
for the top of the rail. Take seven parts in the com- 
passes, and from the center 6 in the vertical line a b, 
describe the arcs g h, g h\ take six parts in the compasses, 
and from the center 4, describe the arcs e f, e f; draw the 
line d d through the point n; from the intersections at 
e f g h, as 3l center, with the radius of four parts, and 
from 4, as a center, with the radius of two parts, describe 
the curve of contrary flexure forming the side of the rail ; 
then from d, with the radius of one part, describe the 
arc at d, forming the astragal for the bottom of the rail. 

Fig. 6. — To describe this figure, let the width 6 6 be 
divided into 12 parts ; make m 4 equal to four parts, m 6 
equal to 6 parts, and 6 8 equal to 2 parts ; make 6 d equal 
to 5 parts, and draw the dotted lines d 4; also the lines 
4 g. On these lines make / 4 equal to two parts, / o equal 
to half a part, and g equal to four parts ; also make m k 
equal to one part, and draw the lines g k ; from k, as a 
center, describe the arc at a for the top of the rail; from 
g describe the arcs ho. At 4 and 4, with the radius of 
two parts, describe the arcs at 6 for the sides of the rail ; 
then from d set off the distance of two parts on the line 
d 4, and from this point as a center, with a radius of two 
parts, describe the curves of contrary flexure terminating 
in d d, which will complete the curved parts of the figure. 
Continue the line 6 6 the distance of four parts on each 
side to the points 4': from these points, and through the 
points d d, draw the lines d d for the chamfer at the 
bottom of the rail, thus completing the entire figure. 



Chapter XII 

Sails 



As a builder of ships should have a general knowledge 
of sails, I have devoted this chapter to illustrating and 
describing rigs of vessels and boats. 

No attempt has been made to do more than give a 
general description and complete lists of sails of the 
various rigs. Each rig is illustrated and identifying num- 
bers are marked against each sail. 

^ 1 2a. Ship Sails 

Fig. loi is an illustration of a full-rigged ship, sails 
being numbered for identification, the name of each sail 
being listed below with identifying numbers against it. 




Fig. 101. SMp 

DIFFERENT RIGS OF VESSELS 

Ship, Full-Rigged Ship 

A three-masted vessel (foremast, mainmast and miz- 
zenmast) each mast is fitted with a topmast, top-gallant- 
mast and royalmast, all are square-rigged, i.e., rigged with 
yards and square sails. (See Fig. loi.) 

Four-Masted Ships 
These vessels have either one, two or three of their 
masts, square-rigged, and those masts not square-rigged 
are fitted with a topmast only, and carry gaff-sails, like 
a barkentine, the three foremost masts are named like 
those in a three-masted ship (foremast, mainmast, miz- 
zenmast) and the hindmost is called a jigger-mast. 

Ship Sails (Ship Rig) 



1. 


Flying jib. 


8. 


Royal studdingsail. 


2. 


Standing jib or outer jib. 


9. 


Fore-sail or fore course. 


3. 


Inner or middle jib. 


10. 


Lower-fore topsail. 


4. 


Fore topmast staysail. 


11. 


Upper-fore topsail. 


5. 


Lower studdingsail. 


12. 


Lower-fore topgallantsail. 


6. 


Topmast studdingsail. 


IS. 


Upper-fore topgallantsail. 


7. 


Topgallant studdingsail. 


14. 


Fore royal. 



15. 


Fore skysail. 


24. 


Cross-jack. 


16. 


Mainsail or main course. 


25. 


Lower-main topsail. 


17. 


Lower-main topsail. 


26. 


Upper-mizzen topsail. 


18. 


Upper-main topsail. 


27. 


Lower-mizzen topgallantsail 


19. 


Lower-main topgallantsail. 


28. 


Upper-mizzen topgallantsail 


20. 


Upper-main topgallantsail. 


29. 


Mizzen royal. 


21. 


Main royal. 


30. 


Mizzen skysail. 


22. 


Main skysail. 


31. 


Spanker. 


23. 


Moonsail. 








1. Main staysail. 

2. Main topmast staysail. 

3. Middle staysail. 

4. Main topgallant staysail. 

5. Main royal staysail. 



Fig. 102. Staysails 

Ship (Staysails) 

6. Mizzen staysail. 



Mizzen topmast staysail. 
Mizzen topgallant staysail. 
Mizzen royal staysail. 



1 2b. Sails of a Barque 
Fig. 103 is an illustration of a barque, her sails being 
numbered for identification. The name of each sail, 
with identifying number against it, is listed below. 

Barque; Bark (Sails) 
A three-masted vessel, (foremast, mainmast and miz- 
zenmast) the two foremost masts are square-rigged, as 
in a ship, the after or mizzenmast has no yards, being 
fitted with a topmast only, and carries a gaff-sail (called 
the spanker) and a gaff-topsail. (See Fig. 103.) 




Fig. 103. Barque 



124 

1. Flying jib. 

2. Jib. 

3. Fore topmast staysail. 

4. Fore-sail. 

6, Lower-top topsail. 

6. Upper-top topsail. 

7. Fore topgallant sail. 

8. Fore royal. 

9. Main topmast staysail. 

10. Middle staysail. 

11. Main topgallant staysail. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



12. Main royal staysail. 

13. Main sail. 

14. Lower-main topsail. 

15. Upper-main topsail. 

16. Main topgallant sail. 

17. Main royal. 

18. Mizzen staysail. 

19. ^fizzen topmast staysail. 

20. Spanker. 

21. Gaff-topsail. 



I2C. Sails of a Barkentine 

Fig. 104 is an illustration of a barkentine, her sails 

being numbered for identification. The name of each 

sail with identifying number against it, is listed below. 

(No. i-io same as on bark. No. 13-16 as on schooner.) 

Barkentine 
A three-masted vessel, ( foremast, mainmast and miz- 
zenmast) the foremast only is square-rigged, the main 
and mizzen mast are fitted with topmasts, and carry gaff- 
sails and gaff-topsails. 




Fig. 105. Brig 



Brigantine 



A two-masted vessel (foremast and mainmast). The 
foremast is square-rigged, and the after or mainmast 
(of a greater length than the foremast) carries a boom- 



1. 


Flying jib. 


8. 


Royal. 








2. 


Jib. 


9. 


Main topmast staysail. 


ing 


a gaff-topsail. (See Fig. 


106.) 


3. 


Fore-topmast staysail. 


10. 


Middle staysail. 








* 


Foresail. 


13. 


Main sail. 


8. 


Flying-jib. 


16. Royal. 


6. 


Lower topsail. 


11. 


Main gaff topsail. 


9. 


Outer jib or main jib. 


17. Main staysail. 


6. 


Upper topsail. 


15. 


Mizzen or spanker. 


10. 


Inner jib. 


18. Middle staysail. 


7. 


Top gallantsail. 


16. 


Mizzen topsail. 

^-^._ 1 


11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 


Fore topmast staysail. 
Fore-sail. 
Lower topsail. 
Upper topsail. 
Topgallant sail. 


19. Main topmast staysail. 

20. Main topgallant staysail 

21. Main sail. 

22. Gaff topsail. 




Fig- 104. Barkentine 

I2d. Sails of a Brig 
Fig. 105 is an illustration of a brig, her sails being 
numbered for identification. The name of each sail, with 
identifying number against it, is listed below. 

Brig 

A two-masted vessel, (foremast and mainmast), 
square-rigged, i.e., exactly as the two forerpost masts 
of a full-rigged ship or a barque. 




8. 


Flying jib. 


9. 


Outer jib. 


10. 


Inner jib. 


11. 


Fore sail. 


18. 


Fore topsail. 


13. 


Fore topgallantsail 


14. 


Fore royal. 


16. 


Main staysail. 



16. 


Main topmast staysail. 


17. 


Main topgallant staysail 


18. 


Main sail. 


19. 


Main topsail. 


20. 


Main topgallant sail. 


21. 


Main royal. 


22. 


Spanker. 



i2e. Sails of a Brigantine 
Fig. 106 is an illustration of a brigantine, her sails 
being numbered for identification. The name of each sail, 
with identification number against it, is listed below. 



Fig. 106. Brigantine 

I2f. Sails of a Topsail Schooner 
Fig. 107 is an illustration of a topsail schooner, her 
sails being numbered for identification. The name of 
each sail, with identifying number against it, is listed 
below. 

Topsail Schooner 
A two-masted vessel (foremast and mainmast) with 
long lower masts. The foremast is fitted with yards and 
square sails, which are lighter than those of a brigantine, 
and carrying a loose square foresail (only used when 
sailing before the wind) the main- or after mast is rigged 
like the after mast in a brigantine. (See Fig. 107.^ 



1. Flying jib. 

2. Outer jib. 

3. Inner jib. 

4. Fore topmast staysail. 
6. Fore sail. 



6. Fore topsaiL 

7. Upper fore topsail. 

8. Main tOf>mast staysail. 

9. Main sail. 

10. Main gaff topsail. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



123 




Fig. 107. Topsail Scbooner 

Three-Masted Topsail Schooner 

A three-masted vessel (foremast, mainmast and miz- 

zenmast). The foremast is rigged like the foremast in 

a topsail-schooner and the two after masts are fitted with 

boom sails and gaff-topsails, like those of a barkentine. 

i2g. Sails of a Fore-and-Aft Schooner 
Fig. 108 is an illustration of a fore-and-aft schooner, 
her sails being numbered for identification. The name of 
each sail, with identifying number against it, is listed 
below. 

Schooner 

A name applied to vessels of 'fore-and-aft rig of 
various sizes. Schooners have two or more long lower 
masts without tops, and are sometimes fitted with light 
square topsails, especially at the fore; but these are giv- 
ing way to the fore-and-aft gaff topsails, which are better 
adapted to the American coast. 

Some of the more modern schooners measure 2,000 
and 3,000 tons, and carry six and seven masts. (See 
Fig. 108.) 




Fig. 108. Fore-and-Aft Scbooner 



13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 



Plying jib. 
Jib. 

Inner jib. 
Staysail. 
Pore- sail. 



18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



Fore gaff topsail. 

Main sail. 

Main gaiT topsail. 

Mizzen. 

Mizzen-gaff topsail. 



i2h. Scow 




Scows are built with flat bottoms and square bilges, 
but some of them have the ordinary schooner bow. They 
are fitted with one, two, and three masts, and are called 
scow-sloop or scow-schooner, according to the rig they 
carry. Some of them carry bowsprits. The distinctive 
line between the scow and regular-built schooner is, in 
the case of some large vessels, quite obscure, but would 
seem to be determined by the shape of the bilge ; the scow 
having in all cases the angular bilge instead of the curve 
( futtock) bilge of the ordinary vessel. 

I2i. Cat 

A rig supposed to be derived from the Brazilian cata- 
maran that allows of one sail only, an enormous fore- 
' and-aft mainsail spread by a boom and gaff and hoisted 
to the one mast stepped near the stem. The cat rig is 
much employed on Long Island Sound for small coasting 
and fishing vessels. It is also a favorite rig for pleasure 
vessels, being easily handled, but is not suited to a heavy 
sea and rough weather. (See Fig. 109.) 




Fig. 109. Cat 



The scow is a vessel used in the shoal waters of nearly 
all the States, but principally on the lakes. 



I2J. YaVV^L 

Resembles the cutter rig, except that it has a jigger- 



126 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 110. Yawl 

mast at the stern, which carries a small lug-sail, the main 
boom traversing just clear of it. (See Fig. no.) 

12k. Sloop 

The sloop is a vessel with only one mast, and a bow- 
sprit carrying a fore-and-aft mainsail and jib, which, 
being set on the forestay, is called the foresail. The 
sloop is one of the oldest styles of vessel known to the 
trade of this country, and is (with some local variations 
in the cut of sails) a rig that is more or less employed in 
the commerce of the entire globe. (See Fig. in.) 




Pig. 111. Sloop 



12I. Cutter 



The cutter carries a fore-and-aft mainsail, stay fore- 
sail, flying jib, and topsail. Large cutters, 400 to 500 
tons, have been constructed for naval use and made to 
carry yards with every sail that can be set on one mast, 
even to sky sails, moon-rakers, star-gazers, etc. The 
modern cutter-yacht generally carries a flying gafif top- 
sail. The name cutter applies as much to the sharp build 
of the vessel's hull as to the particular rig. (See Fig. 
112.) 



Fig. 112. Cutter 

12m. Lugger 
Luggers are vessels generally with one mast (though 
sometimes two or three), having quadrilateral or four- 
cornered fore-and-aft sails bent to a hoisting yard, the 
luff being about two-thirds the length of the after leech. 
The French chasse-maree or lugger, used for fishing and 




Fig. 113. Lug-Salls 

coasting purposes, carries two or three masts and is of 
200 to 300 tons capacity. In this country the lugger is 
generally a small vessel with one mast, used for the oyster 
trade on the Mississippi River and adjacent waters. 
(See Fig. 113.) 




Fig. 114. Lateen-Sall 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



127 



i2n. Lateen 
The lateen rig is similar to the lug rig, excepting that 
the sail is triangular, a long yard which hoists obliquely 
to a stout mast forming the luff. 



Sail 




-^ Spkit - Sails - 

The lateen rig is much used by small craft in the 
Mediterranean and in some of the larger size which have 
more than one mast. The sails brail up in case of need. 
(See Fig. 114.) 




Sliding Gunter-^ 



Parts and Particulars of Sails (Figs. 115, 116, 117) 



Sail 



bolt rope of a — (Rope 
sewed around a sail 
bonnet of a — (A remov- 
able portion of a sail) 
bunt of a square — {when 
furled) 

clew or clue of a — 9 
spectacle clew, iron clew of 
a — pa 

clew-rope of a — 
cloth of a — IS 
cover of a — (Canvas cover 
put over furled sail to pro- 
tect them from damage) 
cringle of a — 12 
earing of a {square) — 14 



earing cringle of a 
(square) — 13 
earing thimble of a 
{square) — (Thimble 
worked into earing) 
eyelet-holes in a — 16 
foot of a — 6 
foot-band of a — (Band 
along foot) 
foot-rope of a — 6a 
girth-band of a — 18 
grommets {for eyelet 
holes) of a — (Brass or 
sewed protection around 
eyelet holes) 

head of a {square or gaff) 
— I 



head of a {triangular) — ib 
head-rope of a {square) — 
la 

head-rope of a {gaff) — ic 
head-rope, stay-rope of a 
{triangular) — 10 
hoist of a — 25 
lacing of a — (Line used to 
lace sail to gaff or boom) 
leech of a {square) — 8 
after leech of a {triangu- 
lar or trapezoidal) — 20 
fore-leech or luff of a {tri- 
angular or trapezoidal) — • 
{fixed to, or hoisted on a 
mast) — • 19b 

fore-leech, stay or luff of 
a {triangular) — {hoisted 
on a stay) — ipd 
leech-lining of a {square) 
leech-rope of a {square) 
— 8a 

after leech-rope of a {tri- 
angular or trapezoidal) — 
20a 



fore-leech rope, mastrope 
of a {trapezoidal or tri- 
angular) — {fixed to, or 
hoisted, on a mast) 
middle band, belly band of 
a {top)— 5 
peak of a {gaff) — 22 
tpef in a — (Distance be- 
tween each set of reef 
points) 
balance reef in a {gaff) — 

24 

reef band of a — 3 

reef cringle of a — 12 

reef earing of a {square) 

— 14 

reef points of a — 4 

reef-tackle-cringle of a — 11 

reef-tackle piece or patch 

of a — ID 

seam of a — 15a 

stopper or roband {to 

fasten a sail to a jackstay 

or to a hank) 

tack of a {trapezoidal or 

triangular) — 21 

throat or neck of a {gaff) 

— 23 




Fig. 116 



128 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Foot -rope ^ **- 
rig. 116 



f3 



frfirtju; -crut^ 



~JUtf-av}^Us 



Raf-taJiU'avigU 




■R ecf-toi: hhixmigU. 



rig. 117 



Chapter XIII 

Rigging 



Rigging is the name given to all ropes on a vessel 
employed to support the masts, and raise, lower or fasten 
the sails. The rigging of a vessel is divided into two 
classes, one class comprising all standing, or stationary 
rigging, and the other all running or movable rigging. 

13a. Standing Rigging Described 

The standing rigging of a vessel is usually of iron 
and steel wire rope made of strands of wire laid around 
a hemp core, the number of strands, varying from 7 to 
19, depending upon service rope is put to. 

On the accompanying tables I give properties of 

TABLES OF WIRE ROPES. 13A 

WEIGHT, STRENGTH, ETC., OF EXTRA STRONG CRUCIBLE 
CAST-STEEL ROPE 



TABLE 13B 
WEIGHT, STRENGTH, ETC., OF STAND.\RD WIRE ROPE 
Composed of Six Strands and a Hemp Center, Nineteen Wires to the 
Strand. 

Swedish Iron 



Composed of 


six strands am 


a hemp center, nineteen wires to the strand 




Approximate 




Approximate 


Allowable 


Diameter 


Circumference 


Weight per 


Breaking Strains 


Working Strains 


in Inches 


in Inches 


Foot in Pounds 


in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


in Tons of 
2000 Pounds 


2j< 


8^ 


"■95 


266 


53 


2K 


7^ 


985 


222 


45 


2% 


TA 


8.00 


182 


36.4 


2 


6K 


6.30 


144 


28.8 


iH 


s'A 


4-85 


112 


22.4 


iH 


s 


415 


97 


19.4 


I'A 


4K 


3-55 


84 


16.8 


iH 


4'/i 


3.00 


72 


14.4 


iX 


4 


2-45 


58 


11.60 


iH 


3'/2 


2.00 


49 


9.80 


1 


3 


1.58 


39 


7.80 


H 


2^ 


1 .20 


30 


6.00 


H 


2% 


0.89 


22 


4.40 


H 


2 


0.62 


iS-8 


316 


■ % 


ij< 


0.50 


12.7 


2-54 


H 


i>^ 


0-39 


10. 1 


2.02 


'-16 


iX 


0.30 


7.8 


1.56 


H 


^yi 


0. 22 


5.78 


115 


^6 


I 


015 


40s 


0.81 


H 


^ 


O.IO 


2.70 


0-54 



SEVEN WIRES TO THE STRAND 



IK 


4H 


3-55 


79 


15.8 


I^ 


4X 


3.00 


68 


13-6 


r'A 


4 


2.45 


56 


II. 2 


iH 


^y^ 


2.00 


46 


9.20 


I 


3 


1.58 


37 


7.40 


H 


2H 


1.20 


28 


5 .60 


H 


2X 


0.89 


21 


4.20 


'Hi 


2H 


0.7s 


18.4 


3.68 


H 


2 


0.62 


iS-i 


3.02 


% 


iH 


0.50 


12.3 


2,46 


H 


iK 


0-39 


9.70 


1.94 


¥6 


iK 


0.30 


7-5° 


I-50 


H 


lA 


0.22 


558 


1. 11 


'46 


I 


oiS 


3-88 


0.77 


'-6 


H 


O.I2S 


3.22 


0.64 





Approximate 




Approximate 


Allowable 


Diameter 


Circumference 


Weight per 


Breaking Strain 


Working Strain 


in Inche« 


in Inches 


Foot in Pounds 


in Tons of 


in Tons of 








2000 Pounds 


2000 Pounds 


2H 


?.H 


II 95 


114 


22.8 


2K 


iH 


985 


95 


18.9 


2% 


lA 


8.00 


78 


15.60 


2 


6'A 


6.30 


62 


12.40 


I^ 


S'A 


4-8s 


48 


9.60 


\H. 


5 


4-15 


42 


8.40 


iK 


4^ 


3-55 


36 


7.20 


xH 


4X 


3.00 


31 


6.20 


1% 


4 


2-45 


25 


S.oo 


I'A 


3K 


2.00 


21 


4. 20 


I 


3 


1.58 


17 


3-40 


H 


2H 


1.20 


13 


2.60 


H 


2% 


0.89 


9-7 


1.94 


H 


2 


0.62 


6 


8 


1.36 


% 


iH 


0.50 


5 


5 


1. 10 


% 


i>^ 


0-39 


4 


4 


0.88 


¥6 


iX 


0.30 


3 


4 


0.68 


H 


lA 


0. 22 


2 


5 


0.50 


'46 


I 


OIS 


I 


7 


0-34 


Va 


K 


0. 10 


I 


2 


0.24 



CAST STEEL 



2A 


8^^ 


11-95 


228 


45-6 


2K 


lA 


985 


190 


37-9 


2A 


lA 


8.00 


156 


31.2 


2 


6% 


6.30 


124 


24.8 


iK 


s'A 


4-85 


96 


19.2 


iH 


5 


4-15 


84 


16.8 


I'A 


aH 


3-55 


72 


14.4 


iH 


4X 


3.00 


62 


12.4 


iX 


4 


2.45 


50 


10. 


xA 


3A 


2.00 


42 


8.40 


I 


3 


1.58 


34 


6.80 


A 


2H 


1.20 


26 


5.20 


H . 


2V, 


0.89 


19.4 


3.88 


H 


2 


0.62 


13-6 


2.72 


% 


iK 


0.50 


II. 


2.20 


% 


xA 


0-39 


8.8 


1.76 


Tfg 


lA 


0.30 


6.8 


1.36 


H 


lA 


0.22 


5-0 


1. 00 


%, 


I 


0.15 


3-4 


0.68 


X 


H 


O.IO 


2-4 


0.48 



various standard sizes of iron wire and steel wire rope. 
The size of a wire rope is its diameter, or circumference, 
as the case may be, and the size required for each piece 
of standing rigging depends upon working strain that 
must be withstood, which of course varies with size, 
type of vessel, rig, and amount of sail that will be carried. 

13b. Fastening of Standing Rigging 
One end of each piece of standing rigging is attached 



I30 



WOODEN SHIP -BUILDING 




Fig. 118. Chain Plates and Channels 

to one of the spars and the other end to one of the chain 
plates, pad-eyes, or eyebohs fastened to hull, or to another 
spar. 

On Fig. ii8 are shown details of chain plate con- 
struction and method of fastening chain plates to hull 
and rigging to chain plates. 

No. I on the illustration is the chain plate which is 
attached to hull by chain plate bolt 2 and preventer 
bolt 3 ; 4 is a preventer plate, 5 the channel over which 
the chain plate is led, 6 the dead-eye through which the 
tightening lanyard is led, and 7 is the strand of rigging 
attached to chain plate. 

The other part of illustration shows profile view of 
main rigging chain plates. Note that the one channel ex- 
tends across all chain plates of each set of rigging. 

13c. Describing the Channels 
A channel is an assemblage of oak planks lying hori- 
zontally and projecting outwards from side of ship. They 
are placed near to each mast, with their fore ends slightly 
ahead of center of mast, and are always sufficiently long 
to receive and support as many chain plates as necessary. 
Channels are securely bolted to frames and are fre- 
quently shod with iron. 

13d. Chain Plates and Their Fastenings 
Chain plates are made of iron or steel and are usually 
about 3 or 4 inches broad and from i to i^ inches 
thick on ships of 1,500 tons. Chain plates are fastened 
to hull with bolts that pass through planking, frame, 
ceiling, and are securely riveted in heavy clinch rings 
inside hull. The main and fore chain plates usually 
have a preventer plate and bolt as an additional fastening. 
On Fig. 1 18 the chain plate fastenings are clearly shown. 
Dead-eyes, or turnbuckles, are fastened to the upper 
end of each chain plate. Turnbuckles are fastened to 
the chain plates with an iron strap that passes around 
the dead-eye and is fastened to chain plate with a bolt 
or link. 



Turnbuckles are fastened to chain plates with a bolt 
that passes through shackle of turnbuckle and hole in 
upper end of chain plate. 

i3e. Method of Fastening Standing Rigging to 
Spars, and to Hull 

The method of fastening standing rigging to spars 
is by splicing to eyes on bands, by splicing around the 
spar, or by seizing the end ; and the method of fastening 
to hull is by splicing to turnbuckles or dead-eyes, by 
splicing around thimbles that are placed in eyebolts and 
pad-eyes, and by seizing. A large portion of standing 
'■igging is "set up" or tautened by means of either turn- 
buckles, dead-eyes or lanyards. 

All standing rigging must be set taut and securely 
fastened. 

i3f. List of a Ship's Standing Rigging 

On the following list are given the names of the 
principal pieces of a ship's standing rigging, and im- 
mediately below the list is an illustration, on which each 
piece of rigging is marked for identification. Bear in 
mind that fore and main masts of barks and brigs, and 
the foremast of a barkentine and a brigantine have stand- 
ing rigging that is very similar to a ship's. 

List of a Ship's Standing Rigging Shown on Fig. 119 

Main topgallant rigging. 

Mizzeii ^rigging. 

Mizzen topmast rigging. 

Mizzen topgallant rigging. 

Fore topmast backstays. 

Fore topgallant backstays. 

Fore royal and skysail back- 
stays. 

Main topmast backstays. 

Main topgallant backstays. 

Main royal and skysail back- 
stays. 

Mizzen topmast backstays. 

Mizzen topgallant backstays. 

Mizzen royal and skysail back- 
stays. 

Bobstays. 

Jib boom martingale stay. 

Flying jib boom martingale 
stay. 

Martingale guys or back ropes. 

Jib flying jib boom guys. 



1. 


Fore skysail stay. 


23. 


2. 


Fore royal stay. 


24. 


3. 


Flying jib stay. 


25. 


4. 


Fore topgallant stay. 


26. 


0. 


Jib stay. 


27. 


6. 


Fore topmast stay. 


28. 


7. 


Fore stay. 


29. 


8. 


Main stay. 




9. 


Main topmast stay. 


30. 


10. 


Main topgallant stay. 


31. 


11. 


Main royal stay. 


32. 


12. 


Main skysail stay. 




13. 


Mizzen stay. 


33. 


14. 


Mizzen topmast stay. 


34. 


15. 


Mizzen topgallant stay. 


35. 


16. 


Mizzen royal stay. 




17. 


Mizzen skysail stay 


36. 


18. 


Fore rigging. 


37. 


19. 


Fore topmast rigging. 


38. 


20. 


Fore topgallant rigging. 




81. 


Main rigging. 


39. 


22. 


Main topmast rigging. 


40. 




rig. 119. Ship's standing Elgglng 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



131 



i3g. Standing Rigging 
Below is listed in alphabetical order the names of each piece of standing rigging used on sa:iling vessels. 



Backstay — (Stays that support 
topmast, topgallant and 
royal masts from aft. 
They reach from heads of 
their respective masts to 
the channels at each side 
of ship.) 
preventer — 

fore royal — s 29, Fig. 119 
main royal — s 32, Fig. 
119 

mizzen royal — s 35, Fig. 
119 

fore skysail — s 29, Fig. 
119 

main skysail — s 32, Fig. 
119 

mizzen skysail — s — -35, 
Fig. 119 
standing — 

fore topgallant — s — 28, 
Fig. 119 

main topgallant — s — -31, 
Fig. 119 

mizzen topgallant — s — 
34, Fig. 119 

topmast — s {of a square- 
rigged mast) — 20, Fig. 
120 

fore topmast — s (of a 
square-rigged mast) — 27, 
Fig. 119 

Backstays, fore topmast — s 
(.of a fore and aft 
schooner) 

main topmast — s (of a 
ship, barque or brig) — 
30, Fig. 119 

main topniast — s (of a 
barquentine, brigantine or 
schooner) 

mizzen topmast — s (of a 
ship) — 33, Fig. 119 
mizzen topmast — s (of a 
barque, barquentine or 
three-masted schooner) 
weather — s 

Bobstay (usually made of 
chain) — 36, Fig. 119 

Flemish-horse — 31, Fig. 120 

Foot rope's are fitted to all 
yards (See Rigged Fore- 
mast) Fig. 120* 

Foot ropes 

cross-jack — ; cross-jack 
yard — 

fore — ; fore yard — 28, 
Fig. 120 



Foot ropes 

main — ; main yard — 

topsail — ; topsail yard — 

29, Fig. 120 

topgallant — ; topgallant 

yard — 

royal — ; royal yard — 

skysail — ; skysail yard — 

jib boom — 

flying jib boom — 

stirrup in a — 30, Fig. 120 

Guy ; Back-rope 
boom — 
davit — 
jib boom — 
flying jib boom — 
martingale — 
lower studdingsail boom — 

Man-rope; Ridge-rope of the 
bowsprit ; Bowsprit-horse 

Martingale-stay ; Martingale 
jib boom — 
flying jib boom — 

Pendant 

boom guy — 
brace — 
fish tackle — 
jib sheet — 
mast head — 
staysail sheet — 
topmast head — 

Puttock-rigging ; Puttock- 
shrouds 
fore — 
main — 

mizzen — (of a ship) 
mizzen — (of a barque, 
barquentine or three- 
masted schooner) 

Puttock-rigging, fore topgal- 
lant — 23, Fig. 120 
main topgallant — 
mizzen topgallant — 

Ratline — 16, Fig. 120 

Rigging 

fore — ; fore lower — 18, 
Fig. 119 

main — ; main lower — 
21, Fig. 119 

mizzen — ; mizzen lower 
(of a ship) — 24, Fig. 119 
mizzen — (of a barque, 
barquentine or three- 
masted schooner) 



Rigging 

topmast — (of a square- 
rigged mast) — • 22, Fig. 
120 

fore topmast — (of a 
square-rigged mast) — ig. 
Fig. 119 

fore topmast — (of a top- 
mast not fitted with any 
yards) 

main topmast — (of a 
square-rigged mast) — 
22, Fig. 119 

main topmast — (of a 
topmast not fitted with any 
yards) 

mizzen topmast — (of a 
ship) — 25, Fig. 119 
mizzen topmast — (of a 
barque, barquentine or 
three-masted schooner) 
fore topgallant — 20, Fig. 
119 

main topgallant — 23, Fig. 
119 

mizzen topgallant — 26, 
Fig. 119 

lower mast — (all the 
standing rigging of a lower 
mast, including stay and 
mast-head pendants) 
topmast — (all the stand- 
ing rigging of a topmast, 
including backstays and 
stay) 

topgallant mast — (all the 
standing rigging of a top- 
gallant-mast, including 
backstays and stay) 

Shroud (*) 

bowsprit — 
fore lower — s 
foremost — ; Swifter 
futtock — s 
lower — • s 
main — s 

mizzen — s (of a ship) 
mizzen — s (of a barque, 
barquentine or three- 
masted schooner) 
preventer — 
topgallant • — s 
topmast — s 

(*) A shroud is any one of the 
ropes — hemp or wire — of which the 
"rigging", as lower-rigging, topmast- 
rigging, topgallant rigging, etc., is 
formed. The bowsprit, futtock, 
funnel-shrouds, etc., are often made 
of chain and sometimes of bar-iron. 



*Fig. 120 and 138 are alike. 



132 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Stay 



bumpkin — ; bumpkin- 
shroud 

fore — 7, Fig. 119 
fore — (,of a schooner, 
cutter, etc.) 
jib — 5, Fig. 119 
flying- jib — 3, Fig. 119 
inner-jib — ; middle jib — 
Fig. 119 

jumping — ; pitching — 
main — 8, Fig. 119 
middle staysail — Fig. 119 
mizzen — {of a ship) — 
13, Fig. 119 

mizzen — (of a barque, 
barquentine or three- 
masted schooner) 



Stay 



Stay 



royal — 

fore royal — 2, Fig. 119 

main royal — 11, Fig. 119 

mizzen royal — 16, Fig. 

119 

skysail — 17, Fig. 119 

fore skysail — i, Fig. 119 

main skysail — 12, Fig. 119 

mizzen skysail — 17, Fig. 

119 

spring — 

fore topgallant — • 4, Fig. 

119 

main topgallant — 10, Fig. 

119 

mizzen topgallant — 15, 

Fig. 119 



fore topmast — {of a 

square-rigged mast) — 6, 

Fig. 119 

fore topmast — {of a 

topmast not fitted with 

any yards) 

main topmast — (of a 

square-rigged mast) — 9, 

Fig. 119 

main topmast — (of a 

topmast not fitted with any 

yards) 

mizzen topmast — (of a 

ship) — 14, Fig. 119 

mizzen topmast — (of a 

barque, barquentine or 

three-masted schooner) 



(ilhlf latfi Rof/e Shrnmllaul Rope Biiioser laid Rope Flmiish Rye 





26 



Klark itkitt 
Hack 




Fig. 121 



i3h. Running Rigging 
Running rigging is the name applied to all that por- 
tion of a vessel's rigging that is used to set, furl, control 
and handle the sails. It is usually composed of manila, 
hemp, or sizal, cordage, rove through blocks or over 
sheaves. 



The rope used for rigging is composed of a number 
of yarns twisted together to form strands and then a 
certain number of these strands are twisted together to 
form the rope. 

Rope is named according to the manner in which it is 
laid and its size is determined by measuring diameter, or 
circumference, as the case may be. 

Common or plain laid rope is composed of three 



TABLE 13c 

APPROXIMATE WEIGHT AND STRENGTH OF MANILA ROPE 

Manila, Sisal, New Zealand, and Jute ropes, weigh (about) alike. 
Tarred Hemp Cordage will weigh (about) one-fourth more. Manila 
is about 25% stronger than Sisal. Working load about one-fourth of 
breaking strain. 









'lumber of 


Strength of 


Circumference 


Diameter 


Weight of 1000 Feet and Inches 


New Manila Rope 


in Inches 


in Inches 


Feet in Pounds C 


ne Pound 


in Pounds 






Fa 


t Inches 




H 


Va 


23 I 







450 


I 


% 


a 3 


3 




780 


^% 


H 


42 2 


5 




1000 


iX 


'-1-6 


52 I 


9 




1280 


iX 


K 


74 1 


I 




1760 


iK 


'-ie 


101 


9 




2400 


2 


H ■ 


132 


7 




3140 


2K 


K 


167 


6 




3970 


2K 


'% 


207 


S 




4900 


2^ 


}^ 


250 


4 




5900 


3 


I 


297 


3 6 


7000 


i% 


I Mi 


349 


2 10 


8200 


3'A 


i>i 


40s 


2 4 


9600 


3K 


iX 


465 


2 I 


1 1000 


4 


l5^6 


529 


I 10 


12500 


A'A 


T-H 


597 


I 8 


14000 


A'A 


I'-16 


669 


I 5 


15800 


4K 


iK 


746 


I 4 


17600 


s 


^H 


826 


I 2 


19500 


^% 


IK 


1000 




23700 


6 


I>^ 


1 190 


10 


28000 


(>% 


2 


1291 


9K 


33000 


tyi 


2H 


1397 


8K 


38000 


7 


^y. 


1620 


7 ^ 


44000 


7K 


iH 


i860 


6K 


50000 


8 


2% 


2116 


SK 


60000 


8K 


2H 


2388 


5 ^ 


63000 


9 


2H 


2673 


4A 


67700 


Ia 


3 


2983 


4 


70000 


10 


3% 


3306 


3^ 


80000 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



133 



strands twisted together, the number of yarns in each 
strand varying with size of rope. 

Shroud laid rope has four strands, and cable or 
hawser laid rope consists of three strands laid up as for 
plain laid rope, and then three of these three-ply strands 
laid up to form the hawser. Hawser laid rope is twisted 
together left-handed and, of course has o strands as ex- 
plained above. 

There is also a four-stranded hawser laid rope. 

On the accompanying Table 13C are given particulars 
of the most generally used sizes of ropes; on Fig. 121 
are shown illustrations of rope, and on Table 13D names 
of ropes and parts. 

Different Ropes Supplied to a Ship 



Breast-fast ; Breast-rope 
Cable, spare — 
Hawser 

steel — 

wire — (used for towing) 
Messenger 
Rope 

bolt — (rope used for 

roping sails) 

cable laid — 24. Fig. 121 

coil of — 

coir — 

common laid — ; hawser 

laid — (see definition) 

heart of a — (the center) 

hemp — {Europe) (rope 

made of hemp) 

manila — (rope made of 

manila) 

mooring — • (rope used for 

mooring a vessel) 

pointed — ; point of a — 



Rope 



preventer — 
relieving — 
serving of a — 
shroud laid — 2 



I.' 12 i2I 



strand of a — (see defini- 
tion) 

three-stranded — 26, Fig. 
121 

four-stranded — 25, Fig. 
121 

tarred — (Hemp rope that 
has been immersed in tar) 
whip of a — ■ 
white or untarred — (rope 
made of natural hemp or 
manila) 

wire — (see Table 13a) 
steel wire — (see Table 
13a) 

Tow-line; Tow-rope (rope 
used for towing) 



24, Fig. 121 

Running Rigging of a Ship (Fig. 122) 



Moonsail brace. 

Cross-jack brace. 

Lower-mizzen topsail brace. 

Upper-mizzen topsail brace. 

I.ower-mizzen topgallant brace. 

Upper-mizzen topgallant brace. 

Mizzen royal brace. 

Mizzen skysail brace. 

Fore buntlines. 

Fore topsail buntlines. 

Fore topgallant buntline. 

Fore royal buntline. 

Main buntlines. 

Main topsail buntlines. 

Main topgallant buntline. 

^ain royal buntline. 

Cross-jack buntline. 

Mizzen topsail buntlines. 

Mizzen royal buntline. 

Spanker brails. 

Peak halliards. 




Hg. 122. SUp — Ennnijig Rigging 

against a number of the items are marked identifying 
numerals that correspond with similar numerals marked 
on the running rigging illustrations. By referring to the 
numeral and illustration entered against any item of 
running rigging you will learn its location and the purpose 
it is used for. 



Names of Running Rigging 
Brace 

— pendant 



131- 

1. Flying jib sheet. 23. 

2. Jib sheet. 2*. 

3. Middle jib sheet. 25. 
A. Fore topmast staysail sheet. 26. 

5. Fore sheet. 27. 

6. Main sheet. 28. 

7. Cross-jack sheet. 29. 

8. Spanker sheet. 30. 

9. Fore brace. 31. 

10. Lower-fore topsail brace. 32. 

11. Upper-fore topsail brace. 33. 

12. Lower-fore topgallant bract. 34. 

13. Upper-fore topgallant brace. 3,'). 

14. Fore royal brace. 36. 

15. Fore skysail brace. 37. 

16. Main brace. 38. 

17. Lower-main topsail brace. 39, 

18. Upper-main topsail brace. 40. 

19. Lower-main topgallant brace. 42. 

20. Upper-main topgallant brace. 43. 

21. Main royal brace. 44. 

22. Main skysail brace. 

I3j. Fore-and-Aft Schooner Rigging (Fig. 123) 

23. Fore boom topping lift. 26. Fore peak halliard. 

24. Main boom topping lift. 27. Main peak halliard. 
28. Mizzen boom topping lift. 28. Mizzen peak halliard. 

13k. Names of Running Rigging 
Below is listed in alphabetical order the names of 
principal pieces of running rigging used on ships, and 



Bowline 

— bridle 
cross-jack — 
fore — 
lee — 
The following bowlines are 
seldom used : 
main — 
top — 
fore top — 
main top — 
mizzen top — 
topgallant — 
fore topgallant — 
main topgallant — 
mizzen topgallant — 
weather — 

Brace 

Cross-jack — 24, Fig. 122 

fore — 9, Fig. 122 

lee — 

main — 16, Fig. 122 

moon-sail — 23, Fig. 122 



preventer — 

royal — 

fore royal — 14. F'g- 122 

main royal — 21, Fig. 122 

mizzen royal — 29, Fig. 

122 

skysail — 30, Fig. 122 

fore skysail — 15, Fig. 

132 

main skysail — 22, Fig. 122 

mizzen skysail — 

studdingsail boom — 

topgallant — 

fore topgallant — 

lower fore topgallant — 

12, Fig. 122 

upper fore topgallant — 13^ 

Fig. 122 

lower topgallant — 

main topgallant — 

lower main topgallant ^ 

19, Fig. 122 




Fig. 123. Fore-and-Aft Schooner Blgging 



^34 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Brace 

upper main topgallant — 

20, Fig. 122 

mizzen topgallant — 

lower mizzen topgallant 

— 27, Fig. 122 

upper mizzen topgallant — 

28, Fig. 122 

upper topgallant — 

topsail — • 

topsail — (of a schooner) 

fore topsail — 

lower fore topsail — 10, 

Fig. 122 

upper fore topsail — 11, 

Fig. 122 

lower topsail — 

main topsail — 

lower main topsail — 17, 

Fig. 122 

upper main topsail — 18, 

Fig. 122 

mizzen topsail — 

lower mizzen topsail — 25, 

Fig. 122 

upper mizzen topsail — 26, 

Fig. 122 

upper topsail — 

weather — 

Brail 

foot — 

peak — 

preventer — 

spanker — 43, Fig. 122 

throat — 

trysail — 

fore trysail — 

main trysail — 

Bridle 

Bunt-line 

— lizard 

cross-jack — 39, Fig. 122 

fore — 31, Fig. 122 

lower — s 

main — 35, Fig. 122 

royal — 

fore royal — 34, Fig. 122 

main royal — 38, Fig. 122 

mizzen royal — 42, Fig. 

122 

topgallant — 

fore topgallant — 33, Fig. 

122 

main topgallant — 37, Fig. 

122 

mizzen topgallant — 41, 

Fig. 122 

topsail — 

topsail — (of a schooner) 

fore topsail — 32, Fig. 122 

main topsail — 36, Fig. 122 

mizzen topsail — 40, Fig. 

122 



Cat-back; Back-rope of a Cat- 
block 

Clew-garnet — (a tackle 
fastened to clews of main 
and foresail for trussing 
them to yard) 
cross-jack — 
fore — 
main — 

Clew-line or Clue-line 
royal — 
fore royal — 
main royal — 
mizzen royal — 
skysail — 
fore skysail — ■ 
main skysail — 
mizzen skysail — 
topgallant — • 
fore topgallant — • 
main topgallant — 
mizzen topgallant — 
topsail — 

topsail — (of a schooner) 
fore topsail — ■ 
main topsail — ■ 
mizzen topsail — 

Downhaul 

gaff-topsail — 

jib - 

flying-jib — 

peak — • 

fore-staysail — 

staysail — ■ 

main staysail — 

middle staysail — 

mizzen staysail — (of a 

ship) 

mizzen staysail — (uf a 

barque, barquentine or 

three-masted schooner) 

main royal staysail — 

mizzen royal staysail — 

fore top staysail — 

main topgallant staysail — 

mizzen topgallant staysail 

fore topmast staysail — 
main topmast staysail — 
mizzen topmast staysail — 
(of a ship) 

mizzen topmast staysail — 
(of a barque, barquentine 
or three-masted schooner) 
studdingsail — 
fore lower studdingsail — 
main lower studdingsail — 
lower studdingsail — 
royal studdingsail — 
fore royal studdingsail — 
main royal studdingsail — 
topgallant studdingsail — 
fore topgallant studding- 
sail — 

main topgallant studding- 
sail — 



Downhaul, topmast studding- 
sail — 

fore topmast studding- 
sail — 

main topmast studding- 
sail — 

Fall 

cat — 
purchase — 
tackle — 
fish tackle — 
top tackle — 

Fancy-line 

Halliard 
jib- 
flying jib — 

inner jib — ; middle jib — 
main-jib — 
outer — 
peak — 

fore peak — 26, Fig. 123 
main peak — 27, Fig. 123 
spanker or mizzen peak — 
28, Fig. 123 
peak — 44, Fig. 122 
royal — 
fore royal — 
main royal — 
mizzen royal — 
signal — ; ensign — 
skysail — 
fore skysail — 
main skysail — 
mizzen skysail — • 
stay foresail — • 
staysail — 
fore top staysail — 
main staysail — 
middle staysail — 
mizzen staysail — (of a 
ship) 

mizzen staysail — (of a 
barque, barquentine or 
three-masted schooner) 
main royal staysail — 
mizzen royal staysail — 
main topgallant staysail — 
mizzen topgallant stay- 
sail — 

fore topmast staysail — 
main topmast staysail — 
mizzen topmast staysail — 
(of a ship) 

mizzen topmast staysail — 
(of a barque, barquentine 
or three-masted schooner) 
studdingsail — 
fore lower studdingsail — 
fore lower studdingsail 
inner — 

fore lower studdingsail 
outer — 

main royal studdingsail — 
topgallant studdingsail — 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



135 



Halliard 

fore topgallant studding- 
sail — 

main topgallant studding- 
sail — 

topmast studdingsail — 
fore topmast studding- 
sail — 

main topmast studding- 
sail — 
throat — 

fore-sail throat — 
main throat — 
spanker or mizzen 
throat — 
topgallant — 
fore topgallant — 
main topgallant — 
mizzen topgallant — 
topsail — 

topsail — {of a schooner) 
fore topsail — 
main topsail — 
mizzen topsail — 

Inhaul 

spanker — 
trysail — 
fore trysail — 
main trysail — 

Jib-heel-rope; Jib-boom-hcel- 
rope 

Leech-line 

cross- jack — 

fore — , 

main — 

preventer — 
Lift 

boom — ; boom topping — 

cross-jack — 

fore — 

fore sail boom — ; fore 

boom topping — 

lower — 26, V\g,. 120 

lower studdingsail boom 

topping — 

main — • 

main boom — ; main boom 

topping — 

royal — 

fore royal — 

main royal — 

mizzen royal — 

skysail — 

fore skysail — 

main skysail — 

mizzen skysail — 

spanker boom topping — • 

mizzen boom topping — 

topgallant — 

fore topgallant — 

main topgallant — 

mizzen topgallant — 

topsail — 27, Fig. 120 

fore topsail — 

main topsail — 

mizzen topsail — 



Outhaul 

spanker — 

trysail — 
fore trysail — 
main trysail — 

Reef-tackle 

cross-jack — 

fore — 

main — 

topsail — 

topsail — {of a schooner) 

fore topsail — 

main topsail — 

mizzen topsail — 

Sheet 

boom fore sail — 
brig's boom sail — 
cross-jack — 7, Fig. 122 
fore — 5, Fig. 122 
head — s 
jib — 2, Fig. 122 
flying jib — 17, Fig. 122 
inner jib — ; middle jib — 
3, Fig. 122 
lee — ■ 

main — 6, Fig. 122 
moon sail — 
preventer — 
ringtail — 
royal — 
fore royal — 
main royal — 
mizzen royal — 
skysail — 
fore skysail — 
main skysail — 
mizzen skysail — 
spanker — 8, Fig. 122 
square sail ■ — 
stay fore sail — 
staysail — 
main staysail — ■ 
middle staysail — 
mizzen staysail — {of a 
ship) 

mizzen staysail — {of a 
barque, barquentine or 
three-masted schooner) 
main royal staysail — 
mizzen royal staysail — 
main topgallant staysail — 
mizzen topgallant stay- 
sail — 

fore topmast staysail — 4, 
Fig. 122 

main topmast staysail — 
mizzen topmast staysail — 
{of a ship) 

mizzen topmast staysail — ■ 
{of a barque, barquentine , 
or three-masted schooner) 
storm sail ■ — 
studdingsail — 
fore lower studdingsail — • 
fore royal studdingsail — 
main royal studdingsail — 



Sheet 

fore topgallant studding- 
sail — 

main topgallant studding- 
sail — 

fore topmast studding- 
sail — 

main topnjast studding- 
sail — 
topgallant — 
fore topgallant — 
main topgallant — 
mizzen topgallant — 
topsail — 

topsail — {of a schooner) 
fore topsail — 
main topsail — 
mizzen topsail — 
trysail — 
fore trysail - 
main trysail — 
weather — • 

Slab-line 

Span 

Spilling-line 

Tack 

cross-jack — 
fore — 
gaff topsail — 
jib - 

flying-jib — 

inner jib — : middle jib — 
main — 
spanker — 
stay fore sail — 
staysail — 
main staysail — 
mizzen staysail — 
main royal staysail — 
mizzen royal staysail — • 
main topgallant staysail — 
mizzen topgallant stay- 
sail — 

fore topmast staysail — 
main topmast staysail — 
mizzen topmast staysail — 
(of a ship) 

mizzen topmast staysail — 
{of a barque, barquentine 
or three-masted schooner) 
studdingsail — 
fore royal studdingsail — 
main royal studdingsail — 
fore topgallant studding- 
sail — 

main topgallant studding- 
sail — 

fore topmast studding- 
sail — 

main topmast studding- 
sail 

Tack-tracing-line 

Tye or Tie 

topsail — 25, Fig. 120 
topsail — {of a schooner) 



130 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Tye or Tie 

fore topsail — 

main topsail — 

mizzen topsail — 

topgallant — 

fore topgallant — 

main topgallant — 

mizzen topgallant — 
Topgallant mast-rope 
Topping-lift -^ 23, 24, 25, Fig. 
123 



Top-rope 

Tripping-line 

Vang 

— fall; Fall of a — 
pendant of a — 
preventer — 
spanker — 
trysail — 
fore trysail — 
main trysail — • 



13I. Blocks, Tackles and Knots 
Blocks are used in a ship either in combination with 
ropes to increase mechanical power, or to arrange and 
lead ropes to positions where they can be most con- 
veniently handled or secured. 

A block consists of at least four principal parts: 

1. The shell or outside. 

2. The strap or part of block to which the fastening 
is secured. 



3. The sheave, or wheel over which the rope is run. 

4. The pin, or axle, on which the sheave turns. 

On Fig. 123A I show the principal parts of a block 
and several types of blocks used on ships and ashore. 

13F. Description of a Shell of a JJlock 

Block shells are made of wood, and of metals of 
various kinds (steel, iron, composition, aluminum). 

For the running rigging of ships wood shell blocks 
are most generally used. These shells are composed of 
four or more pieces of wood fitted and fastened together 
with metal dowels and screw pins. On Fig. 8 of illustra- 
tion sheet 123 A is shown the assembled shell of a single 
block composed of two sides (8b) connected together by 
top and bottom pieces that keep sides the proper dis- 
tance apart. The space between sides (8a) is named the 
score and is always properly proportioned to width and 
diameter of sheave and diameter of rope that will run 





LIGNUM- VITAE- SHEAVE 



IKON SHEAVE 



BOLTS |0R PINS 




Single 





PATENT-SHEAVES 





BLOCK 



SINGLE BLOCK 



SHELL-OF-A-BLOCK 





FOUR lift SHEAVE-BLOCK 



TREBLE BLOCK 



// 



DOUBLE BLOCK 



/Z 




/3 
SNATCH BLOCK 



/4 



FIDDLE- BLOCK TAIL\ BLOCK 

Fig. 123 A 





/^s 



CAT O BLOCK 

^/2 A 




DEAD EYE 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



J37 



over sheave. All parts of blocks are proportioned to 
withstand a greater strain than rope rove through it will 
stand. 

The woods most generally used for shells of blocks 
are: Lignum-vitae, ash, elm. 

Lignum-vitre is best for small sizes of block shells 
because it is not liable to split. 

For larger sizes of blocks ash and elm are excellent 
woods. 

13I-. The Strap of a Block Described 

Block straps are now almost universally made of steel 
or iron, though for some special uses rope strapped blocks 
continue to be used. Block straps of iron or steel can be 
inserted inside of shell or can be fitted outside as shown 
on Fig. 12b. Inside straps (see Figs. 6, 7, 9) are most 
frequently used on ships. As you will note by referring 
to Figs. 6 and 7, the strap passes each side of score and 
is inserted into grooves cut in shell to receive it. At the 
upper end of strap a loop is formed for the eye of a 
hook or other fastenings device (see Figs. 6 and 9). 

When it is necessary to fasten the standing end of a 



rope to a block, it is passed over a thimble fitted between 
an extension to strap left for that purpose. This exten- 
sion is clearly shown on Figs. 6, 9 and 10 blocks. Rope 
straps are spliced around outside of blocks in grooves 
cut to receive them. 

13P. Describing the Sheave of a Block 

Block sheaves are made of lignum-vitse, of iron, of 
composition metal, and a combination of all three. 

If a sheave is a wheel with a hole through its center, 
as shown by Figs, i and 2, it is said to b^ a plain sheave, 
but if it is composed of one large wheel into which 
several smaller rollers or balls are inserted, it is called 
a roller or a patent sheave. Patent sheaves are now in 
very general use because by their use friction is greatly 
reduced and less power is required to lift the load. 

A sheave is inserted into each score of a block and is 
held in place by a pin that passes through a hole in each 
sheave and holes in strap and in shell of block. The 
pins are generally made of steel, or of composition metal 
and are shaped as shown on Fig. 5 of illustration sheet 
r23A. 






SINGLE-WHIP 



LONG -TACKLE DOUBLE -WHIP 

Fig. 123B 



SPANISH-BURTON 



138 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



13I*. Names of Blocks 

Blocks are named according to length of shell, num- 
ber of sheaves and shape. Thus a block having a shell 
6 inches in length is termed a 6-inch block, and if there 
is one sheave inserted in block it is a 6-inch single block 
(see Fig. 7) ; if there are two sheaves it is called a 
double 6-inch block (see Fig. 11) ; and if there are three 
sheaves a 6-inch treble block (see Fig. 10). Blocks are 
seldom made with more than four sheaves (see Fig. 9). 

In addition to this there are many dififerent shapes of 
blocks each having its special place in a ship, the shape 
being the one found by experience to be best adapted for 
the place and purpose. 

On illustration sheet 123A, a few shapes of blocks 
are shown. A dead-eye, while strictly speaking is not a 
block, is usually classed with them. The lanyards used 
for setting up standing rigging of a vessel are rove 
through holes in dead-eyes, one of which is attached to 
standing rigging and the other to a chain plate on side 
of vessel. 

A fiddle-block is practically two attached single blocks 



(one over the other) ; they are used in places where a 
double block would be liable to split by canting over, 
such as for top-burtons of a ship. A snatch block is a 
single block so arranged that a rope can be passed over 
its sheave without it being necessary to reeve it through 
the score. This is accomplished by having a cut made 
through one shell and closing ^he cut with a hinged metal 
fastening piece. Both the cut and hinged metal piece 
are shown on illustration sheet 123 A. This kind of 
block is very useful when it is necessary to lead a rope 
in a desired direction, such as to a capstan or windlass. 

A tail block is a single rope strapped block, to which 
a tail, or end rope is attached. 

Cat-blocks are used when hoisting anchor in position. 
They are extra heavy blocks fitted with outside iron or 
steel straps. 

Below I list, in alphabetical order, the names of 
principal blocks used on vessels. The numerals marked 
against some items indicate that the block, or part of 
block, against which numeral is placed is identified by 
that numeral on illustration sheets 123A, B, C. 





6 



WATCH TACKLE 



RUNNER ^TACKLE 



THREE FOLD PURCHASE 

rig. 123C 



TWO FOLD PURCHASE 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



139 



Names of Blocks 



Ketf-Krwi. Fyure of Eight Knot. SingleBeul Carrick Bend 



Block, brace — 
brail — 
bunt-line — 

butterfly — {jor topsail- 
sheet at bunt of lower 
yard) 

cat — ; Cat-hook — 12 
cheek — 

cheek of a — 8b 
clew-garnet — 
clew-line — 
clump — 
dead — (Heart) 
double — II 
downhaul — 
fiddle — 14 
fish-tackle — 
girtline — 
halliard — 
hook — 12a 
internal bound — 
iron bound — ; iron 
stropped — 12b 
jeer — (employed for 
raising a lower yard) 
jewel — 
leading — 
leech-line — 
lift — 

lift purchase — 
nine-pin — s 
pin of a — s 
purchase — 
reef tackle — 
score — 8a 



Block, sheave — i, 2, 3 

bouching or bush in sheave 

of a — 4 

sheave-hole or channel 

of a — 2a 

bottom of a sheave-hole 

in a — 

lignum-vitse sheave of — i 

metal sheave — 2 

sheet — • 

shell — 6 

shoe — 

shoulder — 

single — 7 

sister — 14 

snatch — 13 

span — 

strop of a — 

swallow of a — 

swivel — 

tack — 

tackle pendant — 

tail — IS 

tie — 

top — 

topping lift — 

treble — 10 

wheel chain — ; wheel 

rope — • 

Bull's-eye; Wooden thimble 
Dead-eye ^ 16 
Dead-sheave; Half-sheave 
Gin ; Gin-wheel 
Heart (dead-block) 



I will now pass to a description of tackles. 

i3ni. Tackles 

When a rope is rove through a single block the com- 
bined block and rope is named a single whip, but if the 
rope is rove through two or more blocks the combina- 
tion is named a tackle. 

There are many different kinds of tackles, each hav- 
ing its use and each increasing the power obtained accord- 
ing to the number of sheaves around which the rope is 
rove, the manner of reeving the rope and the relative 
positions of load and of hauling part. 

On Figs. 123B and 123C I illustrate a number of 
commonly used tackles. Fig. i shows a single whip, 
the smallest and simplest, purchase in use. Fig. 2 shows 
details of a long tackle composed of two fiddle blocks 
with falls rove as shown. Fig. 3 illustrates the way a 
double whip is rove and Fig. 4 a Spanish-burton. Fig. 5 
shows details of a watch tackle composed of a single and 
a double block, and Fig. 6 a runner and tackle combined. 
When using the runner and tackle the hook of runner is 
fixed to object intended to be moved. 

A three-fold purchase is composed of two three- 
sheave blocks. On the illustration the rope is rove off 




, Fig. 123D 

from outside to outside thus bringing the hauling part 
on outside. It is better, I think, to reeve the fall over 
iniddle sheave first instead of over an outside one. This 



M„Hh<'i>- Wtilkn- 





I Mm tvfif hHM 



Fig. 123E 



I40 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



will bring a cross in the fall, but it will carry the heaviest 
strain, which always comes on the fall part, in center 
of block and will also prevent the block canting. When 
fall is in middle the block is drawn square with direc- 
tion of pull and strain is equalized on all sheaves. A 
two-fold purchase is shown by Fig. 8. 

Below I have listed names of a few of the principal 
tackles used on board ships. 



Names of Tackles 



Tackle 

boom — 
cat — ■ ; Cat 
fish — for 
— fall 
long — 2 
luff — 
reef — 
relieving — 
rolling — 
runner and — 
stay — 
swifting — ■ 
tack — 

— ■ upon tackle 
yard — 



— for 



Purchase 

gun tackle — 

lift — 

two-fold — 8 

three-fold — 7 

four-fold — ■ 
Jigger or Watch-tackle — 5 

boom — 

bunt — 

tail — 
Whip, (single) — i 

bunt — 

double — 3 

— ■ and runner 
Spanish-burton — 4 



i3n. Knots and Splices 

As it is necessary that a shipbuilder should know the 
names of the principal knots used on board ships and in 
shipyards I have on Figs. 123D and E, illustrated a few 
of the knots that are in general use, and on Fig. 123F 
I have shown method of fastening two pieces of ropes 
together by splicing. The long splice (illustrated) is 



used when the rope has to pass through a block ; you will 
note that the long splice does not increase diameter of 
rope, while the short splice does (Fig. 123F). 

On list below I give names of a number of commonly 
used knots and against those illustrated on Figs. 121, 
123D and E, I have marked the identifying numeral. 

Knots, Bends, Hitches and Splices 



Knot 

single diamond — 
double diamond — 
figure of eight — 2 
Matthew Walker — 17 
overhand — ■ 
reef or square — i 
rope-yarn — • 32 
shroud — 20 
French shroud — 
stopper — 19 
Turk's-head — i8 
single wall — ■ 13 
single- wall and crown- 
double wall — • 14 
double wall and crown 
16 — (man-rope knot) 

Bend 

carrick — 4 
double — 
fisherman's — 
single — 3 ; sheet — ; 
common — 
studdingsail halliard — 

Clinch 

inside — 

outside — 
Catspaw — 29 



Hitch 

blackwall — 30 

double blackwall — 

bowline — 6 

bowline on the bight — 7 

running bowline 

clove — II 

half — 12 



Hitch, half — and timber 
marling — 9 
marling spike — 
midshipman's — 
rolling — 8 
timber — 10 
two half — es 

Sheep-shank — 5 

Splice 

cable — 
eye — 22 
horseshoe — 
long — 21 
short — • 23 



10 



Eve 



Elliot's — 
Flemish — 27 



'-t^i^t:^^ 




Banning Rigging Beadr to Beeva Off 



IF 00 DEN SHIP-BUILDING 



141 



TABLE 13D 



RECOMMENDED GIRTHS, IN INCHES, OF IRON AND STEEL WIRE LOWER RIGGING, BACKSTAYS, STAYS, AND 
BOWSPRIT SHROUDS, OF SAILING VESSELS, ALSO SIZES OF BOBSTAYS FOR SAME 



TONNAGE 


300 


400 


SCO 


600 


700 


8so 


1000 


1250 


OF VESSEL 


No. 


Girth 


No. 


Girth 


No. 


Girth 


No. 


Girth 


No. 


Girth 


No. 


Girth 


No. 


Girth 


No. 


Girth 


Fore and Main Shrouds 

Fore and Main Topmast Backstays 
Fore and Main Top-gallant Back- 
stays 


4 
2 

I 

2 
2 
I 


2H 

■2'A 


4 

2 

I 
2 

2 
I 


3 
2 

3 

2^ 
2 


4 
2 

I 
2 
2 
I 


3 

2% 
3X 
3 

2yi 


5 
2 

I 
2 
2 

I 


3K 
3>< 

2^ 
3K 

3^ 

2>< 


5 
2 

I 
2 
2 
I 


3K 
3K 

2>^ 

3K 
3>^ 

2j^ 


5 
2 

I 
2 
2 

I 


4 
3K 

2J< 

4 

3K 

2K 


5 
2 

I 
2 
2 
I 


4X 
4 

2?^ 
4>< 
4 
2^ 


6 
3 

2 

2 
2 
I 


4>^ 
4>< 

3 


Fore and Main Lower Stays 

Fore and Main Topmast Stays 

Fore and Main Top-gallant Stays.. 


4>^ 
4>< 
3 








3 

I 
I 
2 

I 
I 


2K 
2H 

I'A 

2H 
2K 


3 
I 

I 
2 
I 
I 


2H 

2% 
iK 
2^ 
2^ 
\H 


3 

I 
I 
2 

I 
1 


3 

2>l 

2^ 
2J< 
13^ 


4 
2 
I 

2 
I 

I 


3>^ 
3 

2 


4 
2 
I 
2 
I 
I 


3>< 
3^ 

2>i 

3>i 

3 

2 


4 
2 

I 
2 
I 
I 


3K 
3^ 

2>< 

3X 
3^ 

2>^ 


5 
3 
2 
2 
2 
I 


^1< 








^'^ 








2l/f 


Mizzen Lower Stays 






3'-^ 


Mizzen Topmast Stays 






3 '4 


Mizzen Top-gallant Stays 






2'.< 












2 


2K 


2 


2H 


2 


3 


2 


iVi 


2 


3^ 


2 


3H 


2 


3K 


2 


3^ 






Bobstay Bar, Diameter in Inches.. 
Bobstay Pin, Diameter in Inches. . 
Bobstay Chain, Size in Inches 


HA 
1% 


2 
1^6 


2ii 

1% 


2% 
HA 
1^6 


2>^ 
1% 


2A 

1% 


2A 
2}i 

1^6 


2^>< 
1% 



Steel Wire Rigging may be I2>^ per centum less in size than is specified in table. 

Hemp Standing Rigging, according to quality, should be from two to two and a quarter times the girth required for iron wire rigging. 




Fig. 123F 



Chapter XIV 

Masts and Spars 



The masts and spars of wooden vessels are usually 
made of wood. They are rounded for a greater part of 
their length and stepped in properly prepared mast steps 
fastened to keelson, though in ships that have a center 
line propeller, the after mast step cannot extend below 
top of shaft tunnel. 

The location, number and dimensions of mast and all 
other spars are marked on a spar and rigging plan pre- 
pared by designer. Lloyd's and the other classification 
societies have laid down rules for masting and rigging 
and have also issued tables of dimensions, and when a 
designer prepares his plans he generally adheres to the 
specifications of classification societies. 

Mast, or spar making, used to be a separate trade, 
but at present time most shipyards have their own spar- 
makers. 

14a. Timber Used for Spars 

The timbers commonly used in U. S. A. for masts 
and spars are: 

Oregon pine or Douglas fir. 
Spruce, Canada red. Yellow and white pine. 
Yellow pine. 
And in Europe, Riga fir and Norway pine is largely 
used. 

Timber for masts and spars must be absolutely free 
from sapwood, dead knots and defects likely to lessen 





Fig. 126. Making a Spar 

Strength. In addition to this, it is advantageous to have 
the smaller pieces of timber delivered to the sparmaker 
before they are squared, because the sparmaker can then 
lay out spar in such a manner that center or heartwood 
of tree is near center of spar. 

On Fig. 124 is shown a stick of timber being con- 




..v.,^^,,„. 



pQF'TfON or* WOOUEN BUILT Mast ^ 










% 



t 



Uppcr-Portiom or am iron-Mast^ 

Tnw-lioop ftrxiinl 






j:V;:' '| j!!;! ' j> ' ?:"'r 



'r 




Fig. 124. Making a Spai 



Figs. 126 and 128. Names of Parts of Mast 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



143 



"^ 



:■ 



Fi.riNC 'jia- BOOM 



nm 



|Cn: 



r. ^ 



H I 



•ir^ 



z^ 



-4v~4i: 



m 







ctp 



^.c. ..-,-' 



has been done, and stick is fair, the sparmaker dubs off 
the square corners and makes portion of stick that has 
to be rounded, eight sided. Next he makes it sixteen 
sided, by again taking off the corners, and after this 
has been done the stick is rounded and made perfectly 
smooth. Of course, as spar has a rounding taper from 
butt to point of greatest diameter," and from this point 
to 'top, it is necessary that sparmaker "lay out" longi- 
tudinal taper lines very accurately and work to them. 

In the case of booms, yards, and other smaller spars, 
the same method of procedure is followed. 

On Fig. 126 is shown details of a ship's mast and on 
Fig. 127 shapes and names of various spars. 

After a spar is shaped, it should be well oiled or 
painted to prevent wood checking, and then mast fittings 
and bands should be fitted and fastened in place. 

The accompanying illustrations show details of mast 
head, tops and their fittings, and on each illustration I 
have listed the name of each detail identified on illustra- 
tions by numerals. 

14c. Mast Steps 

At the beginning of this chapter I mentioned mast 
steps. These are generally cast steel shoes, securely 



Topmast 
bvsUt treat 



laymast. 
crotttrea 



W 



T'Aaa A'H <«oM''^ 



TOPftALLANT^^y YAWO 






Figs. 127 and 134 

verted into a spar. Note how the center of heart is 
located at about the center of stick, and on Fig. 125 is 
shown the same stick of timber converted into a spar. 

14b. Spar-Making 

A stick of timber is converted into a spar in this 
manner : 

The spannaker first obtains length and diameter 
measurements from spar and rigging plans and proceeds 
to "lay out" the Spar on one side of stick of timber, if 
it is a squared stick; or if it is a round stick of timber, 
he hews one side to a flat surface upon which the laying 
out lines can be marked. On a squared stick of timber 
the "laying off" lines are marked on each face, but if 
the stick is a round one, it will be necessary to hew to 
the lines marked on one face before lities can be marked 
on other faces. The spar is first worked to shape by 
hewing in the manner shown on Fig. 124 and when this 




Fig. 129. Spu and Rigging Details 



144 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



fitted over and bolted to upper keelsons. The upper face 
of this casting has a recess of proper size and depth to 
receive tenon cut on foot of mast. In the case of 
steamers having a single screw and an after mast located 
above shaft, it is necessary to step mast on lower deck, 
or on a properly prepared step bolted to top of shaft 
alley planking and framing. Where a mast goes through 
a deck, it must be properly supported and wedged in 
place, and of course the deck framing must be suffi- 
ciently strong to withstand additional strains that will 
come on deck near mast and where rigging is attached to 
side of vessel. The manner of framing a deck around a 
mast is clearly shown on Fig. 27 and on some of the 
drawings of deck framing shown at end of book. On 
the drawing No. 28 mast step construction details are 
clearly shown. 

i4d. ^Iasts and Spars of Various Rigs 
On the following lists I give names of masts and spars 
of principal rigs, each spar being identified by numerals 
marked on illustrations. 




Fig. 131. Barque Spars 



32. 
33. 

34. 


Fore yard. 

Lower-fore topsail yard. 

Upper-fore topsail yard. 


40. 
41. 
42. 


Main topgallant yard 
Main royal yard. 
Spanker boom. 


35. 
36. 
37, 


Fore topgallant yard. 
Fore royal yard. 
JIain yard. 


43. 
44. 

45. 


Spanker gaff. 
Bowsprit. 
Jib boom. 


38. 
39. 


I.ower-main topsail yard. 
Upper-main topsail yard. 


46. 


Inlying jib boom. 




Fig. 132. Barkentlne Spars 



Fig. 130. Ship Spars 

Sp.'\rs OF Ship 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
e. 
7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 



Flying jib boom. 24. 

Jib boom. 25. 

Bowsprit. 26. 

Martingale boom. 27. 

Fore mast. 28. 

Fore topmast. 29. 

Fore topgallant mast. 30. 

Fore royal mast. 31. 

Fore skysail mast. 32. 

Main mast. 33. 

Main topmast. 34. 

Main topgallant mast. 35. 

Main royal mast. 36. 

Main skysail mast. 37. 

Mizzen mast. 38. 

Mizzen topmast. 39. 

Mizzen topgallant mast. 40. 

Mizzen royal mast. 41. 

Mizzen skysail mast. 42. 

Fore yard. 43. 

Lower-fore topsail yard. 44. 

Upper-fore topsail yard. 45. 
Lower-fore topgallant yard. 



Upper-fore topgallant yard. 

Fore royal yard. 

Fore skysail yard. 

Main yard. 

Lower-main topsail yard. 

Upper-main topsail yard. 

Lower-main topgallant yard. 

Upper-main topgallant yard. 

Main royal yard. 

Main skysail yard. 

Cross-jack yard. 

Lower-mizzen topsail yard. 

Upper-mizzen topsail yard. 

Lower-mizzen topgallant yard. 

Upper-mizzen topgallant 

Mizzen royal yard. 

Mizzen skysail yard. 

Fore trysail gaff. 

Main trysail gaff. 

Spanker boom. 

Spanker gaff. 

Monkey gaff. 



yard. 



23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15, 
16. 
17. 



Fore yard. 
Lower topsail yard. 
Upper topsail yard. 
Topgallant yard. 
Royal yard. 
Bowsprit. 



29. 
30. 
31. 
32, 
33. 



Jib boom. 
Flying jib boom. 
Martingale boom. 
Main boom. 
Main gaff. 



Foremast and Its Rigging 



Lower mast. 18. 

Tap. 19. 

Mast-head. 20. 

Lower cap. 21. 

Topmast. 22. 

Topmast crosstrees. 23. 

Topmast head. 24, 

Topmast cap, 25. 

Lower yard. 26. 

Topsail yard. 27. 

Topmast studdingsail boom. 28. 
Topgallant studdingsail boom. 29. 

Lower rigging. 30, 

Swifter (foremost shroud), 31, 

Sheer-batten. 32. 

Ratlines. 33. 

Dead-eyes. 34. 



Lanyards. 
Chain plates. 
Topmast backstays. 
Lower futtocks. 
Topmast rigging. 
Topgallant futtocks. 
Sling of lower-yard. 
Topsail tye. 
Lower lifts. 
Topsail lifts. 
Lower foot-ropes. 
Topsail foot-ropes. 
Stirrups, 
Flemish horse. 
Quarter irons. 
Yard-arm irons. 
Lift purchase. 



22. Fore mast. 

23. Fore topmast. 

24. Fore topgallant mast, 

25. Fore royal mast. 

26. Main mast. 



Names of Barque Spars 



27. Main topmast. 

28. Main topgallant mast. 

29. Main royal mast. 

30. Mizzen mast. 

31. Mizzen topmast. 



Names of Fore-and-Aft Schooner Spars 

1, Fore mast, 7, Fore boom, 

2. Main mast, 8, Main boom, 

3, Mizzen mast, 9, Mizzen boom, 

4, Fore topmast. 10. Fore gaff. 

5. Main topmast. 11. Main gaff. 

6. Mizzen topmast, 12, Mizzen gaff. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



145 




Fig. 133 and 120. Rigged Foremast 



List of Masts and Spars of Vessels 



Boom, fore topmast studding- 
sail — 

main topmast sfuddingr 
sail — 

Bowsprit — I, Fig. 127-134 
Parts of Bowsprit: 
bed of — 

bees or cheeks of — 
gammoning of — 
screw-gammoning hoop 
of — 

housing — • {the part in- 
side of stem) I a, Fig. 134 
— partners 

running — (in small ves- 
sels) 

saddle of — 
steeve of — 
step of — 
tenon of — ib, Fig. 134 

Bumpkin ; Bumkin ; Boomkin 
quarter — ; Outrigger (for 
main braces) 

Cap is fitted on spars listed be- 
low: 

bowsprit — ic, Fig. 134 
lower gd, Fig. 134 
fore-mast (iu any vessel) 
main-mast (in any vessel) 
mizzen-mast — (0/ a ship) 
mizzen-mast — (of a 
barque, barquentine or 
three-masted schooner) 



Boom — Names of parts of : 
— crutch 

gooseneck — 4a, Fig. 127 
jaw or throat — 3a, Fig. 
127 

jaw-rope 

reefing cleat — • 4b, Fig. 127 
saddle — 

fore — ; gaff-fore sail — 
{of a schooner) 
{square) fore sail — 
load — ; Derrick; 
main — 3, Fig. 127 {of a 
schooner, brigantine, bar- 
quentine or three-masted 
schooner) 

main — {of a brig) 
main — {of a sloop or 
cutter) 

mizzen — {of a barquen- 
tine or a three - masted 
schooner) 
ring tail — 
spanker — 

studdingsail — 7, Fig. 127 
studdingsail — {boom- 
iron) — on all studding- 
sail booms 

lower studdingsail — ; 
swing — {Ship) 



Boom — Names of parts of : 
royal studdingsail — 
(Ship) 

fore royal studdingsail — 
(Ship) 

main royal studdingsail — 
(Ship) 

topgallant studdingsail — 
fore topgallant studding- 
sail — (Ship) 
main topgallant studding- 
sail — (Ship) 
topmast studdingsail — 
(Ship) 

Cap, on all top and topgallant 
masts : 

topgallant mast — 
fore topgallant mast — 
main topgallant mast — 
mizzen topgallant mast — 
topmast — lod. Fig. 127 
fore topmast — 
main topmast — 
mizzen topmast — 

Crosstrees -~ 20, Fig. 129 

Fitted on spars listed be- 
low : 
fore mast — ; fore lower 

— {in any vessel) 

main mast — ; main lower 

— (in any vessel) 
mizzen mast — •; mizzen 
lower — (of a ship) 
mizzen mast — ; (of a 
barque, barquentine or 
three-masted schooner) 
topgallant — 

fore topgallant — 
main topgallant — 
mizzen topgallant — 
topmast — 
fore topmast — 
main topmast — 
mizzen topmast — ■ 

Flying jib boom — i, Fig. 130 

Gaff — fitted on vessels rigged 
in manner mentioned be- 
low: 

jackstay on a — 6a, Fig. 
127 

jaw — 5a, Fig. 127 
jaw-rope of a — • 
throat bolt — sb. Fig. 127 

— traveller; 

fore — ; boom fore-sail — 
(of a schooner) 
main — (of a schooner, 
barquentine, brigantine or 
three-masted schooner) 
main — ; main boom sail 

— (of a brig) 

mizzen — (of a barquen- 
tine or three-masted 
schooner) 

monkey — 45, Fig. 130 
trysail — 



10 



WOODEN SHIPBUILDING 



Gaff 

fore trysail — 41, Fig. 130 
main trysail — 42, Fig. 130 
spanker — 44, Fig. 130 
Jib-boom — 2, Fig. 130 

— traveller (Jib-traveller) 
Martingale-boom ; Dolphin- 
striker 

Mast, parts of a : 

lower — 9, Fig. 129 

— cheek or Hound- 
piece; — 9b, Fig. 127 

— coat 

fish front, or rubbing 
paunch — 
foot — 9c, Fig. 127 
tenon (of the foot) — ge. 
Fig. 127 

— head ; g{, Fig. 127 

— head tenon; tenon of 

— head — gg, Fig. 127 

— hole 

— hoop gh, Fig. 127 
hounding of a — (part of 
a mast between upperdcck 
and trestle-trees) 
housing of a — (part of a 
mast under deck) — gx. 
Fig. 128 

jackstay — 

patent jackstay or slide — 

knee — 9k, Fig. 128 

— partners — Fig. 28 

— partner chocks, Fig. 28 
Mast, rake of a — (its inclina- 
tion from perpendicular) 

Erection in a vessel for lower 
end of mast: 

— step; step of a — 

— step cheek 

— step cleat 

— trunk 

— wedges (wedges to se- 
cure mast at decks) 

Masts — Names of and their 
parts : 

Foremast — s, Fig. 130 (of a 
ship, barque, brig, brigan- 
tine, schooner, etc.) 
(of a lateen vessel) 

Jigger-mast (hindmost mast in 
a four-masted ship) 

Jigger-mast (in the stern of a 
small craft) 

Jur}'-mast 

Main-mast (in any vessel) 10, 
Fig. 130 

Mizzen-mast (of a skip) 15, 
Fig. 130 

Mizzen-mast (of a barque, bar- 
quentine or three-masted 
schooner) 

Pole-mast 

Royal-mast — 12, Fig. 130 
fore — 8, Fig. 13c 



Royal-mast 

main — 13, Fig. 130 
mizzen — 18, Fig. 130 

Skysail-mast — 13, Fig. 130 
fore — 9, Fig. 130 
main — ■ 14, Fig. 130 
mizzen — 19, Fig. 130 

Snow-mast ; Trysail-mast 

Top-gallant-mast — 11, Fig. 
130 

— fid 

fid hole — loa, Fig. 127 
sheave-hole for top rope 
in a — 

Topgallant-mast, sheave-hole 
for tye in a — 
fore — 7, Fig. 130 
main — 12, 1-ig. 130 
mizzen — 17, 1-ig. 130 
long — (topgallant-mast 
with royalmast in one 
length) 
short — 

Topmast — 10, Fig. 127 

— fid 

fid hole in a — loa, Fig. 
127 

— head — lob. Fig. 127 

— heel — IOC, Fig. 127 

— hound 

— hounding (the part be- 
tween lower cap and top- 
mast trestle-trees) 
sheave-hole for top rope 
in a — 

sheave-hole for topsail-tye 

in a — 

fore — (when fitted with 

yards) — 6, Fig. 1 30 

fore — (when not fitted 

with any yards) 

jury — 

main — (of a ship, barque 

or brig) — 11, Fig. 130 

main — (of a brigantine 

or schooner) 

main — (of a barquentine 

or three-masted schooner) 

mizzen — (of a ship) — 

16, Fig. 130 

Topmast, mizzen — (07 a 

barque, barquentine or 

three-masted schooner) 

spare — 
Outrigger 
Pole; Flag-pole — (carried aft 

on all vessels and boats) 

mast — 

fore mast — 

jigger masr — 

main mast — 

mizzen mast — 

royal — 

fore royal — 

main royal — 



Pole 

mizzen royal — 
skysail — 
fore skysail — 
main skysail — 
mizzen skysail — 
stump — 
topgallant — 
fore topgallant — 
main topgallant — • 
mizzen topgallant — 
topmast — 
fore topmast — 

Pole is the pointed portion of 
a mast above the eyes of 
the rigging, when there is 
no topmast fitted; or the 
upper pointed part of a 
topmast (when there is no 
topgallant mast), or of a 
topgallant - mast (when 
there is no royal-mast) 
etc. 

Top 

Name of parts of a top of 
square-rigged vessels : 
close planked — 
grated — 

lubber hole in a ^ — 
netting of a — ; Top-net- 
ting 

rail of a — ; Top-rail 
rim of — ; Top-rim 
fore — 
main — 
mizzen — 

Trestle-trees — 21, Fig. 129 
Names of parts of trestle- 
trees : 

bolster, or pillow on top 
of — (under the eyes of 
rigging) 
fore mast — 
main mast — 
mizzen mast — (of a ship) 
mizzen mast — (of a 
barque, barquentine or 
three-masted schooner) 
topgallant — 
fore topgallant — 
main topgallant — 
mizzen topgallant — 
topmast — 

fore topmast — 21, Fig. 129 
main topmast — 
mizzen topmast — 

Yard 

Names of parts of a yard 
used on square-rigged 
vessels : 

— arm 

— arm cleat 

— arm hoop (for lift, 
brace, etc.) 

— arm iron — i6b, Fig. 
127 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



147 



Yard 
Names of parts of a yard 
used on square-rigged ves- 
sels : 
roller in — arm iron 

— batten 

center, bunt, or sling of 

a — 

jackstay — i6c, Fig. 127 

parrel of an {upj>er) — 

17a, Fig. 127 

quarter — i6d, Fig. 127 

— quarter iron — i6e. Fig. 
127 

sheave-hole — 

sling of a lower — 

sling-cleat of a (lower) — 

sling-hoop of a {lower) — 

l6f. Fig. 127 

standard or crane of a 

lower topsail — 

truss of a {lower) — i6g. 

Fig. 127 

truss-hoop of a (lower) — 
Yards 

Names of yards used on 

square-rigged vessels : 
Cross-jack-yard — 34, Fig. 130 



Fore-yard — 32, Fig. 131 
Fore-yard — 20, Fig. 130 
GafF-topsail-yard 
Lower-yard 

Main-yard — 27, Fig. 130 
Royal yard — • 19, Fig. 127 
fore — 25, Fig. 130 
main — 32, Fig. 130 
mizzen — 39, Fig. 130 

Skysail-yard 

fore — 26, Fig. 130 
main — 33, Fig. 130 
mizzen — 40, Fig. 130 

Spritsail-yard 

Squaresail yard (the yard of 
a schooner or of a sloop, 
cutter, etc.) 

Studdingsail-yard 

lower — Fig. 130 
royal — Fig. 130 
topgallant — Fig. 130 
topmast — Fig. 130 

Topgallant-yard 

fore — 35, Fig. 131 
lower fore — 23, Fig. 130 
upper fore — 24, Fig. 130 



Topgallant-yard 
lower — 
main — 

lower main — 30, Fig. 130 
upper main — 31, Fig. 130 
mizzen — 
lower mizzen — 37, Fig. 

130 

upper mizzen — 38, Fig. 

130 
upper — 

Topsail-yard 

(of a schooner) 

fore — 

lower fore — 21, Fig. 130 

upper fore — 22, Fig. 130 

lower — ■ 

main — 

lower main — 28, Fig. 130 

upper main — 29, Fig. 130 

mizzen — 

lower mizzen — 35, Fig. 

130 

upper mizzen — 36, Fig. 

130 
Upper- Yards 

upper — 



TABLE OF THE FRACTIONAL PROPORTION THAT THE 

INTERMEDIATE DIAMETERS BEAR TOWARDS THE 

GIVEN DIAMETER OF MASTS, YARDS, ETC. 







Proportions to the Given 


Diameter 


SPECIES OF 
MASTS, YARDS, ETC. 


Quarters 


Head 






I St 


2nd 


3rd 


Lower 
Part 


Upper 
Part 


Heel 




•%i 


Hi 


ft 


?4 


% 


t 






Topmast, Topgallant 
Masts and Royal-Masts 


•%i 


'«! 


«7 


«i 


•li 




Yards 


*)h 


% 


^li 


Arms 












Bowsprit 


•9ii 


'Hj 


% 


?i 




Outer 
End 




"Si 


",'n 


% 


Ends 












Main-booms 


*%i 


'Tu 


» 


Fore 
Ends 

?4 


After 
End 


Middle 








«%. 


'«! 


IS 


S 












Heeling 

Standing-Masts 


Athwart 
Ship 








Fore 
and Aft 

V, 












Bowsprit 


Athwart 
Ship 

1i! 






Up and 
Down 















Chapter XV 

Description of Types of Vessels 



15a. Explaining Division of Vessels into Types 
AND Classes 

Vessels are divided into kinds, such as steam, motor- 
driven, auxiliary and sailing vessels ; and each kind of 
vessel is then divided into types, and each type is sub- 
divided into classes according to general arrangement of 
decks, number of decks, and certain structural details. 

Steam vessels are generally designated according to 
purpose for which they are designed. Thus, there are 
war vessels, passenger steamers, cargo carriers, ferry- 
boats, fishing vessels, light ships, tugs, steam lighters, 
wrecking vessels, etc. 

Sailing and auxiliary craft are generally designated 
according to rig. Thus, there are ships, barks, barken- 
tines, brigs, brigantines, schooners, etc. 

Vessels are also classed, or named, according to num- 
ber of decks, structural arrangement of decks and houses, 
and details of certain parts of their structure, and as it is 
very necessary that you have a clear understanding of 
this I have illustrated and briefly described the most im- 
portant of these details and the various classes of vessels. 

15b. One-Decked Vessels 

These are small vessels having one completely laid 
deck-flat, and little depth of hold, say 12 feet or less. 
When the depth of hold increases to 14 or 15 feet, some 
hold-beams are inserted. 

A one-decked vessel can be either steam or sail driven 
and, of course, can be used for any purpose it is designed 
for. Fig. 202 illustrates a one-deck steam trawler, Fig. 
203 a one-deck auxiliary schooner, and Fig. 212 a one- 
deck schooner. 

15c. Two-Decked Vessels 

These vessels have generally a depth of hold from 
about 20 to 24 feet, the decks are called upper deck and 
lower deck, the latter also styled '"tween-deck." 

Fig. 205 illustrates a two-deck motor-driven cargo 
vessel, and Fig. 207 a two-deck schooner. 

i5d. Three-Decked Vessels 

These are vessels having three tiers of beams, with at 
least two decks laid and caulked ; they are sometimes 
flush decked, in other instances fitted with a poop, bridge- 
house and a forecastle, or with a shelter deck or shade 
deck above the upper deck. 

The scantlings of materials are of the heaviest de- 



scription, being regulated by the dimensions of hull, 
measured to height of upper deck. 

This class of vessel is intended for any description 
of cargo, and for employment in any part of the world. 

I5e. Spar-Decked Vessels 

These are vessels having also three tiers of beams like 
a three-decked ship, with generally two decks laid and 
caulked. 

They are of lighter construction than the former, the 
scantlings of materials being principally regulated by the 
dimensions of hull, measured to the height of middle 
deck. 

This class of vessel is usually constructed for special 
trades. 

i5f. Awning-Decked Vessels 

These vessels have a superstructure above the main 
deck, of which the scantlings of material are inferior to 
the topsides, deck beams, and deck-flat, in a spar-decked 
vessel of similar dimensions. 

An awning deck may be fitted to vessels with either 
one, two or three decks; and the scantlings of material 
of hull are regulated by the dimensions of vessel, with- 
out reference to the added awning deck. 

The space or capacity between the awning deck and 
the deck below is generally intended for the stowage of 
light cargo, or for the use of passengers, etc. 

i5g. Partial Awning-Decked Vessels 

These are vessels in which the upper deck is only 
partially covered by a deck of light construction, having 
the scantlings of material similar to those in a complete 
awning-decked vessel. 

i5h. Shelter-Decked Vessels 

These are vessels with exposed (or weather) decks, 
of a lighter construction than required for awning-decked 
vessels, the topsides between the upper and shelter decks, 
are closed-in ; but the shelter deck is sometimes fitted 
with ventilation openings. 

151. Shade-Deck Vessels 

These are vessels with a very light exposed or weather 
deck above the upper deck ; this shade deck generally 
extends over the whole length of upper deck, and is not 
enclosed at sides above the main rail or bulwark; it is 
used as a protection from sun or rain. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



149 



15J. Flush-Decked Vessels 
These vessels have a continuous upper deck, without 
poop, bridge-house, or forecastle ; spar and awning-decked 
vessels are generally flush decked (see Fig. 142). 



15m. Structure and House Arrangements Named 

Below I illustrate and describe structural details and 

deckhouse arrangements that influence type and classifi- 



cation. 



-i 



^:::zf 



At 



H 



^ACMIfCKt^ 



Tl 



J* 



Tt^ee^ Be 



0£eP r^HK 



Fig. 135 



FORM F£AK TANK 



A^TMM ^MAH I 



^ 



FOftt ^£*K rANX 



15k. Well-Decked Vessels 
These are vessels having long poops or raised quarter- 
deck, and topgallant forecastle; the space between these 
structures forming the well (see Fig. 135). 







RQD 




f ff / 








T. 


c 


V 


1 ' MAlf^ 




DECK 








A 


/ 


HOLO 


"fACMt, 


■/eiTY 


HOt.O 


/ / 


Afr 


e. 


r fe. 




.n^^ 


-y,~\ 






—^ 





^O.m.t^MTmA m*LLA,tT tammi' 

Fig. 138 



Fig. 135 is an illustration of a one-deck steamer with 
short raised quarter-deck, enclosed bridge-house and 
topgallant forecastle. The illustration shows a vessel 
without double bottom, but fitted with fore-peak, after- 
peak and deep tanks. 



^Oftt *>* * 



Fig. 136 

15I. Ship With a Hurricane Deck 
This is a vessel with a light deck or platform over 
erections on the upper deck ; it has generally a breadth 
from two-thirds to three-fourths or sometimes the whole 
breadth of ship, running frequently all fore-and-aft, and 
is used for a promenade, etc., in passenger ships (see Fig. 
137)- 



wK 



A^tttt FMAtf 



-X 



'tAcmnM/ty 



T 






Fig. 139 



Fig. 136 shows a similar arrangement of deckhouses 
but vessel has a double-bottom tank in place of deep tank 
amidships. 

Fig. 137 shows a two-deck steamer with full poop, 
enclosed bridge-houses and topgallant forecastle. This 
vessel has double bottom and peak tanks. 



^ 




ATAC ** / «/*- K Y 



MAIH , BeCK 



± 



AFTmK FMAK 



Fig. 137 



FOKE P£A, 



^ 




A^TMA t^A 



Fig. 140 



FOKt fMAif 




Fig. 142. 200-Foot Flnsh Decked OU-EnRined Wooden Cargo Vessel From Desifi^ns b? J. MnrraT Watts For East India Trade 



'50 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 143. 



Cbibiabos, Boy H. Beattie, Milton and HaTerbill, Four Ships Built by L. H. Sbattuck, Inc., at Portsmouth, at the Dock Fitting Out 

With Elgglng, Joiner Work, Etc. 



Fig. 138 shows a steamship with long full poop deck, 
enclosed bridge-houses and topgallant forecastle. This 
vessel has double bottom and peak tanks. 

Fig. 139 shows steamship with long raised quarter- 
deck, enclosed bridge-houses and topgallant forecastle. 
Double bottom and peak tanks are shown. 

Fig. 140 shows a steamer having hurricane deck, 
shade deck, and lower decks. Double-bottom tanks as 
well as peak tanks are also shown. This arrangement 
of decks is generally used in passenger vessels. 



^ 




■ i>i/c ^iiSML. 



Fig. 141 

Fig. 141 shows sailing vessel with raised quarter- 
deck, forecastle, upper and lower decks. Fore and after- 
peak tanks are fitted, therefore this arrangement of tanks 
indicates that vessel is of steel construction. 

Figs. 143 to 155 are illustrations of various types 
of vessels. 




US S. Constitution 




iiflLcd ^ rr ,.^. I -^^ 




Fig. 144 




Fig. 115. Constitution as Slie Now Is at tbe Boston Navy Yard 




Tig. 146. Steam Yacht Vanadls, Built For C. K. O. Billings, Sold to tbe Bussian Oovernment 





Fig. 146a. 52-Foot Hydro-Aeroplane Tender, Designed by J. Murray Watts 



Length 52 feet 

Breadth 14 " 




Fig. 147. XS. S. S. South Carolina, a Battlaship of the Dieadnougbt Type, Which Mounts Eight 12-Iuch Guns and Many Smaller Ones 




Fig. 148. XT. S. Mine-Sweeper Fellcan Built by the Qas Engine & Power Company, Launched June 15, 1918 




Fig. 149. Faith, the First Concrete-Built Ocean Steamer, Starting Off From San Francisco for Seattle, Tacoma and Vancouver 




Fig. 160. Faith,' 6,000-Ton Concrete Vessel, Launched 1918 From the San Francisco Shipbuilding Company's Yard at Redwood City, Cal. 




/V<| 


.■ 




.., /\ 


y/\ 


/ 


// \ 


/ 


// 


/ 


// 


/ 


/ / 


" / 


' 


' 1 







Fig. 151. Iskum, an 80-Foot Fishing Schooner Built From Designs by Edson B. Schock and Fitted With a CorUss Gas Engine 





Fig. 155. Ship Bickmars on the Delaware 



Fig. 162. Northeast End Light Vessel 




Fig. 154. Motorshlp James Timpson. Built by the Standifer Company, 
Designed by Cox & Stevens 



Fig. 153. Margaret Haskell 



Chapter XVI 

Anchor, Chains and Equipment 



Every vessel must be properly equipped for sea, and 
while the amount of equipment necessary varies in each 
type and size of vessel, the greater part of equipment 
used on seagoing vessels, as well as the sizes, dimen- 
sions and amount of equipment that must be carried on 
each vessel, has been standardized. Equipment upon 
which the safety of a vessel or its crew depends, such as 
anchors, chain, boats and their equipment, navigating 
and directing instruments, etc., is defined in Govern- 
ment regulations and by rules laid down by classifica- 
tion societies, and no vessel is allowed to put to sea 
without being equipped in accordance with the rules. Of 
all equipment, anchors, chains and methods of handling 
them, the steering apparatus, and navigating instru- 
ments are the most important, and next to these comes 
the lifeboat and its equipment. 

i6a. Anchors 

The number and sizes of anchors that must be car- 
ried depends upon size and type of vessel, and the 
service it will be engaged in. By size of vessel is meant 
tonnage as computed by rules of the classification so- 
cieties. 

In general it can be said that all seagoing vessels, 
except the very smallest, must carry three or more 
anchors and each of these must be of a certain size and 
type. 

On Tables i6A and i6B (page i66) is given lists of 
weights and kinds of anchors that must be carried on 
steam and sailing vessels of named tonnage. 




As bowers, stream and kedge anchors are mentioned, 
1 will illustrate and describe each kind. 

Bowers are the largest and principal anchors carried 
and they can be either stockless, patent with hinged 
flukes, or common with wood or steel stock. 

Fig. 156 is an illustration of a stockless anchor. 
( Durkee. ) 

As this type of anchor is stockless the shank can 
be housed in hawse pipe and anchor carried in manner 
shown on Fig. 157. Anchors of this kind are generally 
used on all modern vessels because they are much easier 
to handle, stow better and are just as efficient and strong 
as the older type anchors with stocks. 

On Fig. 158 a common bower with wood stock is 
shown, and on Fig. 159 a patent bower with hinged arm 
and flukes. 

The common bower anchor with wood stock is now 
seldom used except on sailing vessels, but the bower 
with iron stock, and bower with hinged arm and fluke is 
frequently used on smaller vessels. These types of 




Fig. 166. Stockless Anchor 



Fig. 157. Stockless Anchor in Place 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



157 



BOWER (common) 

\' Anchor-ring 




Fig. 158 

anchors must be stowed on a properly prepared platform, 
called a bill board, in the manner shown on Fig. i6o, 
and it is necessary to install proper cat and fish tackles 
and davits or an anchor crane for hoisting anchor to its 
stowage position. Anchor davits and falls are shown in 
position on Fig. i6o. 

The smaller stream and kedge anchors carried on 
vessels are similar in shape to bowers. On Fig. i6i 
anchors of this kind are shown. 

i6b. Hawse Pipes 

I have mentioned hawse pipes, so I will now describe 
and illustrate them. 

Hawse pipes are fitted at each side of bow, their use 
being to afford a proper opening for passage of chain 
cable to which anchors are attached. 

In wooden and steel vessels it is necessary to strongly 
reinforce the fr-aming where hawse pipes pass through 
framing and planking and to securely bolt hawse pipes to 
this reinforcing. 

Hawse pipes for use with stockless anchors always 
have opening through them sufficiently large to allow 
stock of anchor to pass through it. On Fig. 162 the 
hawse pipes for a pair of stockless anchors are clearly 
shown in position. 

And on Fig. 201, profile view, the direction of lead 



of hawse pipes is clearly indicated by dotted lines at 
bow. 

Hawse pipes are made of cast-iron and consist of 
two pieces, the outer flange with pipe attached, and the 
inner or deck flange. The outer flange is carefully 
fitted to planking because it must make a watertight 
joint, and after pipe is in place th§ inner flange is fitted 
around inner end of pipe and joint caulked tight. The 
outer flange is securely fastened to hull with bolts 
closely spaced (see bolt holes on Fig. 162) and inner 
flange is secured to deck in like manner. 

As there is considerable wear on flanges and pipe of 
a hawse pipe, it is necessary that there be ample thick- 
ness of metal in casting, especially along lower portion 
of pipe and outer flange, because it is here that greatest 
amount of friction occurs when chain is being let out, 
or hauled up, or vessel is riding at anchor. 

On the following table I give diameter of pipe and 
thickness of metal for hawse pipes of vessels carrying 
anchors with stock. 







TABLE 16C 










Size and 


Thickness of Iron 


Hawse Pi 


PE 


FOR Cables 


OF 






Each 


Size 














Thickness o 








Thickness of 






Iron in the 








Iron in the 




Size o( 


Body of the 


Size of 




size of 


Bod 


y of the 


Size of Chain 


Hawse Pipe 


Pipe and of 


Chain 


Hawse Pipe 


Pipe 


and of 


Cable 


in tlie Clear 


the Flange 


Cable 


in 


the Clear 


the 


Flange 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 




Ins. 




Ins. 


2Vs 


21% 


iy2 


I ¥2 




13% 




I 


2 


18% 


1% 


1% 




12% 




% 


1% 


17% 


1% 


1% 




11% 




% 


1% 


15% 


1% 


1% 




10% 




% 


1% 


14% 


1% 


I 




9 




% 



For stockless anchors the diameter of opening must 
be increased considerably but it is not necessary to in- 
crease thickness of metal. 

The outside diameter of flange should be sufficiently 



BOWER (patent) 



iTonAntli 




Fig. 159 



158 



F»» »63 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fid 160 



greater than outside diameter of pipe to insure tiiat all 
fastenings will go into solid wood (or metal). 

Do not confuse hawse pipes with the chain pipes that 
lead from deck to chain locker. 

i6b\ Chain Pipes 

After anchor chain has passed through hawse pipe, 
it is led around wild-cat of anchor windlass and from 
there passes through chain pipes, let into deck, into chain 
locker. On Fig. 163 is shown cross-section view of chain 
pipe and on Fig. 164 the chain pipes are clearly shown 
in position under windlass. 

i6c. Anchor Chain 

Chain is now universally used with anchors for an- 
choring a vessel. The kind of chain used is stud-linked 
and diameter of material of which links are made de- 
termines size. Each vessel must have a certain speci- 
fied amount of chain for each anchor, the amount and 
diameter varying, as with anchors, with tonnage of ves- 
sels. On Tables 16A, B, is given diameter and length 
of chain specified by classification societies' rules, and 
on Fig. 165 is shown a portion of anchor chain properly 
shackled and fitted with swivel. 

For convenience in handling, anchor chain comes in 
lengths, several of which are fastened together with 
shackles to form a cable. The first "shot", or length, 
is usually a short one and has attached to it a swivel. 
Anchor is shackled to chain and inboard end of chain is 
secured to a heavy beam and eyebolt placed in chain 
locker for that purpose. 

i6c\ Chain Locker 

Chain is stowed in a properly prepared locker built 
in bow of vessel and this locker must be sufficiently large 
to stow each cable separately and there must be a divi- 
sion or partition between the chains. 

A certain amount. of room is required to stow a chain 
cable, the amount varying with diameter of chain and 
its length. On Table 16D I give space required to 
properly stow 50 fathoms of chain of named diameters. 



TABLE 16D 
Space Required to Stow Roughly 50 Fathoms of Chain Cable 



Diameter 
Ins. 

2% 

2% 

2 

1% 

1% 

1% 

1% 



Cubic Feet 


Diameter 


Required 


Ini. 


89.83 


1% 


83.84 


1V4. 


66.75 


1% 


60.19 


I 


54.01 


% 


46.16 


% 


39.19 


a 



Cubic Feet 
Required 

32.80 
26.20 
20.96 
17.30 
14.24 

"•73 
8.26 



i6d. Anchor Windlass 

An anchor windlass is used to assist in hoisting 
anchor. This windlass can be operated by power or by 
hand. 

On sailing vessels hand-operated anchor windlasses 
are installed on forward deck and operated by means of 
a geared brake lever, or by hand-spikes inserted in open- 
ings left for that purpose. 

On Fig. 166 is shown three types of hand-operated 
anchor windlass installed in sailing vessels and on Fig. 
167 details of one of the types, with parts marked for 
identification, are shown. 

Below I give list of names of parts of windlass shown 
on Fig. 167. 

Hand-Operated Anchor Windlass 
Windlass — carrick-bitts — x 
— side bitts — 2 
cheeks of carrick bitts — 3 
standard knees of carrick- 
bitts — 4 



— connecting rods — g 

— purchase rods 

— crosshead — 8 

— ends; — heads — 5 

— hand levers — 13 



main piece of — 

— pawls — 10 

— pawl bitt — ■ I 

— pawl rim; — • pawl 
rack — II 

— purchase rims — 12 
spindle of — 

strong back of a — 7 
iron whelps on — 6 
wood lining on — 



i6d\ Steam-Operated Anchor Windlasses 
On Fig. 168 is shown a modern power-operated an- 
chor windlass installed on forecastle deck of a motor- 
ship. You will note by referring to illustration (which 
is a bow view, looking aft) that anchor chains, after 
passing through hawse pipes (as this is a photo of ship 
shown on plans Fig. 201, you can see location of hawse 
pipes by referring to these plans) pass through con- 
trollers placed on deck a little distance aft of deck end 
of hawse pipe. Controllers are for the purpose of con- 



STREAM-ANCHOR. 



KEOGC. 




GRAPNEL. 




Tit. 161 




Fig. 162. Hawse Pipes on Agawam 



i6o 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 165. Anchor Chain 

trolling chain should brake on windlass become defec- 
tive, or when vessel is riding at anchor. From con- 
trollers the chain passes over wild-cats of windlass and 
from thence through chain pipes, placed immediately 
below wild-cats, into chain lockers. 

On Fig. 164 is shown details of one type of steam- 
operated anchor windlass with principal parts identified 
by numerals. Below I give names of parts. 



1. Hand power levers. 

2. Cross-head. 

3. Warping ends. 

4. Side bitts. 

5. Side bitt keeps. 



6. Screw brake nut. 

7. Cable lifter. 

8. Pawl rack. 

9. Main cone driving wheel. 
10. Cross-head bracket. 



11. Center bitt. 

12. Center bitt keep. 

13. Chain pipes. 

14. Cable relievers. 

15. Bedplate. 



16. Chain wheel for messenger 

from steam winch. 

17. Clutch for attached strain 

power. 

18. Gearing for steam power. 



i6e. Deck Winches 

Modern vessels have power-operated deck winches 
installed convenient to hatches and booms used for cargo. 
On Fig. 169 is shown a steam deck winch, principal 
parts being identified by number, and on deck of vessel 
shown on Fig. 170 a deck winch can be seen installed in 
proper location. 

Below I give names of parts identified on Fig. 169. 



Warping ends. 
Main spur-wheel. 

Barrel. 
Barrel shaft. 
Small spur-wheel. 
Clutch lever. 
Cylinders. 
Steam chest 



10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



Stay or tie-rod. 
Steam pipe. 
Exhaust pipe. 
Reversing lever. 
Base plate. 
Stop valve. 
Connecting rod. 
Piston rod. 



A hand-operated deck winch is shown on Fig. 171 
and below I give names of parts identified by number 
on the illustration. 




Head of Bark Oreyhound 



Deck of Whaling Brig Viola, Showing Windlass 



SS-^HIi 












Deck of Brig Viola 



Head of Bark Wanderer 



Fig. 166 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



i6i 




Clutch lever. 
Brake. 
Barrels. 
Pinion. 

Spur wheels. 



6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

)0. 



Framing. 
Ratchet wheel. 
Pawls. 
Tie-rod. 
Warping ends. 



i6f. H.-VND Pump 
On Fig. 172 is shown details of hand-operated bilge 
pump, each principal part being identified by name. 
Every vessel must be equipped with a proper number of 
pumps for pumping water out of bilges. In sailing 
vessels these pumps are generally located on deck, are 
hand-operated, and of type shown on illustration, but in 
steam and motor vessels the bilge pumps are located in 
engine rooms and operated by steam or other power. 
In all cases the pump suctions are led to properly located 
wells in which suction boxes with strainers are located. 
If a vessel is divided into a number of compartments by 
watertight bulkheads the suction pipes are led through 
stuffing boxes in bulkheads and each compartment is 
fitted with a separate suction, and valves to shut off each 
set of pipes are located in engine room. In the case of 
a hand pump the' water is discharged directly on deck 
and runs overboard through the scuppers, but all steam 
and power-operated bilge pumps are fitted with discharge 
pipes that lead from pump through side of vessel above 
the water-line. 

i6g. Sounding Pipes 
Sounding pipes must be located in every compart- 
ment. These pipes extend from upper deck to lowest 



part of bilge in each compartment, to permit a sounding 
of amount of water in bilges to be taken without it being 
necessary to go into hold. The pipes are usually led to 
upper deck and fitted with a tight flush cap. By remov- 
ing cap a rod, called a sounding rod, can be lowered 
through pipe into bilge and if there is any water in bilge, 
it will wet rod, and by lifting rod and measuring depth 
of wet portion an accurate estimate can be made of 
amount of water in bilges. 

i6h. Capstan 
On Fig. 173 is shown hand-operated deck capstans 
with principal parts marked for identification. 

i6i. Steering Gear 
On Fig. 174 is shown details of a hand-operated 
steering gear and below I give list of parts. 



1. Standard. 

2. Spindle. 

3. Yoke. 

4. Nut. 

5. .\rm. 



6. Guide rods. 

7. Cross-head. 

8. Yoke bolt. 

9. Rudder wheel. 
10. Spokes. 



i6j. Bo.\ts and Their Equipment 
The number of boats each vessel must carry, their 
capacity and equipment, is specified in the regulations 
governing equipment of vessels which are issued by 
every government. 

Below I give details of equipment that must be car- 
ried in lifeboats placed on a seagoing vessel. 



1 62 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




Fig. 168. Windlass and Foredeck of the James Timpson 

Equipment for Lifeboats 

All lifeboats on ocean steam vessels shall -be equipped 
as follows: 

A properly secured life-line the entire "length on each 
side, festooned in bights not longer than 3 feet, with a 
seine float in each bight. 

One painter of manila rope of not less than 2^ inches 
in circumference and of suitable length. ^ 

A full complement of oars and two spare oars. 

One set and a half of thole pins or rowlocks attached 
to the boat with separate chains. 

One steering oar with rowlock or becket and one 
rudder with tiller or yoke and yoke-lines. 

One boathook attached to a staflf of suitable length. 

Two live-preservers. 

Two hatchets. 

One galvanized iron bucket with lanyard attached. 

One bailer. 



Where automatic plugs are not provided there shall 
be two plugs secured with chains for each drain hole. 

One efficient liquid compass with not less than a 2- 
inch card. 

One lantern containing sufficient oil to burn at least 
nine hours and ready for immediate use. 

One can containing one gallon illuminating oil. 

One box of friction matches wrapped in a water- 
proof package and carried in a box secured to the under- 
side of stern thwart. 

A wooden breaker or suitable tank fitted with a 
siphon, pump, or spigot for drawing water and con- 
taining at least one quart of water for each person. 

Two enameled drinking cups. 

A watertight receptacle containing 2 tb avoirdupois of 
provisions for each person. These provisions may be 
■hard bread. The receptacle shall be of metal, fitted with 
an opening in the top not less than 5 inches in diameter, 
properly protected by a screw cap made of heavy cast 
brass, with machine thread and an attached double 
toggle, seating to a pliable rubber gasket, which shall 
insure a tight joint, in order to properly protect the con- 
tents of the can. 

One canvas bag containing sailmaker's palm and 
needles, sail twine, marline, and marline spike. 

A watertight metal case containing twelve self-ignit- 
ing red lights capable of burning at least two minutes. 

A sea-anchor. 

A vessel containing one gallon of vegetable or animal 
oil, so constructed that the oil can be easily distributed 
on the water and so arranged that it can be attached to 
the sea-anchor. 

A mast or masts with one good sail at least and 
proper gear for each (this does not apply to power 
lifeboat j, the sail and gear to be protected by a suitable 




Tig. 170. Deck Views of Motorship James Timpson, Built From Designs by Cox & Stevens 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



163 



canvas cover. In case of a steam vessel which carries All loose equipment must be securely attached to the 

passengers in the North Atlantic, and is provided with boat to which it belongs. 

a radio-telegraph installation, all the lifeboats need not Lifeboats of less than i8o cubic feet capacity on 

be equipped with masts and sails. In this case at least pleasure steamers are not required to be equipped as 

one of the boats on each side shall be so equipped. above. 



On the following list is given names of principal types and parts of boats carried on vessels: 



Different Kinds of Boats 
Cutter 
Gig 

Launch 
Steam Launch 
Lifeboat 
Longboat 
Pinnace 
Whaleboat 

Details and Appurtenances 

OF Boats 
Boat 

— awning 
back-board in a — 

— bailer 
carvel-built — 
clinch-built — 



Boat 



— chock 

— chock skids 

— compass 

— cover 

— davit 

— davit tackle 
foot grating in a 

— gripe 

— hook 

tank of a {life) - 

— mast 
— ■ oar 

— 's painter 
pkig of a — ■ 
rowlock of a — 
row port of a — 



Boat 

— rudder 

— rudder tiller 
— ■ rudder yoke 

— rudder yoke-line 

— sail 

— skids 

swifter of a ^- 
thole-board of a — 
thole-pin of a — 
thwart of a — 
wash-board of a — 

Davit 
Davit, anchor — ; cat — 
boat — 

fish — 

— guy 

— socket 



i6k:. Equipment 

For the convenience of the reader I list below names of a large number of pieces of equipment generally car- 
ried on seagoing vessels: 

Caulking 

-T- iron 
• — mallet 
Chain-hook 
Chair 
Chart 

— case; — chest 
Chinsing-iron (caulker's tool) 
Chisel 

hollow — 
mortise — 
Chronometer 

— chest 
Clock; Time-piece 
Compass 

azimuth — 
variation — 
boat's — 
— box 
polinarus 
standard — 
steering — • 
Cork-fender 
Cover 

capstan — 
skylight — 
ventilator — 



Accommodation ladder; 


Bell 


Gangway ladder 


— crank 


.■\nemometer 


— rope 


Awning 


Berth 


boat's — ; 


Binnacle 


— boom 


— cover 


bridge — ; bridge 


— lamp 


house — 


Blue-light 


crowfoot of an — 




curtain of an — 


Boatswain's chair 




forecastle — 


Buckets 


lacing of an — 


— fire 


lacing-holes of an — 


— rack 


main-deck — 


Bunk (sailor's) 


poop — 


Bunting 


quarter-deck — 


Buoy 


ridge of an — 


anchor — 


ridge hnmg of an — 


cork — 


ridge rope of an — ^ 


life — 


— stanchion 


— sling 


Axe; — handle 


sounding — 


Ballast 


Burgee 


Barometer ; .'\neroid — 


Can-hooks 


Belaying-pin ; Jack-pin ; Tack- 


Canvas 


pin 


Cask 


Bell 


Cat-head stopper 


— cover 


Caulking 



i64 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Cover 

wheel — 
winch — 

Crow-bar 

Dogs ; Cant-hooks 

Dunnage; — wood 

Ensign 

Fair-leader 

Fender 

rope — 
wooden — 

Fid (saihnaker's) 
splicing — ■ 
turning — 

Fish-hook 

Flag; Colors 

— chest 

— staff 

Foghorn 

Fore-lock; Key 

Gimblet 

Grating 

Grindstone 

Grommet 

Hammock 

Hand-cuffs 

Hand-hook 

Hand-spike 

Hank 

Harness cask 

Hatchet 

Hen-coop 

Hinge 

Holystone 

Horsing-iron {caulker's tool) 

Hose 

canvas — 

deck wash — 

india rubber — 

leather — 

scupper — / 

Hose-wrench 
Ladder 

forecastle — 

hold — 

poop — 

raised quarter-deck — 

rope — ; side — 
Lamp 
Lantern 

globe — 

signal — 
Lead (sounding) 

deep-sea — 

hand — 

— line 

— line marks and deeps 
Leather; — pump — 
Life-belt; Life-buoy 



Light, anchor — ; Anchor- 
lantern 
mast-head — 

— masthead lantern 
Lightning-conductor 

Line 

furling — 
hambro — 
hauling — 
heaving — 
house — 
life — 

Lizard 
Log 

— board 

— book 

— glass 
ground — • 

— line 

— line runner 
patent — 

— reel 

— ship 

Making-iron (caulker's tool) 

Mallet; serving — 

Manrope (o/ bowsprit) 

Man rope (on a yard) 

Manropes (of gangway) 

Marline 

Marline spike 

Maul 

Medicine chest 

Mop 

Nails 

Nautical almanac 

Needle 

bolt rope — ; roping — 

sail — 
Night-glass ; Night-telescope 
Oakum 

thread of — 

twisted — 
Padlocks 
Paint brush 

Palm (sailmaker's tool) 
Parbuckle 
Parcelling 
Pennant 
Pitch 

— ladle 
— • mop 

— pot 
Plane 
Plug 
Pricker 
Provisions 
Raft; saving — 
Rasp; wood — 
Ratline; Ratline stuff 
Rave-hook; Meaking-iron 

(caulker's tool) 



Reeming-iron (caulker's tool) 
Ridge-rope (life-line stretched 

along a deck during bad 

weather) 
Rigging-screw 
Ring 
Roller (over which ropes are 

led, to prevent chafing) 
Rope-yarn 
Sail-hook; — twine 
Sand-glass 
Saw ; hand — 
Scoop 
Scraper 
Screw-jack 

Scrubber ; Hand-scrubber 
Seizing 

cross — 

fiat — 

racking — 

rose — 

tail — 

throat — 
Sennit 

common — 

french — 

round — 

square — 
Serving-board 
Sextant 
Shackle 

anchor — 

— bolt 

fore-lock of a — bolt 

joining — 

mooring — 

patent — 
Shears ; Sheers 
Shovel 

Side-light; Side lantern 

— screen 

— screen stanchion 
Signal 

distress — 

fog — 

international code of — s 

night — 

rocket — 

Sling; chain — ; rope — 
Sounding-rod 

— • machine 
Spanish windlass 
Speaking trumpet 
Spike 
Spunyarn 
Spy-glass 
Squillgee 

Stage; triangular — 
Standard 
Staple 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



165 



Stove 

Stopper 

Strop; selvagee — 

Swab 

Swinging tray 

Swivel ; chain — 

mooring — 
Tank ; bread — 

fresh-water — 
Tar 

— barrel 

— bucket 



Tar 

— brush 

Tarpaulin 

Telescope 

Thermometer 

Thimble 

Toggle 

Traverse-board 

Truck 

fair lead — 
parrel — 

Jub 



Turtle-peg 
Twine 

Vane; — spindle 
Varnish ; black — 

bright — 
Ventilator; — cowl 

— socket ■*. 
Water-cask 
Weather-board 
Weather-cloth 
Wedge 
Wind-sail 



1 61. Stowage of Various Cargoes 
Below is given average space in cubic feet required 
to stow named kinds of cargo. By stowage space is 
meant the actual number of cubic feet in hold of vessel 
that a ton of named cargo requires. This is always 
more than actual bulk of a ton of the named material 
because some space is taken up by containers, and in 
addition to this there is always some space left between 
packages. 

List of Hold Space Required to Stow Cargo 

Cubic Ft. 

to the Ton 

Stowed 

Wool 98 

Hemp, loosely packed 100 

Hemp, compressed in bales 65 

Cotton 115 

Cotton, compressed in modern compressors 105 

Rice in bags 48 

Oats in bags 65 

Linseed 58 

Potatoes in bags 70 

Refined sugar in bags 50 

Tea 90 

Grain in bulk 46 

Butter in kegs 58 



i66 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 







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Chapter XVII 

Resolution and Composition of Forces 



The effects of the different forces which act on a 
piece of timber at rest are these — extension and com- 
pression in the direction of its length, lateral compres- 
sion, and torsion. To the first, is opposed cohesion; to 
the second, stiffness ; to the third, transverse strength ; 
and to the fourth, the elasticity of torsion. On these 
resistances of materials, direct experiments have been 
made, and practical formulae for calculating them have 
been deduced. 

It is essential that an accurate idea should be formed 
of the manner in which several forces act when united 
in their effect, and I shall therefore explain the principles 
of the composition and resolution of forces. 




If a (Fig. la) be a force acting on a body in the di- 
rection of line a b, and c another force acting on the 
same point in the direction of line c b, with pressures in 
proportion to the length of lines a b and c b respectively, 
then the body will be affected precisely in the same 
manner as if acted on by a single force d, acting in the 
direction d b, with a pressure proportioned to the line 
d b, which is the diagonal of a parallelogram formed on 
a b, c b, and which is called the resultant of the two 




forces o c. In like manner, if the forces a, c, d (Fig. 2a), 
act on a body b, in the direction of lines a b, d b, c b, 
and with intensities proportioned to the length of these 
lines, then the resultant of the two forces, a and d, is ex- 
pressed by the diagonal e b oi the parallelogram, formed 
on lines a b, d b, and the resultant of this new force e, 
and the third force c, is / acting in the direction / b, 
the diagonal formed on e b, c b; therefore, / b expresses, 
in direction and intensity, the resultant of the three 



/^ 










/VJ2 



//(5-43^ 



forces a, d, c. A simple experiment may be made to 
prove this. Let the threads a b, a c d, a e f (Fig. 3a) 
have the weights b d f appended to them, and let the 
two threads a c d, a e f he passed over the pulleys c and e; 
then if the weight b be greater than the sum of d f, the 
assemblage will settle itself in a determinate form, de- 
pendent on the weights. If the three weights are equal, 
the lines a c, a e oi the threads will make equal angles 
with a b; if the weights d f and b be respectively 6, 8, 
and 10, then the angle c a e will be a right angle, and 
the lines c a, e a will be of the respective lengths of 6 
and 8; and if we produce c a, e a to n and m, and com- 
plete the parallelogram a n o m; a n, a m will also be 6 
and 8, and the diagonal a o will be 10. The action of 
weight b in the direction a is thus in direct opposition 
to the combined action of the two weights d f, in the 



i68 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



directions c a, e a; and if we produce o a to some point 
k, making a r, a s equal to those weights, we shall 
manifestly have a k equal to a o. Now, since it is 
evident that the weight b, represented by o o, would just 
balance another weight /, pulling directly upwards by 
means of the pulley k, and as it just balances the two 
weights d f, acting in the directions a c, a e, we infer 
that the point a is acted on in the same manner by these 
weights as by the single weight, and that two pressures 
acting in the directions and with the intensities a c, a e 
are equal to the single pressure acting in the direction 
and with the intensity a k. In like manner, the pressures 
a, s a are equivalent to n a, which is equal and oppo- 




//^-^ 



site to r a; also, o a, r a are equivalent to m a, which 
is equal and opposite to 5 a. 

In the case of a load w (Fig. 4a) pressing on the 
two inclined beams h c, b d, which abut respectively on 
the points c and d, it is obvious that the pressures will 
be in the directions b c, b d. To find the amounts of 
these pressures, draw vertical line b e through the center 
of load, and give it, by a scale of equal parts, as many 
units of length as there are units of weight in the load 
w: draw e f, e g parallel io c b, d b; then b g, measured 
on the same scale, will give the amount of the pressure 
sustained by b c, and b f the amount sustained by b d. 

The amount of thrust, or pressure, is not influenced 
by the lengths of pieces b e, h d. But it must be borne 
in mind, that although the pressure is not modified in 
its amount by the length, it is very much modified in 
its efifects, these being greatest in the longest piece. 
Hence, great attention must be given to this in design- 
ing, lest by unequal yielding of the parts, the whole form 
of the assemblage be changed, and strains introduced 
which had not been contemplated. 

If the direction of the beam fc d be changed to 
that shown by the dotted line b i, it will be seen that the 
pressures on both beams are very much increased, and 
the more obtuse the angle i b h the greater the strain. 



Chapter XVIII 

Strength and Strain of Materials 



The materials employed in vessel construction are ex- 
posed to certain forces, which tend to alter their molecu- 
lar constitution, and to destroy that attraction which 
exists between their molecules, named cohesion. 

The destructive forces in timber may operate in the 
manners following: 

I. By tension in the direction of fibres of the wood, 
producing rupture by tearing it asunder. 

IL By compression in the direction of fibres, pro- 
ducing rupture by crushing. 

III. By pressure at right angles to direction of fibres, 
or transverse strain, which breaks it across, and which, 
as will be seen, is a combination of the two former 
strains. 

IV. By torsion or wrenching. 

V. By tearing the fibres asunder. 

Every material resists with more or less energy, and 
for a longer or shorter period, these causes of destruction. 

The resistance to the first-named force is called the 
resistance to extension, or simply, cohesion ; to the 
■second, the resistance to compression ; and the third, the 
resistance to transverse force. The measures of these 
resistances are the efl^orts necessary to produce rupture 
by extension, compression, or transverse strain. 

Those materials which, when they have been sub- 
mitted to a certain force less than the amount of their 
resistance, return to their normal condition when that 
force is withdrawn, are termed elastic. The knowledge 
of the elasticity proper to any body gives the means of 
calculating the amount of extension, compression, or 
flexure, which the body will sustain under a given force. 

For the purposes of calculation, it is convenient to 
have a measure of the resilience or elastic power of a 
body expressed either in terms of its own substance, or 
in weight. This measure is termed the modulus of 
elasticity of the body. 

If we suppose the body to have a square unit of sur- 
face, and to be by any force compressed to one-half or 
extended to double its original dimensions, this force is 
the modulus of the body's elasticity. No solid sub- 
stance, it may at once be conceived, will admit of such 
an extent of compression or extension ; but the expres- 
sion for the modulus may nevertheless be obtained by 
calculation on the data afforded by experiment. The 
moduli for various kinds of woods will be found in 
Table 2, column 7. (See p. 18 for Table 2.) 

l8a. /. Resistance to Tension. 

Although, mechanically considered, this is the sim- 
plest strain to which a body can be subjected, it is yet the 
one in regard to which fewest experiments have been 



made, in consequence of the great force required to tear 
asunder lengthways pieces of timber of even small di- 
mensions. There is, too, a want of agreement sufficiently 
battling in the results obtained by different operators. 
The results of several experiments are given in the table 
2, column 4, reduced to a section of one inch square. 

Resistance of timber to compression in the direction 
of the length of its fibres. 
i8b. //. Resistance to Compression. 

It is not necessary to give rules for the absolute crush- 
ing force of timber. Those that follow are applicable to 
the cases of posts whose length exceeds ten times their 
diameter, and which yield by bending. 

To find the diameter of a post that will sustain a 
given weight. 

j^ule. — Multiply the weight in lb by 1.7 times the 
value of e (Table 2, column 9) ; then multiply the prod- 
uct by the square of length in feet, and the fourth root 
of the last product is the diameter in inches recjuired. 

Examples. — i. The height of a cylindrical oak post 
being 10 feet, and the weight to be supported by it 
10,000 ft, required its diameter. 

The tabular value of e for oak is .0015 — 

therefore, 1.7 X .0015 X 100 X loooo = 2550 
the fourth root of which is 7. 106, the diameter required. 

By inverting the operation, we find the weight, when 
the dimensions are given. 

To find the scantling of a rectangular post to sustain 
a given zveight. 

Rule. — Multiply the weight in tb by the square of 
the length in feet, and the product by the value of e: 
divide this product by the breadth in inches, and the 
cube root of the quotient will be the depth in inches. 

To find the dimensions of a square post that will 
sustain a given weight. 

Rule. — Multiply the weight in ft by the square of 
the length in feet, and the product by 4 times the value 
of e; and the fourth root of this product will be the 
diagonal of the post in inches. 

To find the stiff est rectangular post to sustain a given 
Weight. 

Rule. — Multiply the weight in ft by 0.6 times the 
tabular value of e, and the product by the square of the 
length in feet ; and the fourth root of this product will be 
the least side in inches : divide the least side by 0.6 to 
obtain the greatest side. 

Let the length of the stiffest rectangular oak post 
be 10 feet, and the weight to be supported 10,000 ft, 
required the side of the post. 

0.6 X .0015 X 10 X 10 X loooo = 900, 



I JO 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



the fourth root of which is 5.477, the least side, which, 
divided by 0.6, gives 9.13 as the greatest side. 

i8c. ///. Resistance of timbers to transverse strain. 
When a piece of timber is fixed horizontally at its 
two ends, then, either by its own proper weight, or by 
the addition of a load, it bends, and its fibres become 
curved. If the curvature do not exceed a certain limit, 
the timber may recover its straightness when the weight 
is removed; but if it exceed that limit, although ihe 
curvature diminishes on the removal of load, the timber 
never recovers its straightness, its elasticity is lessened, 
and its strength is partly lost. On the load being aug- 
mented by successive additions of weights, the curva- 
ture increases until rupture is produced. Some woods, 
however, break without previously exhibiting any sensi- 
ble curvature. 

It may be supposed that, in the case of the timber 
being exactly prismatic in form, and homogeneous in 
structure, the rupture of its fibres would take place in 
the middle of its length, in the vertical line, where the 
curves of the fibres attain their maxima. 

In the rupture by transverse strain of elastic bodies 
in general, and consequently in wood, all the fibres are 
not afifected in the same manner. Suppose a piece of 
timber, composed of a great number of horizontal 
ligneous layers, subjected to such a load as will bend it, 
then it will be seen that the layers in the upper part are 
contracted, and those in the lower part extended, while 
between these there is a layer which suflfers neither com- 
pression nor tensiQn; this is called the neutral plane or 



axis. 



If the position of the neutral axis could be determined 
with precision, it would render more exact the means of 
calculating transverse strains; but as the knowledge of 
the ratios of extensibility and compressibility is not ex- 
act, the position of the neutral axis can only be vaguely 
deduced from experiment. Where the ratios of compres- 
sion and extension equal, the neutral axis would be in 
the center of the beam; but experiments show that this 
equality does not exist. Barlow found that in a rec- 
tangular fir beam the neutral axis was at about five- 
eighths of the depth; and Duhamel cut beams one-third, 
and one-half, and two-thirds through, inserting in the cuts 
slips of harder wood, and found the weights borne by 
the uncut and cut beams to be as follows : 

Uncut Beam M Cut % Cut % Cut 

45 tt) 51 It) 48 tb 42 lb 

Results which clearly show, that less than half the fibres 
were engaged in resisting extension; and it has been 
long known that a beam of soft wood, supported at its 
extremities, may have a saw-cut made in the center, 
half-way through its thickness, and a hard wood piece 
inserted in the cut, without its strength being materially 
impaired. 



The transverse strength of beam is — 
Directly as the breadth. 
Directly as the square of the depth, and 
Inversely as the length; 
or substituting the letter b for the breadth, 

d for the depth, and 
/ for the length, 
and placing the ratios together, the general expression of 
the relation of strength to the dimensions of a beam is 
obtained as follows: — 

b X d' 



I 
But this forms no rule for application, since beams of 
different materials do not break by the application of the 
same load ; and it is therefore necessary to find by experi- 
ment a quantity to express the specific strength of each 
material. 

Let this quantity be represented by S, and the formula 
becomes — 

b Xd' XS 
= breakmg weight. 

By this formula experiments can be reduced so as 
to give the value of S. It is only necessary to find the 
breaking weight of a beam whose dimensions are known, 
and then by transposition of the equation — 
/ X breaking weight 

b X d' ~~ 

S thus becomes a constant for all beams of the same 
material as the experimental beam. 

When the value of S for various kinds of wood is 
determined, the formula may be used for computing the 
strength of a given beam, or the size of a beam to carry 
a given load. For any three of the quantities, /, b, d, W, 
being given, we can find the fourth thus : — 

I. When the beam is fixed at one end and loaded at 
the other, and when 

/W 

= S. 

The length, breadth, and depth being given, to find the 
weight— Sb d^ 

W= 

/ 

The weight, breadth, and depth being given, to find the 
leng'th— 

_S b d- 

~~ W 
The weight, length, and depth being given, to find the 
breadth — 

_ / W 

The weight, length, and breadth being given, to find the 
depth — 



1 /W 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



ni 



When the section of a beam is square, that is, when 



/ / W 
h = d; then b or d ^ yj 



The table la cohimn 12 contains the results of ex- 
periments on transverse strength of various kinds of 
wood, with the value of S, calculated according to 

/W 
the formula S = . 

In any beam exposed to transverse strain, it is mani- 
fest that there must be some certain proportion between 
the breadth and depth which will afiford the best results. 
It is found that this is obtained when the breadth is to 
the depth as 6 to 10. Therefore, when it is required to 
, find. the least breadth that a beam for a given .bearing 
should have, the formula is as follows: — 

— 0.6 = 6; 
^~d 
or, expressed in words — 

Rule. — Divide the length in feet by the square root of 
the depth in inches, and the quotient, multiplied by the 
decimal 0.6, will give the least breadth the beam ought 
to have. 

The nearer a beam approaches to the section given 
by this rule, the stronger it will be ; and from this rule is 
derived the next. 

To find the strongest form of a beam so as to use 
only a given quantity of timber. 

Rule. — Multiply the length in feet by the decimal 
0.6, and divide the given area in inches by the product, 
and the square of the quotient will be the depth in inches. 

Example. — Let the given length be 20 feet, and the 

60 

given area of section 60 inches. Then = 5.00, 

20 X 0.6 
the square of which is 25 inches, the depth required, and 
the breadth is consequently 2.4 inches. 

The stiffest beam is that in which the breadth is to the 
depth as .58 to i. 

i8d. Tenacity 

As the strength of cohesion must be proportional to 
the number of fibres of the wood, or, in other words, to 
the area. of section, it follows that the tenacity of any 
piece of timber, or the weight which will tear it asunder 
lengthways, will be found by multiplying the number of 
square inches in its section by the tabular number cor- 
responding to the kind of timber. (Column 4, Table 2.) 

Example.— ~S\xppose it is required to find the tenacity 
of a tie-beam of fir, of 8 X 6 inches scantling. 

8 X 6 = 48, which, multiplied by 12,000, the tabular 
number for fir, gives 576,000 fb. 

This is the absolute tenacity. Practically it is not 
considered safe to use more than one-fourth of this 
weight, or 144,000 tb. 

By the rule inverted, the section of the timber may be 
found when the weight is given, as follows: — 



j^iile. — Divide the given weight by the tabular num- 
ber, and the quotient multiplied by 4 is the area of sec- 
tion required for the safe load. 

Example. — Required the area of section of a piece of 
fir to resist safely a tensile strain of 144,000 tb. 
144000 
= 12 X 4 = 48, the section required. 



12000 



i8e. Summary of Rules 



I. Resistance to Tension or Tenacity. 

To find the tenacity of a piece of timber. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square inches in its 
section by the tabular number corresponding to the kind 
of timber. 

III. Resistance to Transverse Strain. 

1st. When the beam is fixed at one end and loaded at 
the other. 

To find the breaking iveight, when the length, breadth, 
and depth are given. 

/?«/^.— Multiply the square of the depth in inches by 
the breadth in inches, and the product by the tabular 
value of S (Table 2, column 12, page 18), and divide 
by the length in inches: the quotient is the breaking 
weight. 

To find the length, zi'hen the breadth, depth, and break- 
ing zveight are given. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the depth by the 
breadth and by the value of S, and divide by the weight : 
the quotient is the length. 

To find the breadth, zvhen the depth, length, and break- 
ing zveight are given. 

Rule. — Multiply the weight by the length in inches, 
and divide by the square of the depth in inches multi- 
plied by the value of S : the quotient is the breadth. 

To find the depth, zvhen the breadth, length, and 
zveight are given. 

Rule. — Multiply the length in inches by the weight, 
divide the product by the breadth in inches multiplied by 
S, and the square root of the quotient is the depth. 

To find the side of a square beam, zvhen the length 
and zveight are given. 

Rule. — I^Iultiply the length in inches by the weight, 
divide the product by S, and the cube root of the quo- 
tient is the side of the square section. 

To find the scantling of a piece of timber zvhich, 
zvhen laid in a horizontal position, and supported at 
both ends, zvill resist a given transverse strain, zvith a 
deflection not exceeding ^/toth of an inch per foot. 

I. When the breadth and length are giz'en, to find the 
depth. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the length in feet by 
the weight to be sustained in tb., and the product by 
the tabular number a (Table 2, column 10, page 18) ; 
divide the product by the breadth in inches, and the cube 
root of the quotient will be the depth in inches. 

Example. — Required the depth of a pitch pine-beam, 



IT 2 WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 

having a bearing of 20 feet, and a breadth of 6 inches, the length between the supports in inches, and the quo- 
te sustain a weight of 1000 lb. • tient will be the greatest weight the beam will bear in lb. 
The square of the length, 20 feet. . = 400 2d. When the beam is supported at one end and 

Multiplied by the weight = icxx) loaded in the middle. 

• The length, breadth, and depth, all in inches, being 

And the product 400,000 given, to find the zueight. 

By the decimal .016 Rule. — Multiply the square of the depth by 4 times 

the breadth, and by S, and divide the product by the 

Divide the product by the breadth, length for the breaking weight. 

6 inches = 6400.000 The zveight, breadth, and depth being given, to find 

Gives 1066.666 the length. 

The cube root of which is 10.2 inches, the depth re- R^de. — Multiply 4 times the breadth by the square 

quired. of the depth, and by S, and the product divided by the 

2. When the depth is given. weight is the length. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the length in feet by ^'^o weight, length, and depth being given, to find 

the weight in tb, and multiply this product by the tabu- '''^ breadth. 

lar value of a: divide the last product by the cube of the i?i«/^.— Multiply the length by the weight, and the 

depth in inches, and the quotient will be the breadth product divided by 4 times the square of the depth 

required. multiplied by S, is the breadth. 

£.ra;«/'/f?.— Length of pitch-pine beam 20 feet ; depth. The weight, length, and breadth being given, to find 

10.2 inches; weight, 1000 lb. '/^^ depth. 

20 X 20 X 1000 X .016 6400 i?i(/f.— Multiply the length by the weight, and divide 

Then = = 6, the breadth the product by 4 times the breadth multiplied by S. 

• A '°'^ ^ ^°^ ^° ^ ' IVhen the section of the beam is square, and the weight 

" ',, . , , , , , , , , . . and length are given, to find the side of the square. 

3. M^hen neither the breadth nor the depth is given, , . , .,,..,,.,■ u.. j a- -j 

, "^ , , , . , , , ,. , r Rule. — Multiply the length by the weight, and divide 

but they are to be determined by the proportion before , ^ u ^ c ^u u ^ ^ ^u ,.■ ^ 

-; , , , , , ' ^ the product by 4 times b : the cube root of the quotient 

given, that is, breadth to depth as 0.6 to i. • ^1 , j^u ..i j ^u 

„ , ^/ , ■ , , • , • ^ , , t , is the breadth or the depth. 

Rule. — Multiply the weight in lb by the tabular num- , ,,,, ., , ■ j: j >. u ^u a jijj 

.*, -^ ° ; 3d. When the beam is fixed at both ends and loaded 

ber a, and divide the product by 0.6, and extract the • ,, jj, 

, • , , , , , , ■ r , in the middle, 

square root: multiply the root by the length in feet, and ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^/^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^. .^^^^ ^^ ^,^^ 

extract the square root of this product, which will be the ^, ... 

the weight. 

depth in inches, and the breadth will be equal to the Rule.-Un\U^\y 6 times the breadth by the square 

depth mult.p led by 0.6. ^^ ^^^ ^^p^j^^ ^^^ ^ S^ ^^^ ^;^i^^ ^^^ p^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ 

To find the strength of a rectangular beam, fixed at . .r f *t, • u*. 

one end and loaded at the other. ^" n'is^not nelesLy to repeat all the transpositions of 

Rule. — Multiply the value of S by the area of the ,, 

,,,,,.,, ,,■•,, the equation, 

section, and by the depth of the beam, and divide the ^^,^ ^,^^,^ ^j^^ ^^^^ j^ ^,.^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^,^ ^^^ ,^^^j^j 

product by the length in inches. The quotient will be the ^^ ^^ intermediate point. 

breaking weight in ft. i?M/^.— Multiply 3 times the length by the breadth, 

E.rample.-A beam of Riga fir projects 10 feet be- ^^^ ^^ ^^e square of\he depth, and by S; and divide the 

yond Its point of support, and its section is 8 X 6 inches, p^.^^^^^^ ^^ ^^j^^ ^,^^ rectangle formed by the segments 

what IS Its breaking weight ? .^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^ ^^-^^^ ^,j^j^^3 ^j,^ ^^^^ 

Area 8 X 6 r=r 48, multiplied by the depth 8 = 384. p^^ example, if the beam is 20 feet long and the 

Multiply this by the constant 1108, and divide the product ^^jg^t is placed at 5 feet from one end, then the seg- 

iioo X 304 ments are respectively 5 feet and 15 feet, or, in inches, 

by the length, = 3545 tb. The fourth part 5^ ^^^j jg^. ^^^ ^he rectangle is 60 X 180 = 10800; 

^^ and twice this amount, or 21600, is the divisor. 

of this is the safe weight to impose in practice, there- Suppose the beam of Riga fir, fixed at both ends, 

°^^ and its section 8X6 inches and the weight placed at 5 

3545 feet from one end, required its breaking weight: then, 

= 886 lb. three times the length = 720, multiplied by the product 

4 of the breadth into the square of the depth, and by the 

To find the strength of a rectangular beam, when it is tabular value of S = 306339840; which divided by 21600, 

supported at the ends and loaded at the middle. as above, gives 14,182 lb as the breaking weight. 

Rule. — Multiply S by 4 times the depth, and by the 5th. When the beam is supported at both ends, but 

area of the section in inches, and divide the product by not fixed, and when the load is in the middle. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



173 





To find the zveight, zahen the length, breadth and 
depth are given. 

Rule. — Multiply 4 times the breadth by the square 
of the depth and by S, and divide the product by the 
length : the product is the breaking weight. 

i8f. Compound Beams 

In any loaded beam, as we have seen, the fibres on 
the upper side are compressed, while those on the lower 
side are extended; and within the elastic limits those 
forces are equal. The intensity of the strain, also, varies 
directly as the distance of any fibre from the neutral 
axis. 

If the parts of a beam near the neutral axis, which 
are little strained and oppose but little resistance, could 
be removed ; and if the same amount of material could be 
disposed at a greater distance from the axis ; the strength 
and stifTness would be increased in exact proportion to 
the distance at which it could be made to act. Hence, 
in designing a truss, the material, to resist the horizontal 
strain, must be placed as far from the neutral axis as 
the nature of the structure will allow. 



Suppose to the single beam a b (Fig. 5a) we add 
another c d, and unite them by vertical connections, then 
it might be supposed that we were doing as above sug- 
gested ; that is, making a compound beam by disposing 
the material advantageously at the greatest distance 
from the neutral axis. But it is not so. There are only 
two beams resisting with their individual strength and 
stiffness the load, which is increased by the weight of 
the vertical connections, and they would sink under the 
pressure into the curve shown by the dotted lines. It is 
necessary, therefore, to use some means whereby the 
two beams will act as one, and their flexure under pres- 
sure be prevented. This is found in the use of braces, 
as in Fig. 6a ; and we shall proceed to consider what 
effect a load would produce on a truss so formed. 

The load being uniformly distributed, the depression 
in the case of flexure will be greatest in the middle, and 
the diagonals of the rectangles a b, c d, will have a ten- 
dency to shorten. But, as the braces are incapable of 
yielding in the direction of their length, the shortening 
cannot take place, neither can the flexure. A truss of 
this description, therefore, when properly proportioned, 
is capable of resisting the action of a uniform load. 




il^: _- 

F/G S'^ 



174 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




If the load is not uniformly distributed, the pressures 
will be found thus : — Let the weight be applied at some 
point c (Fig. 7a), and represented by c p. Now resolve 
this into its components in the direction c a, c b, and con- 
struct the parallelogram p m, c 0, then c m will represent 
the strain on c b and c the strain in the direction c a. 
B)' transferring the force c m to the point b, and resolv- 
ing it into vertical and horizontal components, the verti- 
cal pressure on b will be found equal to c n and that on 
A eqtial to n p. That is, the pressures on a and b are 
directly proportional to their distance from the place of 
the application of the load. 

In the same manner, if the load were at R, it would 
be discharged by direct lines to a and b. 

The effect of the oblique force c a acting on r is to 
force it upwards, and the direction and magnitude of the 
strain would be the diagonal of a parallelogram con- 
structed on a c, c R. 

The consequence of this is, that in a truss a weight at 
one side produces a tendency to rise at the other side, 
and, therefore, while the diagonals of the loaded side are 
compressed those of the unloaded side are extended. 

Hence„ while the simple truss shown in the last two 
figures is perfectly sufficient for a structure uniformly 
loaded, because the weight on one side is balanced by the 
weight on the other, it is not sufficient for one subjected 
to a variable load. 

For a variable load, it is therefore necessary either 
that the braces should be made to resist extension by 
having iron ties added to them, or that other braces to 
resist compression in the opposite direction should be 
introduced ; and thus we obtain a truss composed of four 
elements, namely, chords a b and c d (Fig. 8a), vertical 



ties e f, g h, k m, braces e c, g f, g m, k D, and counter- 
braces A f, e h, k h, B m, or, in place of the latter, tie- 
rods added to the braces. 

It has been shown that in any of the parallelograms 
of such a truss as has been described, the action of a load 
is to compress the braces a d, a b, and to extend the 
counter-braces a b, a c. Suppose (Fig. 9a) that the 
counter-braces have been extended to the length a tn, 
and the braces compressed to an equal extent ; then if a 
wedge be closely fitted into the interval a m, it will 




/^/& ^ 



neither have any effect on the framing, nor will itself be 
afifected in any way so long as the weight which has pro- 
duced the flexure continues. But on the removal of the 
weight, the wedge becomes compressed by the effort of the 
truss to return to its normal condition. This effort is re- 
sisted by the wedge, and there is, consequently, a strain 
on the counter-brace equal to that which was produced 
by the action of the weight. The effect of the addition 
of a similar weight, therefore, would be to relieve the 
strain on the counter-brace, without adding anything to 
the strain on the brace a d. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



175 



Here is listed in alphabetical order the names of principal parts -of a wooden ship, 
defined under proper headings or described and illustrated in one of the chapters. 

Parts of a Wooden Hull Including the Wooden Portions of 



Air-course 

Amidship 

Apron 

Beam 

after — 

breast — ; collar — (of 

o poop, forecastle, etc.) 

— carling 
deck — 

awning deck — 
between deck — 
forecastle deck ■ — 
lower deck — 
main deck — 
middle deck — 
poop deck — 
raised-quarter deck — 
spardeck — 

upper deck — 

— end 
foremost — 

half — {in way of hatch- 
ways) 

hatchway — 
hold — 

intermediate — 
mast — 
midship — 

moulding of — s {depth) 
orlop — 
paddle — 

rounding or chamber of a — 
scantling of — s 
siding of — s {breadth) 

— scarph 
spacing of — s 

spring — , sponson — {of 

paddle-steamer) 

spur — {of paddlewalks) 

tier of — s 

transom — ■ 

Bearding-line 

Bilge 

— keelson 

— logs 

• — planks 

■ — strakes 

thick strakes of — 

turn of — 

lower turn of- — 

upper turn of — 

Binding-strake 

Bitt 

cross piece of — 
gallow — 

— head 
lining of — 
riding — 



Bitt 

standard to — 

step of — 

top sail sheet — 

windlass — {see windlass) 

Body {of a ship) 

Chock, bow — 

bi^tt — {of timbers) 

corner — {over the stem 

seam in way of hawse 

bolster) 

cross — 

dowsing — {breasthook 

above a deck) 

floor head — - 

Cable-stage ; Cable-tier 

Careening 

Carling {Beam-carling) 
hatchway — 
mast — {fore and aft 
partners of mast) 

Carvel-built 

Carvel-work 

Casing 

Cat-head 

supporter of — 

Cat-tail 

Caulking 

Ceiling 

between deck — 
close — 
tlat — , floor — 
hold — 

— plank 

thick stuff of — 

Chain-locker 

Chain-plate 
backstay — 

— bolt 
fore — 
main — 
mizzen — 
preventer — 
preventer bolt 

Channel 
fore — 

— knee 
lower — 
main — 
mizzen — 

— ribband 
upper — 

Cheek 

Chess-tree 
Chock 



the greater number of parts being either 

A Composite Hull 

Clamp 

deck beam — 
awning deck beam — 
forecastle deck beam — 
lower deck beam — 
middle deck beam — ; main 

deck beam — • 
poop — 

spardeck beam — 
upper deck beam — 
hold beam — 

Cleat 

sheet — ; kevel - — 

shroud — 

snatch — 

step of a — 

stop ■ — 

thumb — 
Clincher-built 
Clinched-work 
Coach {quarter-deck cabin) 
Coak or dowel 
Coal-hold 
Coat 
Combing; Coaming 

hatchway — 

house — 
Companion 

— way 
Compartment 
Copper 

— fastened 
Counter 

lower — 

upper — 
Covering-board 
Crane 
Crew-space 
Cross piece {floor) 
Crutch {hook in after peak) 
Crutch 
Curve 
Cutwater 
Dead-eye 
Dead-flat 
Dead-light 
Dead-rising 
Dead-wood 
Dead-work 

Deck 

awning — 
entire awning — 
partial awning — 
between — {'tweendeck) 

— dowel 
— - ends 

first, second and third — 



I yd 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Deck 


Fastening 


Futtock, — heel 


flat of — 


metal — 




flush — 


single — {in planks) 


Gallery 


fore — 


through — 


Galley 


forecastle — 






— hook 


Faying surface {of timbers, 


Gallows; Gallows-bitts 


— house 


planking, etc.) 




— light 

lower or orlop ^ 


Felt {under metal sheathing) 


Gangway 

Entering port 


middle — , main — 


Figure-head 


Gangways {under deck) 


— plank 


fiddle — 


Garboard 


quarter — 


Filling; Filling piece 


outer — 


raised quarter — or half 




— plank 


poop — 


Floor 


— seam 


— seam 


aftermost — 


— strake 


shade — 


cant — Double futtock 




sheer of — 


double — 


Girder 


shelter ■ — 


flat — 


Girth {of a ship) 


. spar — 
stage or preventer — 


foremost — 
half — 


Gripe {of stem and keel) 


tonnage — 


— head 


Groove 


upper — 


— head chock 


Gunwale 


weather — 


long armed — 




• well — 


midship or main — 


Gutter 




moulding of — s {depth) 


— ledge {of hatchway) 


Depth 

— of hold 


rising of — s 
seating of a- — 
sliort armed — 
siding of — s {breadth, 
thickness) 


Hatch {cover of a hatchway) 


• moulded — {measured from 
top of keel to top of mid- 
ship beam) 


— bars 

— battens ; Hatchway 
battens 

— batten-cleat 


Diagonal 


top of — s 


booby — ; Booby hatchway 


— iron plates or riders {on 


Forecastle 


■ — carling 


frames') 


— beam 


— house 


Diminishing stuff; Diminishing 


— coveringboard 


Hatchway {also called hatch) 


planks 


— deck 


after or quarter — 




— rail 


cargo — 


Door 


— skylight 


— carlings 


Doubling 


monkey — {small height) 
sunk — 


— combing 
lower deck — 


diagonal — 


topgallant — 


main deck — 


Dove-tail 




upper deck — 


— plate 


Frame 


fore' — 




after balance — 


fore and after in a 


Dowel ; Coak 


fore balance — 


— grating 


deck — 


diagonal — ; trussing — 


— headledge 


floor — 


flight of — s 


hood of — 


Draught 


foremost — 


main — 




main or midship — 


thwartship piece, half beam 


Draught-mark 


moulding of — s 


in a — 


Eking 


— riders, diagonals on — s 


wing boards in — {for 


siding of — s 


grain cargoes) 


Entrance {of a vessel) 
Erection {on deck) 


spacing of — s 
spacing between — s 


Hawse; Hawse-hole 
— bag 


Escutcheon {that part of the 


square — 
stern — 


— bolster 

— plug 


stern, where the name is 




written) 


Freeboard 


Hawse-pipe 


knee — 


Futtock 


— flange 


Fair leader 


first — ; lower — 


Hawse-timber 


Fashion-piece 

toptimber of a — 


second — 
third — 
fourth — 


Head {of a vessel) 
beak of the — 


Fastening 


fifth — 


bluff — 


copper — 


sixth — 


Knee of the head (") 


double — {in planks) 


double — 


— boards 


iron — 


— head 


bob-stay piece of the — 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



177 



Head (of a vessel) 


Keelson 


Manger 


cheeks of the — 


bilge — 


— board 


cheek-fillings of the — 


main — 




lower cheeks of the — 


middle line — ; center — 


Mast-carling (fore and aft 
(partners of mast) 


washboards under the low- 


rider — 


er cheeks of the — 


scarph of — 


— hole ■ 


upper cheeks of the — 


sister- — ; side — 


Mess-room 


filling chocks of the — 


Kevel ; Kevel-head 


Middle-line; Center-line 


— grating 






independent piece of the — 


Knee 


Midship-section 


lace piece or gammoning of 
the — 


beam arm of a — 
dead wood — 


Mooring-pipe 


Head, standard knee of the — 


diagonal — 
hanging—; vertical — 


Moulding 


— rail 


heel — (of sternpost and 


Moulding (of a piece of 


berthing rail of — 


keel) 


timber) 


main rail of — 


hold beam - — 


breech — 


small or middle rail of — 


iron ■ — 


cable — 


stem furr of the — 
— timbers 


lodging — 

lower deck beam — 


Name-board 


Head-ledge (of a hatchway) 


middle deck beam — 


Naval-hood (hawse pipe bol- 
ster) 


Heel 


upper deck beam — 


Helm 


Knee, ^ rider 


Pad 




standard — 


Paddle beam 


Helm-port (the hole in the 
counter, through which the 


staple — 
throat of a - — - 


Paddle box 

framing of — 


head of the rudder passes.) 


transom — 


Hogging; Sagging 


wooden — 


Paddle walks (extension of the 


Hold 


Knight 


paddle boxes) 


after — 


of the fore-mast 


Panel-work 


fore — 


of the main-mast 


Panting (of a ship) 


lower — 


of the mizzen-mast 




main — 


Knighthead 


Pantry (steward's room) 


Hood 

(of the crew-space) 


Launching (of a ship) 


Partner 

bowsprit — 


after — s (of planking) 


Lazarette 


capstan — 


fore — s (of planking) 


Leak 


mast — 


— ends ; Wood-ends 
House; Deck-house 


Lee-board (used by small Hat 
bottomed vessels) 


fore and aft mast — 
(mast-carling) 


Ice-doubling; Ice-lining 


Lee-flange (iron horse) 


Peak 

after - — ■ 


Intercostal 


Length (of a ship) 


fore — • 


Iron 


extreme — (from fore-part 




bar — 


of stem to afterpart of 


Pin-rack 


galvanized — 


sternpost) 


Plank 


plain • — 


Lengthening (of a ship) 


boundary — ; margin — (of 


— rod; Iron-horse 


Limbers; Limber-passage (*) 


a deck) 


— work 


Limber-boards 


shifting of — s 


Keel 




Planking 


bilge — 


Limber-hole 


bilge— (outside) 


camber of — ; hogging of — 


Limber-strakes 


bilge — (inside) 


center line — ; middle line — 


Lining 


bottom — 


false— ; safety — 


Listing 


bow — 


length or piece of — 


Load-line 


bulwark — 


main — 


deep — 


buttock — 


moulding of- — 


Lobby 


deck — 


lower — ; upper false — 


diagonal - — 


— rabbet 


Locker 


fastening of — 


— scarph 


Locker-seat 


inside^ 


stopwater (in keel scarph) 


(*) A passage over the floors 


outside — 


— seam (garboard-seam) 


or holes in same to allow water 


stern — 


side — 


to reach the pumps ; The space 


topside — 


siding of — 


between the floors extending a 


Planksheer 


skeg of — 


short distance on each side of 


Platform 


sliding — 


the middle-line, is also called 


upper or main — 


"Limbers". 


Pointer 



178 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Poop 

— beam 

— bulkhead 

— frame 
full — 

half — (or raised quarter 
deck) 

Port 

air — 
ballast — 

— bar 
bow — 

cargo — ; gangway — (in 

bulwark) 

entering — 

flap of — 

freeing — ; water — ■ (in 

bulwark) 

— hinges 

— lid 

Port, quarter — 
raft — 

— ring 
sash — 
side — 

— sill; — cill 

Quarter (after end of a ship) 

— deck 
raised — deck 

— pieces 
Rabbet 

back — 

keel — 

• — line 

stem — 

sternpost — 
Rail 

boundary — 

counter — s 

cove — 

fife — (around raised quar- 
ter dedk). 

fife— (around masts) 

forecastle — 

hand' — 

main — ; roughtree — 

poop — 

sheer — 

taflf- 

topgallant — ; monkey — 
Ranger (side pin-rack) 
Ribs (frames) 
Rider (hold rider) 

floor — 

futtock — ; top — 
Roof 

Rubbing-strake 
Rudder 

back pieces of — 

balanced • — 

— boards (of inland 
vessels) 

— brace ; — gudgeon 

— bushes (bushes in rudder 
braces or around pintles) • 



Rudder 

— coat 
gulleting of a — 

— head 

coning of the — head 

— heel 

rounded heel df — 

— horn (an iron bar on 
back of rudder, to which 
the pendants are shackled) 

— irons 

jury — ; temporary — main 
piece of • — 

— mould 

— pendant 

— pintle 

— pintle score 
rake of a — 

sole piece of a- — 

Rudder tell-tale of a — 

— tiller or tillar 

— trunk 

— woodlock (to prevent 
the rudder being unhung) 

Run (of a vessel) 
clean — 

full — 

Sail-room 

Samson-post (of heavy piece of 
timber used for different pur- 
poses) 

Scantling 

Scarph ; Scarf 
flat — 
hooked — 
horizontal — 
lip of a — 
dovetail — 
vertical — ; side — 

Score 

Scupper ; Scupper hole — 
• — leather 

— pipe 

— plug 

— port ; Freeing port (in 
bulwark) 

Scuttle (small opening in the 
ship's side or deck) 
cable-tier — 
deck — 

Seam 

butt — 
longitudinal — 

Sheathing 
bottom — 
copper — 
metal — 
wood — 
wood — (of bottom)- 

Sheathing zinc — 
Sheer (of a ship) 
Sheerstrake 



Shelf 

deck beam — 

awning deck — , awning 
deck beam — 

forecastle deck — ; fore- 
castle deck beam — 

lower deck — ; lowerdeck 
beam — 

main or middle deck — ; 
main deck beam — 

poop — ; poop beam — 

spar-deck — ; spar-deck 
beam — 

upper deck — ; upper deck 
beam — 

hold beam — 

Shift of planking. 

after- — of planking 
fore — of planking 

Shifting-boards (in hold for 

grain-cargoes) 
Ship-building 
Shore 

Side (of a ship) 
lee — 
port — 
starboard — 

top — ■ . 

weather — 

Side-light; Side scuttle 

Sill; Cill 

Skeleton (of a ship) 

Skids; Skid-beams 

Skin 

Skylight 

cabin — 

dead lights of a — 

forecastle — 

— guards 
Sounding-pipe (of pump) 
Spirketting 

deck beam — ; deck — 

awning deftk — 

forecastle deck ■ — 

lower deck — 

main- or middle deck — 

poop — 

spar-deck — 

upper deck — 

hold beam — 
Spur 

Spur-beam 
Stanchion 

bulwark — 

deck — ; deck beam — 

main deck — 

upper deck — ' 

deck — cleats 

fixed — 

hold — ; hold 

beam — 

loose — 

quarter — 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



179 



Stanchion 

roughtree — 

step of — 

topgallant bulwark — , 
State-room 
Stealer; Drop-strake 
Steerage 
Steering-apparatus 

patent — 
Steering-wheel 

Stem • 

moulding of — (breadth) 
rake of — ; inclination of — 
boxing of — and keel 
siding of — (thickness) 
up and down — (stem 
forming no cutwater) 

Stemson 

Step 

— butted (planking) 
Stern (extreme after part of 

a ship) 

elliptical — 

— frame 
moulding of — 
pink — 

— pipe 

— port 

round — ; circular — 
square — 

— timber 

— window 
Sternpost; Rudder post; or 

Main post 

heel of — 

heel knee of — 

inner — (inner post) 

rake of — 

tenon of — 
Stemson 
Stirrup (strap on foot of stem 

and fore-end of keel) 
Stop 
Store-room 

boatswain's — 
Stowage 
Strake; Streak (of planking) 

Strake, adjoining — 
bilge — 



Strake 

binding — 
black — 
bottom — 
intermediate — 
side — 
topside — 

Stuff, diminishing — 
short — . 
thick — 

Thick-strakes (of ceiling) 
(of outside planking) 

Tiller; Tillar (rudder) 
quadrant — 

— rope 

Timber 

alternate — 
butt of — s 
cant — 
counter — 
side counter — 

— dowel 
filling — ■ 
floor — 
hawse — 

— head 
heel of a — 

horn- — (middle timber of 
stern) 
knuckle — 

moulding of — s (thick- 
ness) 

post — s (stern timbers in 
round or elliptical stern) 
Timber, quarter — s 
scantling of — s 
set of — s (a frame) 
shift of — s 
siding of — s (breadth) 
and space 
space between — s 
square — s 
top — 

Tonnage 

— under deck 
gross — 
register — ; net — 

Tonnage-deck 

Topgallant- forecastle (Fore- 
castle) 



Topside (of a vessel) 

Topside-planking 

Trail-board (between the 
cheeks of the head) 

Transom 
deck — 
filling — s , 

— knee 

wing — (in square stern 
ships) 

Treenail 

— wedge 

Treenailing 

Trunk 

Trussing, internal — 

Tuck; Buttock 

Waist (the deck between fore- 
castle and poop) 

Wales 

channel — 

Ward-room 

Water-closet 

Water-course (limbers) 

Water-line 
light — 

Water-way 
inner — 
lower deck — 
main deck — 
outer -^ 
upper deck — 

Well; Pump-well 
Wheel (steering-wheel) 
barrel of — 

— chain 

— house 

— rope 

— spindle 

— spokes 

— stanchion 

Whelp (of a capstan or wind- 
lass) 
Wing (of the hold) 
Wood-flat 
Wood-lining 
Work, upper — ; Dead work 



Chapter XIX 
256-Foot Commercial Schooner 

The principal dimensions are: 

Length o. a 292 feet 

Length at water-line, loaded .... 256 

Length, keel 244 

Breadth 48 

Depth 23.75-' 

Tonnage gross, 2,114; net, 1,870 






s^ 


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^ 


^^ 


fe^^ 


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/ 


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/ . 


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Fig. 200. Lines and Sail Plan of Commercial Schooner. Designed by B. B. Crownlnshield 



WOODEN S H I P - B U I L D I N G ■. s:lU:r}i:} ix; I z8i 



5,000-Ton Motorship 




Fig. 201a. Construction Section of Wooden Motorship 




Fig. 201b. Construction Plan For Hold and Lower Deck 



The principal, dimensions of this vessel are: 
Length o. a. 278 feet 11 inches 



Length, A.B.S. rule ... 260 

Length, l.w.l 267 

Breadth, extreme .... 45 

Breadth, moulded .... 44 

Depth, moulded 25 

Depth of hold 21 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



Deadrise 36 feet o inches 

Draught, loaded 22 " o " 

Draught light, forward 10 " o " 

Draught, light, aft 16 " 6 " 

Displacement .... 5,087 long tons 

Total D.W 3.100 long tons 

Net D.W 2,550 long tons 

Lumber capacity . . 1,500,000 board feet 




g 



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I o 



a 

o 

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n 

a 



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Fig. 20 le. Typical Sections 




Fig. 201f. Arrangement of Machinery and Piping of Engine Boom 






Tig. 202. Fioftle, Construction and Deck Fluu of Steam Trawler, Bnllt From Designs by Cox & Stevens For the East Coast Fisheries Company 




The Trawl Ready to Lower Over the Side of the Vessel 



Forward Deck House 




Kingfisher on the Ways of the Portland Shipbuilding Company Beady For Lauiicliiuii 




Steam Trawler Kingfisher on Her Trial Trip at Portland, Mo. 
Fig. 202a 



; € » » < € • « 




Sail Plan of 80-Foot Auxiliary Fishing Schooner Built From Schock Designs 








Construction Flan of 80-Foot Auzlliary Schooner Iskum 
Fig. 203 




Half Deck Flan and Longitudinal Lines of b Whaler 




Typical N eyv Bcbforb Whalcr. 



Tig. 204 



i88 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



270-Foot Cargo Carrier 

A 270-fo6t full-powered cargo vessel, from designs of direct-connected generating outlits for lighting, heating 

by Edson B. Schock. This vessel has two full decks and and operating electric winches, of which there are four, 

about 3,200 tons deadweight carrying capacity. and an electric windlass. 

It is built to the highest class, and is driven by twin The general dimensions are : 

Mclntosh-Seymour Diesel engines of 500 h.p. each. The Length 270 feet 

estimated speed is 9.5 knots. Fuel capacity 1,000 barrels, Breadth 46 " 

carried in four tanks. The auxiliary machinery consists Depth moulded : . 26 " 






Fig. 205. Plans of a 270-Foot Cargo Carrier, Built From Designs by Edson B. Schock; Equipped With Mclntosh-Seymour Diesel Engines 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



:;:■{■} i^ji-J/-^ 





Fig. 206. Profile, Deck, Construction and Sail Plans of 220-Foot Auxiliary Scbooner Built From Designs by Edson B. Schock 

Length o. a 220 feet 

Breadth 4^ " 

Depth moulded 21 

Carrying capacity . . . . .^ 1,800 tons 



•c c c 5c J c < • t . 





Fig. 207. Sail, Construction and Deck Plans of 223-Foot Auxiliary Schooner, Bnilt From Besigns by Cox & Stevens 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



:',;/$?;/, 




Pig. 209. 235-Foot AuxlUary Commercial Schooner, Designed by J. Murray Watts 



235-Foot Auxiliary Schooner 

The accompanying plans show a four-masted auxil- 
iary schooner, designed by J. Murray Watts. This vessel 
is 235 feet over all, 217 feet registered length, 40 feet 
breadth and 18 feet depth. 

Plans and specifications conform with the American 
Bureau of Shipping. 

Power, oil engines of 320 h.p. 

Cargo capacity, 2,cxx> tons. 



224-Foot Auxiliary Schooner 

A four-masted auxiliary schooner, designed by Edson 
B. Schock, of Seattle, Wash. The construction is ac- 
cording to the requirements of the American Bureau of 
Shipping. Teh capacity of this vessel as usually ex- 
pressed on the West Coast is 1,400,000 feet of lumber. 

Length o. a 224 feet o inches 

Length 1. w. 1 200 " o " 

Breadth 43 " 6 " 

Depth 20 " o " 




Fig. 208. 221-Foot Auxiliary Commercial Schooner, Designed by Edson B. Schock 




M 

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e 






•s 

o 

3 

a 

o 
o 

« 

1 



3 

F4 




a 



ft 



IQ4 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



200-Foot Schooner 




Fig. 212. Profile, Sail and Deck Plans of 200-Foot Four-Masted Schooner Building For J. W. Somerville, Gulfport, Miss., From Designs 

by Cox & Stevens 



This vessel is a four-masted schooner built under line, extreme breadth 36 feet 8 inches, depth of hold 15 

the classification of the American Bureau of Shipping feet, depth of side 17 feet 11 inches, draught loaded 16 

and rated A-i 15 years. She is built of long-leaf yellow feet 6 inches. She will displace 1,942 tons and carry 

pine and her spars are of Oregon pine. Her general 1,240 tons deadweight. The area of the lower sails is 

dimensions are: 200 feet long over all, 177 feet water- 10,794 square feet. 







znxt 

Fig. 212a. Engine Installation For Working Windlass and Capstan 



Rfc3TCrH»G5 rOP. KEELSOtta ETC 

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ew ft B MB. 



1 wiTtnggrPitt agg: 


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Fig. 2121). Midship Consttuction Plan of Four-Masted Schoo.er Building For J. W. Somervllle, Designed by Cox Sc Stevens 







Fig. 213a. Sail Plan of 152-Foot Auxiliary Schooner, Now Building From Designs by John G. Alden 




Deck and Arrangement Plan of 152-Foot Cargo Carrier, Building by Frank C. Adams, East Boothbay, Me. 




Sections of Auxiliary Schooner, Building From Alden Designs 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



:■■;;> ir«7-; 



152-Foot Auxiliary Schooner 

An auxiliary schooner, 152 feet long on deck, is being storeroom, spare room, and rooms for the mate and 

built by Frank C. Adams, of East Boothbay, Me., from steward. 

designs by John G. Alden. The vessel is to be used With the present shortage of timber this vessd, being 

as a sailing craft because of the difficulty in obtaining smaller than is usual for cargo carriers, can be built in 

engines, but as soon as the engine builders can furnish comparatively short time and made to pay enormous 

the power it will be installed. This is only one instance profits. It will carry about 700 tons dead weight and be 

of the trouble shipbuilders are experiencing with engines operated offshore with a crew of seven men, and on the 
and it is because of the great demand for engines which _ coast, especially in Suminer, with five men. 

the manufacturers are at present unable to meet. With There are many yards which are capable of building 

the great building program of the shipping interests in vessels of the size of this schooner but which could not 

this country only just put in operation there is coming an 'i^ndle larger vessels. Such craft at present rates of 

era of prosperity for all engine men. ^''^'ght would very soon pay for themselves and would 

,„, . , . , . . , , always be useful for coasting or for short voyages, 

i his vessel is most attractive in appearance and has ^, , ■ . 1 • 1 1 , . , 

,, , , r A. ,,, • r , , ^, , ^he vessel is rigged with three masts, which are 113 

all the earmarks of Air. Alden s careful work. 1 he plans ,- . r 1 t . . 1 t-i 1 -^^ • o r . 

•^ teet from deck to truck. I he bowsprit is 48 feet out- 
show a vessel with unusual freight capacity for one of Ury^^A 

her size. There is a house forward, in which are The general dimensions are: 

the quarters for the crew, a galley and the engine space. Length on deck ici2 feet 

In the after house is the captain's cabin, 10 feet square, Length, registered 142 " 

a messroom of the same size, the captain's stateroom, 10 Breadth 33 " 

feet 6 inches by 6 feet 2 inches, a bathroom, a chartroom, Depth of hold I2>1 " 




Fig. 213b. MidsUp Section of AnxiUary Schooner, Designed by John G. Alden 



.:..n/iCjO''H..l 




/Vf M' Y0K.K Pilot £pAT., 




SaU Flan and lines of New York Pilot Boat. Drawn by Geo. B. Douglas 

Fig. 214 • 




Profile and Deck Plans of 47-Foot Tug, Built br L. D. ,~i;::, Jro;:: To irua ty J. riurrsy ~;at:3 




Construction Plan of 47-Faot Tug For South American Service, Equipped With a Kahlenberg Heavy-Oil Engine of 90-100 H.P. 

Fig. 215 

Length 47 feet o' inches 

Breadth 12 " o " 

Draught, running 4 " 8 " 



.^oa 






WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 




North RiveR Schooneh. 

>yM. DiCKL X 

Hr/icK. MY. 



i.i»^^ 



Lines and Sections of 77-Faot Nortii River Schooner 




Sail Flan of North Biver Schooner 
Fig. 217 



Length o. a •]•] feel Main topmast, o. a. 

Length on w. 1 64 

Breadth 24 

Draught ' 7 

Foremast, deck to cap 59 

Main mast, deck to cap 69 



27 feet 



Boom, main 48 ' 

Boom, fore 27 ' 

Gaff, main 29 ' 

Gaff, fore 26 ' 

Bowsprit, outboard 24 . ' 



Chapter XX 

Definitions of Terms Used by Shipbuilders and of Parts of Wooden Ships 

Note. — Items marked * are clearly shown on one or more of the illustrations. 



Abut. — When two timbers or planks are united endways, 
they are said to butt or abut against each other. 

Adhesion of surfaces glued together. From Mr. Bevan's ex- 
periments it appears that the surfaces of dry ash-wood, cemented 
by glue newly made, in the dry weather of summer would, after 
twenty-four hours' standing, adhere with a force of 715 tb to the 
square inch. But when the glue has been frequently melted and 
the cementing done in wet weather, the adhesive force is re- 
duced to from 300 to SCO lb to the square inch. When fir cut in 
autumn was tried, the force of adhesion was found to be 562 lb 
to the" square inch. Mr. Bevan found the force of cohesion in 
solid glue to be equal to 4,000 lb to the square inch, and hence 
concludes that the application of this substance as a cement is 
capable of improvement. 

Adhesive Force of nails and screws in different kinds of 
wood. Mr. Bevan's experiments were attended with the following 
results : — Small brads, 4,560 in the pound, and the length of each 
44/100 of an inch, force into dry pine to the depth of 0.4 inch, 
in a direction at right angles to the grain, required 22 lb to extract 
them. Brads half an inch long, 3,200 in the pound, driven in the 
same pine to 0.4 inch depth, required 37 lb to extract them. 
Nails 618 in the pound, each nail 134 inch long, driven 0.5 inch 
deep, required 58 lb to extract them. Nails 2 inches long, 130 in 
the pound, driven i inch deep, took 320 lb. Cast-iron nails, i inch 
long, 380 in the pound, driven 0.5 inch, took 72 lb. Nails 2 inches 
long, 73 in the pound, driven i inch, took 170 lb ; when driven 
iV> inch they took 327 tb, and when driven 2 inches 530 lb. The 
adhesion of nails driven at right angles to the grain was to force 
of adhesion when driven with the grain, in pine, 2 to i, and in 
green elm as 4 to 3. If the force of adhesion of a nail and 
pine be 170, then in similar circumstances the force for green 
sycamore will be 312, for dry oak 507, for dry beech 667. A 
common screw i/s of an inch diameter was found to hold with 
a force three times greater than a nail 214 inches long, 73 of 
which weighed a pound, when both entered the same length into 
the wood. 

Adze. — A cutting tool for dubbing, much used by shipwrights. 

Afloat. — Borne up by, floating in, the water. 

After-Body. — That part of a ship's body abaft midships or 
dead-flat. 

After-Hoods. — The after plank of all in any strake, outside 
or inside. 

After Timbers. — All timbers abaft the midships or dead-flat. 

* Air Course. — An opening left between strakes of ceiling to 
allow air to circulate around frames. (Fig. 28.) 

Air-Ports. — Circular apertures cut in side of a vessel to 
admit light and air to state-rooms, etc. Closed with a light of 
glass, set in a composition- frame and turning on a hinge, se- 
cured when closed by a heavy thumb-screw. 

Amidships. — Signifies the middle of ship, as regards both 
length and breadth. 

Anchor Chock. — A chock bolted upon the gunwale for the 
bill of sheet-anchor to rest on. 

Anchor-crane is employed for taking anchors in board, thus 
replacing cat-heads, cat-davits and fish-davits. 

* Anchor-Lining. — Short pieces of plank, or plate iron fast- 
ened to sides of ship to prevent the bill of anchor from wounding 
the ship's side when fishing the anchor. 



Anchor Stock, To. — Sec "To Anchor Stock." 

An-End. — The position of any mast, etc., when erected 
perpendicularly on deck. The topmasts are an-end when hoisted 
up to their stations. This is also a common phrase for ex- 
pressing the forcing of anything in the direction of its length, 
as to force one plank to meet the butt of the one last worked. 

Angle-Bracket. — A bracket placed in an interior or exterior 
angle, and not at right angles with the planes which form it. 

Anvil. — A block of iron on which shipsmiths hammer forge- 
work. 

* Apron. — A timber conforming to shape of stem, and fixed 
in the concave part of it, extending from the head to some 
distance below the scarph joining upper and lower stem-pieces. 
(Fig. 25.) 

Ballast, heavy substances placed in the hold of a ship to 
regulate the trim, and to bring the center of gravity of ship 
to its proper place. It is distinguished as metal and shingle. 
Metal is composed of lead or iron. 

Batten, thin and narrow strips of wood. Grating battens 
unite the ledges that form the covering for the hatchways. 
(See Grating.) Battens to hatchways are battens used for 
securing tarpaulins over hatchways to prevent the sea from 
linding a passage between the decks. 

Baulk. — A piece of whole timber, being the squared trunk of 
any of the trees. 

Bearing. — The space between the two fixed extremes of a 
piece of timber; the unsupported part of a piece of timber; also, 
the length of the part that rests on the supports. 

* Half Beams are short beams introduced to support the 
deck where there is no framing, as in places where there are 
hatchways. (Fig. 27.) 

The Midship Beam is the longest beam of ship, lodged 
between the widest frame of timbers. 

* Bcarding-Line. — A curved line occasioned by bearding the 
deadwood to the form of the body; this line forms a rabbet for 
the timbers to step on ; hence it is often called the Stepping-Line. 
(Fig. 36.) 

Beetle. — A large mallet used by caulkers for driving in their 
reeming-irons to open seams for caulkings. 

Belly. — The inside or hollow part of compass or curved 
timber, the outside of which is called the Back. 

*Bcnds. — An old name for the frames or ribs that form the 
ship's body from keel to top of side at any particular station. 
They are first put together on the ground. That at the broadest 
part of ship is the Midship-Bend or Dead-Flat. The forepart of 
wales are commonly called bends. 

Between-Decks. — The space contained between any two 
decks of a ship. 

Bevel. — A well-known instrument, composed of a stock and 
a movable tongue, for taking angles. 

Beveling Board. — A piece of board, on which bevelings or 
angles of the timbers, etc., are described. 

Bevelings. — The windings or angles of timbers, etc. A term 
applied to any deviation from a square or right angle 
bevelings there are two sorts. Standing Bevelings and 
Bevelings. By the former is meant an obtuse angle, 
which is without a square; and by the latter an acute angle, or 
that which is within a square. 



A term 
mgle. Ci% 
id Unden 
'., or that! 



202 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Bibbs. — Pieces of timber bolted to the hounds of mast to 
support trestle-trees. 

* Bilge. — That part of a ship's floor on either side of keel 
which has more of a horizontal than of a perpendicular direc- 
tion, and on which the ship would rest if on the ground. (.Fig. 
28.) 

* Bilge Keels. — The pieces of timber fastened under bilge 
of boats or other vessels. 

* Bilgeways. — A square bed of timber placed under the bilge 
of the ship, to support her while launching. 

Bill-Board. — Projections of timber bolted to side of ship 
and covered with iron, for bills of bower anchors to rest on. 

Bill-Plate. — The lining of bill-board. 

Binding Strokes. — Thick planks on decks, running just out- 
side the line of hatches, jogged down over the beams and ledges. 

*Bitts are square timbers fixed to the beams vertically, and 
enclosed by the flat of deck; they are used for securing the 
cables to, and for leading the principal ropes connected with 
the rigging, etc. (Fig. 26.) 

Board. — A piece of timber sawed thin, and of ponsiderable 
length and breadth as compared with its thickness. 

Boat-Chocks. — Clamps of wood upon which a boat rests 
when stowed upon a vessel's deck. 

Body. — The body of a ship is the bulk enclosed within the 
planking of hull and deck. It is a term used by shipbuilders 
when designing some particular portion of a ship's longitudinal 
body, as — Cant Body, or the portion of ship along which cant 
frames are placed, fore Body, or portion of ship ahead of square 
body. After Body, or portion of ship aft of square body. 
Square Body, or portion of ship where square frames are lo- 
cated. 

* Body-Plan. — One of the plans used in delineating the lines 
of a ship, showing sections perpendicular to length. 

Bollard. — A belaying bitt placed on deck. 

Bolsters. — Pieces of wood placed on the lower trestle-trees 
to keep the rigging from chafing. 

Bolsters for Sheets, Tacks, etc., are small pieces of ash or 
oak fayed under the gunwale, etc., with outer surface rounded 
to prevent sheets and other rigging from chafing. 

Bolts. — Cylindrical or square pins of iron or copper, of 
various forms, for fastening and securing the different parts 
of the ship. Of bolts there are a variety of different kinds, 
as Eye-bolts, Hook-bolts, Ring-bolts, Fixed-bolts, Drift-bolts, 
Clevis-Bolts, Toggle-bolts, etc. 

Booby Hatch. — A small companion, readily removed; it lifts 
off in one piece. 

Boom-Kin. — A boom made of iron or wood projecting from 
bow of ship, for hauling down the fore-tack; also from their 
quarter, for securing the standing part and leading block for 
the main-brace. 

Boom^Irons. — .Are metal rings fitted on the yard-arms, 
through which the studding-sail booms traverse; there is one 
on each top-sail yard-arm, but on the lower yards a second, 
which opens to allow the boom to be triced up. 

* Booms. — The main boom is for extending the fore-and-aft 
main sail ; the spanker boom for the spanker ; the jib boom for 
the jib and the Aying jib boom for the flying jib. The studding- 
sail booms are for the fore and main lower, top and top-gallant 
studding-sails and swinging booms for bearing out the lower 
studding-sails. 

Bottom. — All that part of a vessel that is below the wales. 
Bottom Rail. — A term used to denote the lowest rail in a 
piece of framed work. 



* Bow. — The circular part of ship forward, terminating at 
the rabbet of stem. (Fig. 26.) 

Bows are of different kinds, as the full or bluff bow, bell 
bow, straight bow, flare-out or clipper bow, wave bow, water- 
borne bow, tumble-home bow, and the parabolic bow. 

* Bowsprit.— The use of bowsprit is to secure the foremast 
and extend the head sails. (Fig. 25.) 

Bowsprit Chock. — A piece placed between the knight-heads, 
fitting close upon the upper part of bowsprit. 

Bo.xing. — The boxing is any projecting wood, forming a 
rabbet, as the boxing of the knight-heads, center counter timber, 
etc. 

Brace. — A piece of timber in any system of framing extend- 
ing across the angle between two other pieces at right angles. 

Brates. — Straps of iron, or steel, secured with bolts and 
screws in stern-post and bottom planks. In their after ends 
are holes to receive the pintles by which the rudder is hung. 

Brad. — A particular kind of nail, used- in floors or other 
work where it is deemed proper to drive nails entirely into the 
wood. To this end it is made without a broad head or shoulder 
on the shank. 

Breadth. — A term applied to some dimension of a vessel 
athwarthships, as the Breadth-Extreme and the Breadth-Moulded. 
The Extreme-Breadth is the extent of midships or dead-flat, with 
thickness of bottom plank included. The Breadth-Moulded is 
the same extent, without the thickness of plank. 

Breadth-Line. — A curved line of the ship lengthwise, in- 
tersecting the timbers at their respective broadest parts. 

Break is the name given to the termination of a deck, when 
interrupted by a raised quarter-deck, sunk-forecastle, etc.; the 
front-bulkheads placed at such terminations are known as 
"Break bulkheads". Any elevation of a ship's deck, no matter 
whether aft, forward or amidships, is also styled a "Break" 
and the extra capacity gained by such raised portion, is known 
as the "Tonnage of Break". 

Break. — The sudden termination or rise in the decks of 
merchant ships. 

Breaking-Joint. — That disposition of joints by which the oc- 
currence of two contiguous joints in the same straight line is 
avoided. 

Breakwater (on a forecastle, etc.). — A coaming fastened 
diagonally across forecastle deck to stop water that is thrown 
on deck when ship is in a sea. 

* Breast-Hooks. — Large pieces of timber fixed within and 
athwart the bows of a ship, through which they are well bolted. 
There is generally one between each deck, and three or four 
below the lower deck, fayed upon the plank. Those below are 
placed square to the shape of ship at their respective places. The 
Breast-Hooks that receive the ends of deck planks are called 
Deck-Hooks, and are fayed close home to the timbers of decks. 

Bridge. — A raised superstructure built across deck. Some- 
times the bridge is a separate structure, but more frequently 
it is an enclosed portion of a deck house on which is located the 
steering wheel, binnacle, engine room telegraphs, chart house, 
etc. 

Bucklers.— Lids or shutters used for closing the hawse-holes, 
holes in the port-shutters and side-pipes. 

* Bulkheads. — Transverse, or longitudinal, partitions in a 
ship. Solid structural bulkheads, known as water-tight bulk- 
heads, divide a ship into water-tight compartments. The number 
and locations of these are designated in building rules of classi- 
fication societies. 

Bulls-Eye. — A thick piece of glass inserted in topsides, eta 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



203 



* Bulwarks. — A planked railing built around ship above the 
planksheer. The bulwarks are generally built on a continua- 
tion of top timbers called bulwark stanchions. The names of 
principal parts of bulwarks ai-e: Bulwark freeing port, bul- 
wark rail, bulwark stanchions, bulwark planking. 

*Butt. — The joint where two planks meet endwise. 
Butt-End. — The end of a plank in a ship's side. The root or 
largest end. 

* Buttocks. — The after-part of a ship on each side below 
the knuckle. 

* Buttock-Lines.— Cui the ship into vertical longitudinal 
sections, parallel to the center line. 

Cabin. — The living space for officers and passengers. The 
principal room is called the Main Cabin. Entrance to cabin is 
usually through a raised trunk called a cabin companion trunk, 
or cabin companionway. Any skylight placed over a cabin is 
called a cabin skylight. 

Camber. — A curve or arch. Cambered beam, a beam bent or 
cut in a curve like an arch. 

Cant. — A term signifying the inclination that anything has 
from perpendicular. 

Cant-Ribbands are ribbands that do not lie in a horizontal 
or level direction, or square from the middle line, as the diagonal 
ribbands. 

* Cant-Timbers are those timbers afore and abaft, whose 
planes are not square with, or perpendicular to, the middle line 
of ship. 

Caps. — Square pieces of oak laid upon the upper blocks on 
which the ship is built. The depth of them may be a few 
inches more than the thickness of false keel. 

Capstan. — A mechanical device for handling rope. A heaving 
appliance which takes a rope around its barrel. 

* Cartings. — Long pieces of timber, above four inches square, 
which lie fore and aft, from beam to beam, into which their 
ends are scored. They receive the ends of the ledges for fram- 
ing the decks. 

Carlings, Hatchway, are the fore and aft frame timbers of 
hatchway framing, mast carlings are the fore and aft partners 
of mast. (Fig. 27.) 

Carvel Work. — Signifying that the seams of bottom-plank- 
ing are square, and made tight by caulking. 

* Cathead. — A piece of timber with sheaves in the end, 
projecting from bow of a ship, for the purpose of raising the 
anchor after cable has brought it clear of the water. It is 
strengthened outside from underneath by a knee, called a sup- 
porter. The cathead is iron-bound, and is braced with knees 
forward and aft, (Fig. 35.) 

Caulking. — Forcing oakum into the seams and between the 
butts of plank, etc., to prevent water penetrating into ship. 

Caulking-Matlet.— The wooden instrument with which the 
caulking-irons are driven. 

Cainl. — A large cleat for belaying the fore and main tacks, 
sheets, and braces to. 

* Ceiling. — The inside planks of the bottom of a ship. It is 
usually designated according to location, thus : — Hold Ceiling, 
Between Deck Ceiling, Floor Ceiling, etc. (Fig. 28.) 

Center of Buoyancy, or Center of Gravity of Displacement. 
— The center of that part of the ship's body iijimersed in water, 
and which is also the center of the vertical force that water 
exerts to support the vessel. 

Center of Effort of Sail. — That point in the plane of sails 



at which the whole transverse force of wind is supposed to be 
collected. 

* Chain-Bolts.— T\it bolt which passes through the toe-links, 
and secures the chains to side. (Fig. 28.) 

* Chain-Plates.— Iron plates to which the dead-eyes are se- 
cured; they are often substituted for chains, being considered 
preferable. (Fig. 25-28.) 

Chamfer. — To cut in a slope. 

* Channels.— I'XSit ledges of white oak plank or steel pro- 
jecting outboard from the ship's side, for spreading the lower 
shrouds and giving additional support to masts. (Fig. 25-28.) 

* Check-Blocks. — Blocks placed upon the side of bitts for 
fair leaders. 

Cheek-Knees. — Knees worked above and below the hawse 
pipes in the angle of bow and cutwater, the brackets being a 
continuation of them to the billet or figurehead. 

Chine. — That part of the waterway which is left above deck, 
and hollowed out or beveled off to the spirketting. 

Chinse. — A mode of caulking any seams or butts. 

* C/om/'j.— Strakes of timber upon which the deck beams 
rest. Clamps are placed immediately below the shelf pieces and 
serve to support the deck frame. Clamps are placed below each 
set of deck beams and are designated by affixing the name of 
deck to the word clamp, thus : — Forecastle Deck Beam Clamp 
supports forecastle deck beams. Upper Deck Beam Clamp sup- 
ports the upper deck beams. Main Deck Beam Clamps support 
main deck beams. Hold Deck Beam Clamps support the hold 
deck beams, etc. (Fig. 28.) 

.^Clamping. — Fastening or binding by a clamp. 

Clear. — Free from interruption. In the clear, the net distance 
between any two bodies, without anything intervening. 

Cleats. — Pieces of wood having projecting arms, used for 
belaying ropes to. 

Clinch or Clench.— To spread the point, or rivet it upon a 
ring or plate; to prevent the bolt from drawing out, same as 
riveting. 

Clincher, or Clinker Built. — A term applied to boats built 
with the lower edge of one strake overlapping the upper edge 
of the one next below. 

* Cooking. — The placing of pieces of hard wood, either 
circular or square, in edges or surfaces of any pieces that are to 
be united together, to prevent their working or sliding over each 
other. (Fig. 33.) 

*Coamings. — The pieces that lie fore-and-aft in the framing 
of hatchways and scuttles. The pieces that lie athwart ship, to 
form the ends, are called head-ledges. (Fig. 27.) 

Cocking, Cogging. — A mode of notching a timber. 

Companion. — A wooden hood or covering placed over a 
ladderway to a cabin, etc. 

■" Counter. — A part of the stern. (Fig. 25.) 

Counter-sunk. — The hollows, to receive the heads of screws 
or nails, so that they may be flush or even with the surface. 

* Counter Timbers. — The tirhbers which form the stern. 
Cove. — Any kind of concave moulding. 

* Cradle. — A strong frame of timber, etc., placed under the 
bottom of a ship to conduct her steadily till slie is safely launched 
into water sufficient to float her. 

Cradle Bolts. — Large ring-bolts in the ship's side, on a line 
with and between the toe-links of the chain plates. 

Crank. — A term applied to ships built too deep in propor- 
tion to their breadth, and from which they are in danger of 
oversetting. 



204 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



Cross-Grained Stuff.— T'\mher having the grain or fibre not 
corresponding to the direction of its length, but crossing it, or 
irregular. Where a branch has shot from the trunk of a tree, 
the timber of the latter is curled in the grain. 

* Cross Spalls.— Flanks nailed in a temporary manner to the 
frames of ship at a certain height, and by which the frames 
are kept to their proper breadths until the deck-knees are 
fastened. 

Dagger.— A piece of timber that faces on to the poppets 
of bilgeways, and crosses them diagonally, to keep them to- 
gether. The plank that secures the heads of poppets is called 
the dagger plank. The word dagger seems to apply to anything 
that stands diagonally or aslant. 

Dagger-Knees.— Knees to supply the place of hanging 
knees. Their sidearms are brought up aslant, to the under side 
of beams adjoining. Any straight hanging knees, not perpen- 
dicular to the side of beam, are in general termed dagger-knees. 

* Davits. — Pieces of steel projecting over the side of ship 
or the stern, for the purpose of raising boats. Fish Davits are 
used for fishing the anchor. 

* Dead-Eyes. — Pieces of elm, ash or lignum-vitae, of a round 
shape, used for reeving the lanyards of standing rigging. (Fig. 
28.) 

Dead-Flat.— A name given to that timber or frame which 
has the greatest breadth and capacity in the ship, and which is 
generally called the midship bend. In those ships where there 
are several frames or timbers of equal breadth or capacity, 
that which is in the middle should be always considered as dead- 
Hat. 

* Deadwood.— Forward and aft, is formed by solid pieces of 
timber scarphed together lengthwise on keel. These should be 
sufficiently broad to admit of a stepping or rabbet for the heels 
of the timbers, and they should be sufficiently high to seat 
the floors. Afore and abaft the floors deadwood is continued 
to the cutting-down line, for the purpose of securing the heels 
of cant-timbers. 

* Decks. — The several platforms in ships, distinguished by 
different names according to their situations and purposes. 

' * Deck Planks. — -The flooring or covering of deck beams. 

Deck Transom. — A timber extending across the ship at the 
after extremity of deck, on which the ends of deck plank rests. 

Depth of Hold. — One of the principal dimensions of a 
ship; it is the depth in midships, from the upper side of the 
upper deck beams, in flush-decked vessels, and from the upper 
side of the lower deck beams in all others, to the throats of 
the floor timbers. 

Diagonal Lines. — Lines used principally to fair the bodies, 
shown as straight lines in the body-plan. 

Dished. — Formed in a concave. To dish out, to form coves 
by wooden ribs. 

Displacement.^The volume of water displaced by the im- 
mersed body of ship, and which is always equal to the weight 
of the whole body. 

Distribution. — The dividing and disposing of the several 
parts, according to some plan. 

Dog. — A tool (iron) used by shipwrights; it is made of 
iron having both ends sharpened and one turned over making a 
right angle. In planking the decks or outside it is first driven a 
short distance into the beams or frame timbers and wedges 
introduced between that and the strake's edge to force the 
plank up to the one last worked. 

Door-Case. — The frame which incloses a door. 

Door-Post. — The post of a door. 



Door-Stops. — Pieces of wood against which the door shuts 
in its frame. 

Doorway. — The entrance into a cabin, or room. The forms 
and designs of doorways should partake of the characteristics of 
the finish of room it opens into. 

Doubling. — The covering of a ship's bottom or side, with- 
out taking oflf the old plank, a method sometimes resorted to 
when the plank get thin or worn down. 

* Dove-Tailing. — Joining two pieces together with a mortise 
and tenon resembling the shape of a dove's tail. 

Dove-Tail Plates.— Meia.\ plates resembling dove-tails in 
form, let into the heel of stern-post and keel, to bind them to- 
gether. 

Dowel.— To fasten two boards or pieces together by pins 
inserted in their edges. This is similar to coaking. 

Draft of Water.— The depth of water a ship displaces when 
she is afloat. 

Drag. — A term used to denote an excess of draft of water 

Drift. — A piece of iron or steel-rod used in driving back a 
key of a wheel, or the like, out of its place, when it cannot be 
struck directly with the hammer. The drift is placed against the 
end of the key, or other object, and the strokes of the hammer 
are communicated through it to the object to be displaced. 

Dubb, To. — To smooth and cut off with an adze. 

Entrance. — The forward part of a vessel below the water- 
aft. 

Even-Keel. — When the vessel has the same draught of water 
forward and aft, she is said to be on an even-keel. 

Falling Home or Tumbling Home.— A term applied to the 
upper part of the topside of a ship, when it falls very much 
within a vertical line from the main breadth. 

* False Keel.— A thin keel, put on below the main keel, that 
it may be torn off without injury to the main keel, should the 
vessel touch the ground. 

* Fashion Picccs.—T\mhers that give the form or fashion 
of the after extremity, below the wing transom, when they 
terminate at the tuck in square-sterned ships. 

Fay. — To fit with a close joint. 

Feather-Edged Boards.— Zod^ris made thin on one edge. 

Felt Grain.— Timber split in a direction crossing the annular 
layers towards the center. When split conformably with the 
layers it is called the quarter grain. 

Felloes.— The arch pieces which form the rim of the steer- 
ing wheel. 

Fid.— A bar of wood or iron used to support the top-mast 
and top-gallant masts when they are on end. 

* Fid-Hole. — Mortises in the heels of top-masts and top- 
gallant-masts. 

* Fife i?aj7.— Rails placed around the mast in which the pins 
are placed to belay the running rigging to. (Fig. 26.) 

Fillet. — A small moulding, generally rectangular in section, 
and having the appearance of a narrow band. 

Fillings. — Pieces placed in the openings between the frames 
wherever solidity is required. 

Firrings. — Pieces of wood nailed to any range of scantlings 
to bring them to one plane. 

Fishing, Fished Beam. — A built beam, composed of two 
beams placed end to end, and secured by pieces of wood covering 
the joint on opposite sides. 

Fit-Rod. — A small iron rod with a hook at the end, which 
is put into the holes made in a vessel's side, etc., to ascertain the 
lengths of bolts required to be driven in. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



205 



Fishes. — Pieces used in made masts ; also cheek pieces carried 
to sea on board vessels to secure a crippled mast or yard. 

Fixed Blocks.— Sheet chocks, or any other chock placed in the 
side of a vessel to lead a rope through. 

Flaring. — The reverse of Falling or Tumbling Home. As 
this can be only in the forepart of the ship, it is said that a ship 
has a flaring bow when the topside falls outward from a per- 
pendicular. Its uses are to shorten the cathead and yet keep the 
anchor clear of the bow. It also prevents the sea from break- 
ing in upon the forecastle. 

Flats. — A name given to timbers amidships that have no 
bevelings, and are similar to dead-flat. See Dead-Flat. 

Flashiitgs. — In plumbing, pieces of lead, zinc, or other metal, 
used to protect the joinings of partitions with floor, or where a 
coaming joins the deck, or around pipes that pass through a 
deck. The metal is let into a joint or groove, and then folded 
down so as to cover and protect the joinings. 

* Floor. — The bottom of a ship, or all that part on each side 
of keel which approaches nearer to a horizontal than a per- 
pendicular direction, and whereon the ship rests when aground. 

*Floors, or Floor Timbers.— TUe timbers that are fixed 
athwart the keel, and upon which the whole frame is erected. 
They generally extend as far forward as the foremast, and as far 
aft as the • after square timber, and sometimes one or two 
cant-floors are added. 

Flush.— With a continued even surface, as a Flush Deck, 
which is a deck upon one continued line, without interruption, 
from fore to aft. 

* Fore Body. — That part of the ship's body afore midships 
or dead-flat. This term is more particularly used in expressing 
the figure or shape of that part of ship. 

* Fore-Foot. — The foremost piece of keel. Also called gripe. 
(Fig. 25.) 

Forelock. — A thin circular wedge of iron, used to retain a 
bolt in its place, by being thrust through a mortise hole at the 
point of bolt. It is sometimes turned or twisted round the 
bolt to prevent its drawing. 

Fore-Peak. — Close forward under the lower deck. 

Fore-Sheet Traveller. — An iron ring which travels along on 
the fore-sheet horse of a fore-and-aft vessel. 

*Foretop, Trestle, and Cross-Trees. — Foretop, a platform 
surrounding the foremast-head: it is composed of the trestle- 
trees, which are strong bars of oak timber fixed horizontally 
on opposite sides of foremast; and cross-trees, which are of 
oak, and supported by the cheeks and trestle-trees. 

Frame. — A term applied to any assemblage of pieces of 
timber firmly connected together. 

* Frames. — The bends of timber which form the body, of a 
ship, each of which is composed of one floor-timber, two or 
three futtocks, and a top-timber on each side, which, being united 
together, form the frame. (Fig. 28.) 

* Futtocks. — Timbers of the frame between the floors and 
top-timbers. 

Gain. — i. A beveling shoulder. 2. A lapping of timbers. 
3. The cut that is made to receive a timber. 

* Garboard Stroke. — That strake of bottom which is wrought 
next the keel, and rabbets therein. (Fig. 25.) 

Gauge. — Measure; dimension. 

Gauged-Pilcs — Large piles placed at regular distances apart, 
and connected by horizontal beams, called runners or ivale-pieces, 
fitted to each side of them by notching, and firmly bolted. A 
gauge or guide is thus formed for the sheeting or filling piles. 



which are drawn between the gauged-piles. Gauged-piles are 
called also standard piles. 

Geometrical Stairs. — Those stairs the steps of which are 
supported at one end only by being built into the wall. 

Girth. — In practice, the square of the quarter girth multi- 
plied by the length, is taken as the solid content of a tree. 

Glass-Plate. — Specific gravity, 2.453; weight of a cubic foot, 
153 tb; expansion by 180° of heat, from 32° to 212°, .00086 inch. 

Gore. — .\ wedge-shaped or triangular piece. 

* Goose-Neck. — An iron hinged bolt, with strap to clasp it, 
used on the spanker, lower and fish booms. The bolt fore- 
locks below a sort of gudgeon. 

Grade. — A step or degree. 

Grain-Cut. — Cut across the grain. 

Graining. — Painting in imitation of the grain of wood. 

* Gratings. — Lattice coverings for hatchways and scuttles. 

* Gripe. — A piece of white oak or elm timber that com- 
pletes the lower part of the knee of head, and makes a finish 
with fore-foot. It bolts to stem, and is farther secured by two 
plates of copper in the form of a horse-shoe, and therefrom 
called by that name. 

Grooving and Tonguing, Grooving and Feathering, Plough- 
ing and Tonguing. — In joinery, a mode of joining boards, which 
consists in forming a groove or channel along the edge of one 
board, and a continuous projection or tongue on the edge of 
another board. When a series of boards is to be joined, each 
board has a groove on its one edge and a tongue on the other. 

* Groundways. — Large pieces of timber, which are laid upon 
piles driven in the ground, across the building slip, in order to 
make a good foundation to lay blocks on, upon which the ship 
is to rest. 

* Gudgeons. — The hinges upon which rudder turns. Those 
fastened to ship are called braces, while those fastened to 
rudder are called pintles. (Fig. 25.) 

Gunwale. — That horizontal plank wliich covers the heads 
of timbers between the main and fore drifts. Although this 
term is so commonly employed, there is really not a piece in 
the present structure, either of an iron or wooden Merchant- 
vessel, bearing that name. — In wooden vessels the upper outer 
edge of the Planksheer may be considered as the Gunwale. 

* Half-Breadth Plan. — A ship-drawing, showing a series of 
longitudinal transverse sections. 

Half-Round. — A moulding whose profile is a semicircle ; a 
bead ; a torus. 

Half-Timbers. — The short timbers in the cant bodies. 

Halving. — A mode of joining two timbers by letting them 
into each other. 

Hancc. — The sudden breaking-in from one form to another, 
as when a piece is formed, one part eight-square and the other 
part cylindrical, the part between the termination of these 
different forms is called the fiance; or the parts of any timber 
where it suddenly becomes narrower or smaller. 

Handrail. — A rail to hold by. It is used in staircases to assist 
in ascending and descending. When it is next to the open newel, 
it forms a coping to the stair balusters. 

* Hanging-Knee. — Those knees against the sides whose arms 
hang vertically or perpendicular. (Fig. 28.) 

* Hanging-Knees. — Knees placed vertically under the deck- 
beams. 

Harpins. — A continuation of the ribbands at the fore and 
after extremities of ship, fixed to keep the cant-frames, etc., in 
position, until outside planking is worked. 



206 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



'^ Hawse-Holcs. — The apertures forward, lined with iron 
casings, for the chain cables to pass through. (Fig. 25.) 

Hawse-Hook. — The breast hook at hawse-holes. 

* Hawse-Pipes or Chain-Pipes. — The pipes in deck, through 
which the chain cables lead to the lockers. (Fig. 25.) 

Head. — The upper end of anything, but more particularly 
applied to all the work fitted afore the stem, as the figure, the 
knee, rails, etc. A "scroll head" signifies that there is no carved 
or ornamental figure at the head, but that the termination is 
formed and finished off by a volute, or scroll turning outward. 
A "fiddle head" signifies a similar kind of finish, but with the 
scroll turning aft or inward. 

*Head-Lcdges. — The 'thwartship pieces which frame the 
hatchways and ladderways. (Fig. 27.) 

Head-Rails. — Those rails in the head which extend from the 
back of figure to cathead and bows. 

Heart-Wood. — The central part of the trunk of a tree; the 
duramen. 

Heel. — The lower end of any timber. To incline. 
Helm. — The rudder, tiller and wheel, taken as a whole. 

* Hogging. — The arching up of the body along its middle, 
occasioned frequently by the unequal distribution of the weights. 
Ships hog in launching, unless tlie after part of vessel is prop- 
erly water-borne till she is clear of the ways. 

Hood. — The foremost and aftermost plarik in each strake. 

Hooding Ends. — The ends of hoods where they abut in the 
rabbet of stem and stern-post. 

Horse. — The iron rod placed between the fife-rail stanchions 
on which the leading blocks are rove or secured. Also in 
fore-and-aft rigged vessels, it is a stout bar of iron, with a 
large ring or thimble on it, which spans the vessel from side to 
side just before the foremast, for the fore-staysail sheet;- and 
when required one is also used for the fore and main-boom 
sheets to haul down to and transverse on. 

Horse Shoes. — Straps of composition in the form of a 
horse shoe, used for securing the stem to keel, placed on op- 
posite sides, let in flush and bolted through; rings are now 
generally used instead. 

Horsing-Irons. — A caulking-iron, with a long handle -at- 
tached, which is struck with a beetle by a caulker in hardening 
up oakum in seams and butts, called horsing-up. 

* Hounding. — The length of the mast from the heel to the 
lower part of head. 

* Hounds. — Those projections at mast-heads serving as 
supports for the trestle-trees of large, and rigging of smaller, 
vessels to rest upon. With lower masts they are termed cheeks. 

Housing. — The space taken out of one solid to admit of the 
insertion of the extremity of another, for the purpose of connect- 
ing them. 

In-and-Out.— The bolts that are driven through tlie ship's 
side are said to be in-and-out bolts. 

Incise. — To cut in ; to carve. 

Indented. — Cut in the edge or margin into points like teeth, 
as an indented moulding. 

Inner Post. — Worked on the inside of the main post running 
down to the throat of stern-post knee. 

Iron-Sick. — The condition of vessels when the iron-work 
becomes loose in the timbers from corrosion by gallic acid. 

Iambs. — The vertical sides of any aperture, such as a door, a 
window. 

loint of Frame. — The line at which the two inner surfaces 
of the frame-timber meet. 



"'Keel. — I he main and lowest timber of a ship, extending 
longitudinally from the stem to the stern-post. It is formed of 
several pieces, which are scarphed together endways, and form 
the basis of the whole structure. Of course, it is usually the 
first thing laid down upon the blocks. (Fig. 30.) 

.* Keelson, or, more commonly. Kelson. — The timber, formed 
of long square pieces of oak, fixed within the ship exactly over 
keel for binding and strengthening the lower part of ship; for 
which purpose it is fitted to, and laid upon, the middle of the 
floor timbers, and bolted through floors and keel. (Fig. 25, 28.) 

Kcvel. — Large wooden cleats to belay ropes and hawsers to, 
commonly called Cavils. 

Key-Pile. — The center pile plank of one of the divisions of 
sheeting piles contained between two gauge piles of a cofferdam, 
or similar work. It is made of a wedge form, narrowest at the 
bottom, and when driven, keys or wedges the whole together. 

King-Piece. — Another and more appropriate name for king- 
post. 

King-Post. — The post which, in a truss, extends between the 
apex of two inclined pieces and the tie-beam, which unites their 
lower ends. 

Knee. — A piece of timber somewhat in the form of the 
human knee when bent. 

* Knight-Heads. — Timbers worked on each side of the stem 
and apron. (Fig. 26.) 

Knights (also called "leer bitts") are small hilts, placed 
behind the different masts on the upper-deck, in the heads of 
these are several sheaveholes {with sheaves), through which run- 
ning-rigging for hoisting, etc., is rove; with the exception of 
some Mediterranean vessels, they are now very rarely found in 
merchant ships. 

Knots in Wood. — Some kinds render wood unfit for the car- 
penter; some kinds are not prejudicial. 

Knuckle of the Stern. — The sudden angle made by the 
counter-timbers and after cants. 

Kyanise, v. — To steep in a solution of corrosive sublimate, 
as timber, to preserve it from the dry-rot. 

Lacing-Piece. — The piece running across the top of head 
from the backing-piece to the front-piece. (Fig. 25.) 

Landing. — First part of a floor at the end of a flight of 
steps. Also, a resting-place between flights. 

Landing Strake. — The upper strake but one in a boat. 

Launch. — The slip upon which the ship is built, with the 
cradle and all connected with launching. 

* Launching Ribband. — An oak plank bolted to outside of 
the launching ways, to guide the cradle in its descent in launch- 
ing. 

Lap, V. — To lap boards is to lay one partly over the other. 

Lateral Resistance. — The resistance of water against the side 
of a vessel in a direction perpendicular to her length. 

- *Laying-Off, or Laying-Down. — The act of delineating the 
various parts of ihe ship, to its true size, upon the mould-loft 
floor. 

* Ledges. — The pieces of the deck frame lying between the 
beams jogged into the carlings and knees. (Fig. 27.) 

Lee Boards. — Similar to center-boards, afiixed to the sides of 
llat-bottomed vessels ; these on being let down, when the vessel 
Is close-hauled, decreas'e her drifting to leeward. 

Let-in, To. — To fix or fit one timber or plank into another, 
as the ends of carlings into beams, and the beams into shelf or 
clamps, vacancies being made in each to receive the other. 

Level Lines. — Lines determining the shape of a ship's body 
horizontally, or square from the middle line of the ship. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



207 



Lighter. — A large open flat bottom vessel. 

* Limber-Holes or Watercourses are square grooves cut 
through the underside of floor timber, about nine inches from 
the side of keel on each side, through which water may run 
toward the pumps, in the whole length of floors. This precaution 
is requisite, where small quantities of water, by the heeling of 
the ship, may come through the ceiling and damage the cargo. 
It is for this reason that the lower futtocks of merchant ships 
are cut off short of the keel. (Fig. 28.) 

* Limber-Passage. — A passage or channel formed through- 
out the whole length of the floor, on each side of kelson, for 
giving v;ater a free communication to the pumps. It is formed 
by the Limber-Strake on each side, a thick strake wrought next 
kelson. This strake is kept about eleven inches from kelson, 
and forms the passage fore and aft which admits . the water 
to the pump-well. The upper part of limber-passage is formed 
by the Limber-Boards or plates. These boards are composed 
of iron plates, or else of short pieces of oak plank, one edge of 
which is fitted by a rabbet into the limber-strake, and the other 
edge beveled with a descent against the kelson. They are fitted 
in short pieces, for the convenience of taking up any one or 
more readily. (Fig. 28.) 

Lips of a Scarph. — The thin parts or laps of scarph. 

Lockers. — Compartments built in cabins, etc., for various 
purposes. 

Lock. — I. Lock, in its primary sense, is anything that 
fastens; but in the art of construction the word is appropriated 
to an instrument composed of springs, wards, and bolts of iron 
or steel, used to fasten doors, drawers, chests, etc. Locks on 
outer doors are called stock locks; those on chamber doors, spring 
locks; and such as are hidden in the thicki-.^s of the doors t& 
which they are applied, are called mortise locks. 2. A basin or 
chamber in a canal, or at the entrance to a dock. It has gates 
at each end, which may be opened or shut at pleasure. By means 
of such locks vessels are transferred from a higher to a lower 
level, or from a lower to a higher. Whenever a canal changes its 
level on account of an ascent or descent of the ground through 
which it passes, the place where the change takes place is com- 
manded by a lock. 

Lock-Chainber. — In canals, tiie area of a lock inclosed by the 
side walls and gates. 

Lock-Gate. — The gate of a lock provided with paddles. 

Lock-Paddle. — The sluice 'in a lock which serves to fill or 
empty it. 

Lock-Pit. — The excavated area of a lock. 
Lock-Sill. — An angular piece of timber at the bottom of a 
lock, against which the gates shut. 
Locker. — A small cupboard. 

Main Breadth. — The broadest part of ship at any particular 
timber or frame. 

* Main-Wales. — The lower wales, which are generally placed 
on the lower breadth, and so that the main' deck knee-bolts may 
come into them. (Fig. 28.) 

Mallet. — A large wooden hammer, used by caulkers.' 
Manager Board. — A piece of oak plank fitted over deck and 

running from side to side a short distance abaft the hawse 

pipes. 

Manger. — An apartment extending athwart the ship, im- 
mediately within the hawse-holes. It serves as a fence to in- 
terrupt the passage of water which may come in at the hawse- 
holes or from the cable when heaving in ; and the water thus 
prevented from running aft is returned into the sea by the 
manger-scuppers, which are larger than the other scuppers on 
that account. 



Margin. — A line in ships having a square stern, at a parallel 
distance down from the upper edge of the wing transom forming 
the lower part of a surface for seating the tuck rail; it ter- 
minates at the ends of tlie exterior planking, or what is called 
the tuck. 

* Mast Cartings, large carlings.on each side of mast; they 
are placed at equal distances from the middle line, and apart 
the diameter of mast, and sufiicient for wedging on each side; 
they score and face into the beams, before and abaft mast, 
and lap on them about two-thirds the breadth of beam, and are 
bolted with two bolts in each end. (Fig. 27.) 

Mast-Coat. — A canvas covering fitted over the upper ends of 
the mast wedges and nailed to the mast and mast coaming to 
prevent any leakage around the mast. 

* Mast Partners, commonly called cross partners, are pieces 
placed before and abaft the mast for the wedges to come against; 
they are let into a double rabbet taken out of mast carlings, 
and are bolted through these, with two or three bolts in end 
of each piece. (Fig. 27.) 

Mauls. — Large hammers used for driving treenails, having 
a steel face at one end and a point or pen drawn out at the 
other. Double-headed mauls have a steel face at each end of 
the same size, and are used for driving bolts, etc. 

Meta-Center. — That point in a ship below which the center 
of gravity of weight must be placed. 

Middle Line. — A line dividing the ship exactly in the middle. 
In the horizontal or half-breadth plan it is a right line bisecting 
the ship from stem to stern-post; and in the plane of projection, 
or body plan, it is a perpendicular line bisecting the ship from 
keel to height of top of side. 

Midships (see Amidships). 

* Miter or Mitre, the mode of joining two solid pieces of 
timber; the surfaces to be brought together are so formed, that 
when connected, the joint shall make an angle with the side of 
each piece that shall be common to both. 

Momentum of a body is the product of weight multiplied 
by the distance of its center of gravity from a certain point, 
or from a line called the axis of momentum. 

* Mortise. — A hole or hollow made in a piece of timber, 
etc., in order to receive the end of another piece, with a tenon 
fitted exactly to fill it. 

Moulded. — Cut to the mould. Also, the size or bigness of 
the timbers the way the mould is laid. See Sided. 

* Moulds. — Pieces of board made to the shape of the lines 
on mould-loft floor, as the timbers, harpins, ribbands, etc., and 
used as patterns when cutting out the different pieces of timber, 
etc., for the ship. 

Nail. — A small pointed piece of metal, usually with a head, 
to be driven into a board or other piece of timber, and serving 
to fasten it to other timber. The larger kinds of instruments 
of this sort are called spikes ; and a long, thin kind, with a flattish 
head, is called a brad. There are three leading distinctions of 
nails, as respects the state of the metal from which they are 
prepared, namely, wrought or forged nails, cut or pressed nails, 
and cast nails. Of the wrought or forged nails there are about 
300 sorts, which receive different names, expressing for the most 
part the uses to which they are applied, as, deck, scupper, boat. 
Some are distinguished by names expressive of their form : thus, 
rose, clasp, diamond, etc., indicate the form of their heads, 
and Hat, sharp, spear, chisel, etc., their points. The thickness of 
any specified form is expressed by trade terms. 

Offset, or Set-off. — A horizontal break. 

Ogee. — A moulding consisting of two members, one concave 
and the other convex. It is called also cvma reversa. 



208 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



* Orlop-bcoDis are hold-beams, fitted below the lower-deck 
of two and three-decked vessels ; their spacing is greater, and 
they are therefore generally heavier than the beams in the decks 
above. (Fig. 28.) 

Orlop-deck is the lowermost deck in four-decked ships. 

Ovolo. — A moulding, the vertical section of which is, in 
Roman architecture, a quarter of a circle ; it is thence called the 
quarter-round. In Grecian architecture the section of the ovolo 
is elliptical, or rather egg-shaped. 

Panel. — An area sunk from the general face of the surround- 
ing work; also a compartment of a wainscot or ceiling, or of 
the surface of a wall, etc. In joinery, it is a thin piece of wood, 
framed or received in a groove by two upright pieces or styles, 
and two transverse pieces or rails ; as the panels of doors. 

Piles. — Beams of timber, pointed at the end, driven into the 
soil for the support of some superstructure. They are either 
driven through a compressible stratum, till they meet with one 
that is incompressible, and thus transmit the weight of the struc- 
ture erected on the softer to the more solid material, or they are 
driven into a soft or compressible structure in such numbers as 
to solidify it. In the first instance, th^ piles are from 9 to 18 
inches in diameter, and about twenty times their diameter in 
length. They are pointed with iron at their lower end, and 
their head is encircled with an iron. 

Pilc-Driver. — An engine for driving down piles. It consists 
of a large ram or block of iron, termed the monkey, which slides 
between two guide-posts. Being drawn up to the top, and then let 
fall from a considerable height, it comes down on the head of the 
pile with a violent blow. 

Pile-Planks. — Planks about 9 inches broad, and from 2 to 4 
inches thick, sharpened at their lower end, and driven with their 
edges close together into the ground in hydraulic works. Two 
rows of pile-planks thus driven, with a space between them 
filled with puddle, is the means used to form watertight coffer- 
dams and similar erections. 

Pin. — .\ piece of wood or metal, square or cylindricrl in 
section, and sharpened or pointed, used to fasten timbers to- 
gether. Large metal pins are termed bolts, and the wooden pins 
used in ship-building treenails. 

Plank. — All timber from one and a half to four inches in 
thickness has this name given to it. 

* Planking. — Covering the outside of a ship's timbers with 
plank, the plank being the outer coating when the vessel is not 
sheathed. (Fig. 28.) 

* Plank-Sheers, or Plank-Sheer. — The pieces of plank laid 
horizontally over timber-heads of quarter deck and forecastle, 
for the purpose of covering the top of the side ; hence some- 
times called covering-boards. (Fig. 28.) 

Planted. — In joinery, a projecting member wrought on a 
separate piece of stuff, and afterwards fixed in its place, is said 
to be planted; as a planted moulding. 

* Poppets. — Those pieces which are fixed perpendicularly 
between the ship's bottom and the bilgeways, at the fore and 
aftermost parts of the ship, to support her in launching. 

* Preventer-Bolts. — The bolts passing through the lower end 
of the preventer-plates, to assist the chain-bolts in heavy strains. 
(Fig. 28.) 

Preventer-Plates. — Short plates of iron bolted to the side at 
the lower part of the chains, as extra security. 

Pump.—Tht machine fitted in the wells of ships to draw 
water out of the hold. 

Quarter-Grain. — When timber is split in the direction of its 
annular plates or rings. When it is split across these, towards 
the center, it is called the felt-grain 



Quarter-Round. — The echinus moulding. 

Quicken, To. — To give anything a greater curve. For in- 
stance, "To quicken the sheer" is to shorten the radius by which 
the curve is struck. This term is therefore opposed to straight- 
ening the sheer. 

Quick-Work. — A term given to the strakes which shut in 
between the spirketing and the clamps. By quick-work was 
formerly meant all that part of a merchant vessel below the 
level of the water when she is laden. 

* Rabbet. — A joint made by a groove or channel in a piece 
of timber, cut for the purpose of receiving and securing the 
edge or ends of planks, as the planks of bottom into the keel, 
stem or stern-post, or the edge of one plank into another. 

Rag-Bolt. — A sort of bolt having its point jagged or barbed, 
to make it hold the more securely. 

Rails. — The horizontal timbers in any piece of framing. 
Rake. — A slope or inclination. 

Rake. — The overhanging of the stem or stern beyond a 
perpendicular with the keel, or any part or thing that forms 
an obtuse angle with the horizon. 

Raking Mouldings. — Tliose which are inclined from the 
horizontal line. 

Ram-Line. — A small rope or line, sometimes used for the 
purpose of forming the sheer or hang of the decks, for setting 
the beams fair, etc. 

Razing. — The act of marking by a mould on a piece of tim- 
ber, or any marks made by a tool called a razing-knife or scriber. 

Reeming. — The opening of the seams of plank for caulking 
by driving in irons called reeming irons. 

Rends. — Large shakes or splits in timber or plank, most 
common to plank. 

Riding-Bitts are bitts to which chain-cables are belayed when 
a ship is anchored. 

Ring-Bolts. — Eye-bolts having a ring passed through the 
eye of the bolt. 

*Room and Space. — The distance from one frame to the 
adjoining one. 

Rough-Hew. — To hew coarsely without smoothing, as to 
rough-hew timber. 

Roivlucks. — Places either raised above or sunk in the gun- 
wale of a boat used to place the oar in when rowing. 

Rudder. — The machine by which the ship is steered. 

Rudder-Stock. — The main piece of a rudder. 

Run. — The narrowing of the after-part of ship; thus a ship 
is said to have a full, fine, or clean run. 

Sagging. — The contrary of hogging. 

* Sampson-Knee. — A knee used to strengthen riding bitts. 

Saucers. — Metal steps bolted to the aft-side of the rudder- 
post below a brace, so that the plug of the pintle will rest on 
it, and keep the straps of pintles and braces from coming in 
contact, thereby lessening the friction to be overcome in turning 
the rudder. The pintles which rest on these saucers are made 
with longer plugs, and are called saucer-pintles. 

.Sap-Wood. — The external part of the wood of exogens, which 
from being the latest formed, is not filled up with soild matter. 
It is that through which the ascending fluids of plants move 
most freely. For all building purposes the sap-wood is or ought 
to be removed from timber, as it soon decays. 

Scantling. — The dimensions given . for the timbers, planks, 
etc. Likewise all quartering under five inches square, which 
is termed scantling; all above that size is called carling. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



2og 



* Scarphing. — The letting of one piece of timber or plank 
into another with a lap, in such a manner that both may appear 
as one solid and even surface, as keel-pieces, stem-pieces, 
clamps, etc. 

* Scarphs.- — Scarphs are called vertical when their surfaces 
are parallel to the sides, and flat or horizontal when their sur- 
faces are opposite, as the scarphs of keelson and keel. They 
are hook-scarphs when formed with a hook or projection, as 
the scarphs of stem; and key-scarphs, when their lips are set 
close by wedge-like keys at the hook, as the scarphs of beams. 

* Schooner. — A vessel with two, three or more masts, with 
fore-and-aft sails set on gaffs. A topsail schooner has a fore- 
topsail, and sometimes a fore-topgallant sail. 

Scuppers. — Holes cut through water-ways and side, and lined 
with lead, to convey water to the sea. 

Scuttle. — An opening in deck smaller than a hatchway. 

Screw-Jack. — A portable machine for raising great weights 
by the agency of a screw. 

Scribe. — To mark by a rule or compasses ; to mark so as to 
fit one piece to another. 

Seams. — The spaces between the planks when worked. 

Seasoning. — A term applied to a ship kept standing a certain 
time after she is completely framed and dubbed out for plank- 
ing, which should never be less than six months, when circum- 
stances will permit. Seasoned plank or timber is such as has 
been cut down and sawed out one season at least, particularly 
when thoroughly dry and not liable to shrink. 

Seating. — That part of the floor which fays on deadwood, 
and of a transom which fays against the post. 

Sending or 'Scending. — The act of pitching violently into the 
hollows or intervals of waves. 

Setting or Setting-to.— The act of making the planks, etc., 
fay close to the timbers, by driving wedges between the plank, 
etc., and a wrain staff. Hence we say, "set or set away," meaning 
to exert more strength. The power or engine used for the 
purpose of setting is called a Sett, and is composed of two 
ring-bolts and a wrain staff, cleats and lashings. 

Shaken or Shaky.— A natural defect in plank or timber when 
it is full of splits or clefts, and will not bear fastening or 
caulking. 

Sheathing. — A thin sort of doubling or casing of yellow pine 
board or sheet copper, and sometimes of both, over the ship's 
bottom, to protect the planks from worms, etc. Tar and hair, 
or brown paper dipped in tar and oil, is laid between the 
sheathing and the bottom. 

Sheer.— The longitudinal curve or hanging of a ship's side 
in a fore-and-aft direction. 

Sheer-Draught. — The plan of elevation of a ship, whereon 
is described the outboard works, as the wales, sheer-rails, ports, 
drifts, head, quarters, post and stem, etc., the hang of each 
deck inside, the height of the water-lines, etc. 

Sheers. — Elevated spars, connected at upper ends, used in 
masting and dismasting vessels, etc. 

Sheers.— Two masts or spars lashed or bolted together at or 
near the head, provided with a pulley, and raised to nearly a 
vertical position, used in lifting stones and other building 
materials. 

* Sheer-Strake.—Tht strake or strakes wrought in the top- 
side, of which the upper edge is the top-timber line or top of 
side. It forms the chief strength of the upper part of top- 
side, and is therefore always worked thicker than the other 
strakes, and scarphed with hook and butt between the drifts. 
(Fig. 25.) 



Sheet-Piles, Sheeting-Piles. — Piles formed of thick plank, 
shot or jointed on the edges, and sometimes grooved and tongued, 
driven closely together between the main or gauge piles of a 
coffer-dam or other hydraulic work, to inclose the space so as 
either to retain or exclude water, as the case may be. Sheeting- 
piles have of late been formed of iron. 

"^ Shelf-Pieces.— A strake worked for deck beams to rest on 
where iron hanging knees are to be used. (Fig. 28.) 

Shift. — A term made use of to denote the position of butts 
and scarphs of planks and timber. 

Shore. — An oblique brace or support, the upper end resting 
against the body to be supported. 

Shoulder. — Among artificers, a horizontal or rectangular pro- 
jection from the body of a thing. Shoulder of a tenon, the plane 
transverse to the length of a piece of timber from which the 
tenon projects. It does not, however, always lie in the plane 
here defined, but sometimes lies in different planes. 

Sirmarks. — Stations marked upon the moulds for the frame 
timber, etc., indicating where the bevelings are to be applied. 

Skeg. — The after-end of the keel. The composition piece 
supporting the heel of an equipoise rudder. 

Skew, or Askew. — Oblique ; as a skew-hxiAge. 
Snaping. — Cutting the ends of a stick off beveling so as to 
fay upon an inclined plane. 

Sny or Hang. — When the edges of strakes of plank curve 
up or down, they are said to sny or hang; if down, to hang; if 
up, to sny. 

Specific Gravity. — The relative weight of any body when 
compared with an equal bulk of any other body. Bodies are 
said to be specifically heavier than other bodies when they 
contain a greater weight under the same bulk; and when of 
less weight, they are said to be specifically lighter. 

Spiles. — Wooden pins used for driving into nail-holes. 
Those for putting over bolt-heads and deck-spikes are cylindrical, 
and are called plugs. 

* Spirketting. — The strakes of plank worked between the 
lower sills of ports and waterways. (Fig. 28.) 

Sprung. — A yard or mast is said to be sprung when it is 
cracked or split. 

Square Framed. — In joinery, a work is said to be square 
framed or framed square, when the framing has all the angles 
of its styles, rails, and mountings square without being moulded. 

Square-Body. — The square body comprises all those frames 
that are square to the center line of ship. 

Squaring Off.—Tht trimming off of the projecting edges of 
the strakes after vessel is planked. 

"' Stanchions. — -Upright pieces of wood or iron placed under 
deck beams to support them in the center. (Fig. 27.) 

Standards. — Knees placed against the fore-side of cable or 
riding-bitts, and projecting above the deck. 

Staples. — A bent fastening of metal formed as a loop, and 
driven in at both ends. 

Start-Hammer. — A steel bolt, with a handle attached, which 
is held on the heads of bolts, and struck with a double-header 
to start them in below the surface. 

Stealer.— A name given to plank that fall short of the 
stem or stern-post, on account of the amount of sny given some- 
times in planking full-bowed ships. 

*Stem. — The main timber at the fore part of ship, formed by 
the combination of several pieces into a curved shape and 
erected vertically to receive the ends of bow-planks, which are 
united to it by means of a rabbet. Its lower end scarphs or 
boxes into the keel, through which the rabbet is also carried,' 
and the bottom unites in the same manner. (Fig. 25.) 



210 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



* Stemson.- — A piece of timber, wrought on after part of 
apron, the lower end of which scarphs into the keelson. Its 
upper end is continued as high as the middle or upper deck, 
and its use is to strengthen the scarphs of apron, and stem. 
(Fig. 25.) 

Step. — One of the gradients in a stair; it is composed of two 
fronts, one horizontal, called the tread, and one vertical, called the 
riser. 

Steps for the Ship's Side.—The pieces of quartering, with 
mouldings, nailed to the sides amidship, about nine inches asun- 
der, from the wales upward, for the convenience of persons 
getting on board. 

* Steps of Masts. — The steps into which the heels of masts 
are fixed are large pieces of timber. Those for the main and 
foremasts are fixed across the keelson, and that for the mizzen- 
mast upon the lower deck-beams. The holes or mortises into 
which the masts step should have sufficient wood on each side 
to accord in strength with the tenon left at the heel of mast, 
and the hole should be cut rather less than the tenon, as an 
allowance for shrinking. (Fig. 25.) 

* Stern Frame. — The strong frame of timber composed of 
the stern-post, transoms and fashion-pieces, which form the 
basis of the whole stern. 

* Stern-Post. — The principal piece of timber in stern frame 
on which the rudder is hung, and to which the transoms arc- 
bolted. It therefore terminates the ship below the wing-tran- 
som, and its lower end is tenoned into keel. (Fig. 25.) 

Stiff. — Stable; steady under canvas. 

Stiinng.— The elevation of a ship's cathead or bowsprit, or 
the angle which either makes with the horizon; generally called 
steeve. 

Shoe, Anchor.— A flat block of hard wood, convex on back, 
and scored out on flat side to take the bill of anchor; it is used 
in fishing the anchor to prevent tearing the plank on vessel's 
bow, and is placed under the bill of it, and is hauled up with it. 

* Stoppings-Up. — The poppets, timber, etc., used to fill up the 
vacancy between the upper side of the bilgeways and ship's 
bottom, for supporting her when launching. 

Straight of Breadth. — The space before and abaft dead-flat, 
in which the ship is of the same uniform breadth, or of the 
same breadth as at dead-flat. Sec Dead-Flat. 

* Strake.- — One breadth of plank wrought from one end of 
the ship to the other, either within or outboard. 

Strut. — Any piece of timber in a system of framing which is 
pressed or crushed in the direction of its length. 

Stub-Mortise. — A mortise which does not pass through the 
whole thickness of the timber. 

Tabling. — Letting one piece of timber into another by al- 
ternate scores or projections from the middle, so that it can- 
not be drawn asunder either lengthwise or sidewise. 

Taffarel or Taff-Rail.—Tht upper part of the ship's stern, 
usually ornamented with carved work or mouldings, the ends 
of which unite to the quarter-pieces. 

Tasting of Plank or Timber. — Chipping it with an adze, or 
boring it with a small auger, for the purpose of ascertaining 
its quality or defects. 

Templet. — A pattern or mould used by masons, machinists, 
smiths, shipwrights, etc., for shaping anything by. It is made 
of tin or zinc plate, sheet-iron, or thin board, according to the 
use to which it is to be applied. 

* Tenon.— The square part at the end of one piece of timber, 
diminished so as to fix in a hole of another piece, called a 
mortise, for joining or fastening the two pieces together. 



Tenon. — The end of a piece of wood cut into the form of a 
rectangular prism, which is received into a cavity in another 
piece, having the same shape and size, called a mortise. It is 

sometimes written tenant. 

Thickstuff. — -A name for sided timber exceeding four inches, 
l)ut not being more than twelve inches in thickness. 

Tholes, or Tholc-Pins. — The battens or pins forming the 
rowlocks of a boat. 

Throat. — The inside of knee at the middle or turn of the 
arms. Also the midship part of the floor timbers. 

Thwarts. — The seats in a boat on which tJie oarsmen sit. 

Tiller. — An arm of wood or iron fitted into the rudder- 
head to steer a ship or boat by. 

Timber. — That sort of wood which is squared, or capable 
of being squared, and fit for being employed in house or ship- 
building, or in carpentry, joinery, etc. 

Timber. — {Material for ship-building.). — Timber is generally 
distinguished into rough, square or hewn, sided and converted 
timber. Rough timber is the timber to its full size as felled, 
with lop, top and bark off. Hewn timber is timber squared for 
measurement. Sided timber is the tree of full size, one way, 
as it is felled, but with slabs taken off from two of its sides. 
Converted timber is timber cut for different purposes. 

Timber-Heads. — Projecting timbers for belaying towing 
lines, etc. 

To Anchor Stock. — To work planks by fashioning them in 
a tapering form from the middle, and working or fixing them 
over each other, so that the broad or middle part of one plank 
shall be immediately above or below the butts or ends of two 
others. This method, as it occasions a great consumption of 
wood, is only used where particular strength is required. 

Tonnage of Capacity. — The capacity which the body has 
for carrying cargo, estimated at 100 cubic feet to the ton. 

Tonnage of Displacement. — The weight of the ship in tons 
with all on board; found by computing number of cubic feet 
of the immersed body to the deep load line and dividing by 
35- 

* Top and Half Top-Timbers. — The upper timbers of the 
frame. (Fig. 28.) 

Top-Rail. — An iron rail at the after part of ship's tops. 

Top-Rim. — The circular sweep or the fore-part of a ves- 
sel's top and covering in the ends of cross-trees and trestle- 
trees, to prevent their chafing the topsail. 

* Topside. — That part of the ship above the main wales. 
(Fig. 28.) 

To Teach. — A term applied to the direction that any line, 
etc., seems to point out. Thus we_ say, "Let the line or mould 
teach fair to such a spot, raze," etc. 

Trail-Boards.— The filling pieces, sometimes carved, placed 
between the brackets on the head. 

* Transoms. — Transverse timbers in square-sterned ships, 
connected and placed square with the stern-posts. 

Tread. — The horizontal surface of a step. 

Tread of the Keel. — The whole length of the keel upon a 
straight line. 

Treenails. — Cylindrical oak pins driven through the planks 
and timbers of a vessel, to fasten or connect them together. 
These certainly make the best fastening when driven quite 
through, and caulked or wedged inside. They should be made 
of the very best oak or locust, cut near the butt, and perfectly 
dry or well-seasoned. 

Trimming of Timber. — The working of any piece of timber 
. into the proper shape, by means of the axe or adze. 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



211 



Truss. — A combination of timbers, of iron, or of timbers and 
iron-work so arranged as to constitute an unyielding frame. It 
is so named because it is trussed or tied together. 

Trussed Beam. — A compound beam composed of two beams 
secured together side by side with a truss, generally of iron, 
between them. 

The Tuck.—Th.t after part of ship, where the ends of 
planks of bottom are terminated by the tuck-rail, and all below 
the wing-transom when it partakes of the figure of the wing- 
transom as far as the fashion-pieces. 

Tuck-Rail. — The rail which is wrought well with the upper 
side of wing-transom, and forms a rabbet for the purpose of 
caulking the butt ends of planks of bottom. 

Upright. — The position of a ship when she inclines neither 
to one side nor the other. 

Veneer. — A facing of superior wood placed in thin leaves 
over an inferior sort. Generally, a facing of superior material 
laid over an inferior material. 

*lVales (by some also called Bends) {Wooden Vessels). — 
The thickest outside planking of a ship's side, about midway 
between the light water-line and the plank sheer; the breadth 
of the Wales is generally equal Xo Y^ or y^ of the depth of the 
vessel's hold. (Fig. 28.) 

Wall-Sided. — A term applied to the topsides of the ship when 
the main breadth is continued very low down and very high up, 
so that the topsides appear straight and upright like a wall. 

Washboards. — Thin plank placed above the gunwale of a 
boat forward and aft to increase the height. 

* Water-Lines. — Sections of the vessel parallel to the plane 
of flotation. 

Water-logged. — The condition of a leaky ship when she is 
so full of water as to be heavy and unmanageable. 

* Waterways. — The edge of the deck next the timbers, which 
is wrought thicker than the rest of deck, and so hollowed to 
thickness' of deck as to form a gutter or channel for water to 
run through to the scuppers. (Fig. 26.) 



Wedges. — Slices of wood driven in between the masts and 
their partners, to admit of giving rake if desired. 



-The brackets or projecting parts of the barrel of 



Whelps.- 
a capstan. 

Whole-Moulded. — A term applied to the bodies of those 
ships which- are.,»o constructed that one mould made to the 
midship-bend, with the addition of a floor hollow, will mould 
all the timbers below the main-breadth in square body. 

Winch. — A machine similar to a windlass, but much smaller, 
often placed on the fore side of the lower masts of merchant 
vessels, just above the deck, to assist in hoisting the topsails, etc. 

Wind. — To cast or warp ; to turn or twist any surface, so 
that all its parts do not lie in the same plane. 

Windlass. — A machine used in vessels for hoisting the 
anchor. 

Wings. — The places next the side upon the orlop. 

Wing-Transom. — The uppermost transom in stern frame, 
upon which the heels of counter-timbers are let in and rest. 
It is by some called the main-transom. 

Wood-Lock. — A piece of elm or oak, closely fitted and 
sheathed with copper, in the throating or score of the pintle, 
near the load water-line, so that when the rudder is hung and 
wood-lock nailed in its place, it cannot rise, because the latter 
butts against the under side of the brace and butt of score. 

Wrain-Bolt. — Ring-bolts used when planking, with two or 
more forelock holes in the end for taking in the set, as the plank, 
etc., works nearer the timbers. 

Wrain-Stave. — A sort of stout billet of tough wood, tapered 
at the ends so as to go into the ring of the wrain-bolt, to make 
the setts necessary for bringing-to the planks or thickstuflf to 
the timbers. 

Yacht.— JK small vessel (sailing or power-driven vessel) used 
for pleasure. 



212 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



USEFUL TABLES 

FRACTIONS OF AN INCH IN DECIMALS 



Fraction 


;)ecimal 


Fraction 


Decimal 


Fraction 


Decimal 


Fraction 


Decimal 


of an 


of an 


of an 


of an 


of an 


of an 


of an 


of an 


Inch 


Inch 


Inch 


Inch 


Inch 


Inch 


Inch 


Inch 


J6 


01562 


'% 


26562 


^^ 


51562 


'Hi 


.76562 


^ 


03125 


% 


28125 


'% 


53125 


'Hi 


.78125 


% 


04687 


'% 


29687 


'Hi 


54687 


'Hi 


.79687 


Hi 


06250 


Hi 


31250 


% 


56250 


'^6 


.81250 


% 


07812 


'Hi 


32812 


'% 


57812 


"Hi 


.82812 


% 


09375 


'Hi 


34375 


'% 


59375 


'Hi 


•84375 


% 


10937 


""Hi 


35937 


'Hi 


60937 


'Hi 


•85937 


'A 


12500 


H 


37500 


H 


62500 


H 


•87500 


?6 


14062 


'Hi 


39062 


'Hi 


64062 


'Hi 


.89062 


;4t 


15625 


f^ 


40625 


% 


65625 


% 


•90625 


'Hi 


I7187 


2% 


42187 


''Hi 


67187 


'Hi 


.92187 


,¥' 


18750 


J^^ 


43750 


'He 


68750 


'Hi 


•93750 


■% 


20312 


'Hi 


45312 


'Hi 


70312 


'Hi 


•95312 


% 


21875 


■% 


46875 


"^ 


71875 


'Hi 


•96875 


'56 


23437 


'Hi 


48437 


''Hi 


73437 


"Hi 


.98437 


K 


25000 


H 


50000 


H 


75000 


I inch 


I .00000 



INCHES AND FRACTIONS IN DECIMALS OF A FOOT 




Parts of 




Parts of 




Parts of 




Parts of 




Foot in 


Decimal 


Foot in 1 


Decimal 


Foot in 


Decimal 


Foot in 


Decimal 


Inches and 


of a Foot 


Inches and 


f a Foot 


Inches and 


f a Foot 


Inches and 


of a Foot 


Fractions 




Fractions 




Fractions 




Fractions 




Hi 


.00520 


3 'Hi 


25520 


6 'Hi 


■50520 


9 Hi 


•75520 


A 


.01040 


3 A 


26040 


6 A 


51040 


9 A 


.76040 


'Hi 


.01562 


3% 


26562 


6 'Hi 


51562 


9 'Hi 


.76562 


K 


.02080 


3 A 


27080 


6 A 


52080 


9A 


.77080 


Hi 


.02600 


3 'Hi 


27600 


6 'Hi 


52600 


9 'Hi 


.77600 


H 


.03125 


3 H 


28125 


6 A 


53125 


9 A 


.78125 


Hi 


.03640 


3 Hi 


28650 


(■Hi 


53640 


9 Hi 


•78650 


K 


.04170 


3 A 


29170 


6 A 


54170 


9 A 


■79170 


Hi 


.04687 


3 Hi 


29687 


6 Hi 


54687 


9 Hi 


•79687 


H 


.05210 


3 A. 


30210 


6 ^ 


55210 


9 ^ 


.80210 


'Hi 


•05730 


3"Hi 


30730 


(>"Hi 


55730 


9"Hi 


•80730 


H 


.06250 


3 A 


31250 


6H 


56250 


9 A 


.81250 


. "Hi 


.06770 


3% 


31770 


(>"Hi 


56770 


9"Hi 


.81770 


H 


.07290 


3A- 


32290 


6 7A 


57290 


9 A 


.82290 


"Hi 


.07812 


3"Hi 


32812 


6>5.1'6 


57812 


9"Hi 


.82812 


I inch 


.08330 


4 inches 


33330 


7 inches 


58330 


10 inches 


•83330 


I 'Hi 


.08850 


A 'Hi 


33850 


7 'Hi 


58850 


ion's 


.83850 


I 'A 


•09375 


4 A 


34375 


7 A 


59375 


10 A 


•84375 


I 'Hi 


.09900 


A 'Hi 


34900 


7 'Hi 


S9900 


10% 


.84900 


I % 


. 10420 


A A 


35420 


7 A 


60420 


10 A 


.85420 


I 'Hi 


• 10937 


A 'Hi 


35937 


7 'Hi 


60937 


10 Hi 


•85937 


I H 


.11460 


A H 


36460 


7 H 


61460 


10 A 


.86460 


I Hi 


.11980 


A Hi 


36980 


7 Hi 


61980 


10 Hi 


.86980 


I 'A 


.12500 


A A 


37500 


7 A 


62500 


10 A 


.87500 


1% 


.13020 


A Hi 


38020 


7 Hi 


63020 


10 Hi 


.88020 


I H 


•13540 


A. A 


38540 


7H 


63540 


10 H 


.88540 


i"Hi 


. 14062 


A"Hi 


39062 


7"Hi 


64062 


lo^'Hi 


. 89062 


I H 


• 14580 


aH 


39580 


7 A 


64580 


10 A 


.89580 


i"Hi 


,15100 


A"Hi 


40100 


7"Hi 


65100 


10% 


.90100 


I H 


•15625 


A A 


40625 


7 A 


65625 


10 7A 


•90625 


i"Hi 


.16150 


A"y{i 


41140 


7"Hi 


66150 


10% 


.91150 


2 inches 


.16670 


5 inches 


41670 


8 inches 


66670 


II inches 


.91670 


2 'Hi 


.17187 


5 'Hi 


42187 


8'Hit 


67187 


II 'Hi 


.92187 


2 A 


.17710 


5A . 


42710 


8Ai 


67710 


II A 


.92710 


2 'Hi 


.18230 


5 'Hi 


43230 


sHi 


68230 


11% 


.93230 


2% 


•18750 


5A 


43750 


8A 


68750 


II A 


•93750 


2 'Hi 


.19270 


5 'Hi 


44270 


s'Hi 


69270 


I J 'Hi 


.94270 


2 H ■ 


.19790 


5H 


44790 


8 A' 


69790 


II 'As 


•94790 


2 Hi 


.20312 


5 Hi 


45312 


SHi ■ 


70312 


11 Hi 


•95312 


2 A 


.20830 


5A 


45830 


8 A 


70830 


II A 


•95830 


2 Hi 


.21350 


5 Hi 


46350 


8% 


71350 


11% 


•96350 


2H 


•21875 


5H 


46875 


SHY 


71875 


II H 


•96875 


2"Hi 


. 22400 


5"Hi 


47400 


8% 


72400 


ii"Hi 


.97400 


2V4 


.22920 


5A 


47920 


8 A 


72920 


II A 


.97920 


2"Hi 


•23437 


5"Hi 


48437 


8% 


73437 


ii"Hi 


•98437 


2 7yi 


•23950 


5A 


48960 


8 7yi 


73960 


II 7A 


.98960 


2"Hi 


.24480 


5"Hi 


49480 


8% • 


74480 


ii"Hi 


.99480 


3 inches 


.25000 


6 inches 


50000 


9 inches 


75000 


12 inches 


I .00000 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



213 



AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES 



Diameter 


Area 


Circumference 


Diameter 


Area 


Circumference 


I 


•7854 


3-I416 


51 


2042.8206 


160.2212 


2 


3-1416 


6.2832 


52 


2123. 7166 


163.3628 


3 


7.0686 


9.4248 


53 


2206.1834 


166.5044 


4 


12.5664 


12.5664 


54 


2290.2210 


169.6460 


5 


19-6350 


15.7080 


55 


2375-8294 


172.7876 


6 


28.2743 


18.8496 


56 


2463.0086 


175.9292 


7 


38.4845 


21. 991 1 


57 


2551-7586 


179.0708 


8 


50-2655 


25-1327 


58 


2642.0794 


182.2184 


9 


63.6173 


28.2743 


59 


2733-9710 


185-3540 


10 


78.5398 


31-4159 


60 


2827.4334 


188.4956 


II 


95-0332 


34-5575 


61 


2922.4666 


191.6372 


12 


113-0973 


37.6991 


62 


3019.0705 


194-7787 


13 


132-7323 


40.8407 


63 


31 17-2453 


197.9203 


14 


153-9380 


43-9823 


64 


3216.9909 


201.0619 


15 


176.7146 


47.1239 


65 


3318.3072 


204.2035 


16 


201.0619 


50.2655 


66 


342 1. 1 944 


207.3451 


17 


226.9801 


53-4071 


67 


3525.6524 


210.4867 


18 


254.4690 


56-5487 


68 


3631. 681 1 


213.6283 


19 


283.5287 


596903 


69 


3739.2807 


216.7699 


20 


314-1593 


62.8319 


70 


3848.4510 


219.9I15 


21 


346.3606 


65-9734 


71 


3959-I921 


223.0531 


22 


380.1327 


69.1150 


72 


407 1. 504 1 


226.1947 


23 


415-4756 


72.2566 


73 


4185-3868 


229.3363 


24 


452-3893 


75-3982 


74 


4300.8403 


232.4779 


25 


490.8739 


78-5398 


75 


4417.8647 


235-6194 


26 


530.9292 


81.6814 


76 


4536.4598 


238.7610 


27 


572.5553 


84.8230 


77 


4656.6257 


241.9026 


28 


615-7522 


87.9646 


78 


4778.3624 


245.0442 


29 


660.5199 


91.1062 


79 


4901 .6699 


248.1858 


30 


706.8583 


94-2478 


80 


5026.5482 


251-3274 


31 


754-7676 


973894 


81 


5152.9974 


254.4690 


32 


804.2477 


100.5310 


82 


5281.OI73 


257.6106 


33 


855-2986 


103.6726 


83 


5410.6079 


260.7522 


34 


907.9203 


106.8142 


84 


5541.7694 


263.8938 


35 


962.1128 


109-9557 


85 


5674-5017 


267.0354 


36 


IOI7.8760 


113.0973 


86 


5808.8048 


270.1770 


37 


IO75.210I 


116.2389 


87 


5944-6787 


273-3186 


38 


II34.II49 


119.3805 


88 


6082.1234 


276.4602 


39 


1 194.5906 


122.5221 


89 


6221. 1389 


279.6017 


40 


1 256. 637 1 


125.6637 


90 


6361. 7251 


282.7434 


41 


1320.2543 


128.8053 


91 


6503.8822 


285.8849 


42 


1385.4424 


131.9469 


92 


6647. 610I 


289.0265 


43 


1452. 2012 


135-0835 


93 


6792.9097 


292.1681 


44 


1520.5308 


138.2301 


94 


6939.7782 


295-3097 


45 


I59O.43I3 


141-3717 


95 


7088.2184 


298-4513 


46 


I66I.9025 


144-5133 


96 


7238.2295 


301.5929 


47 


1734-9445 


147-6549 


97 


7389-81 13 


304-7345 


48 


1809.5574 


150.7964 


98 


7542.9610 


307.8761 


49 


1885. 7410 


153-9380 


99 


7697.6874 


31I.OI77 


50 


1963.4954 


157.0796 


100 


7853-9816 


314-1593 



WEIGHT OF A SQUARE FOOT OF CAST AND WROUGHT IRON, 

COPPER, LEAD, BRASS AND ZINC 

FROM He TO i INCH IN THICKNESS 







Wrouglit 










Tliickness 


Cast Iron 


Iron 


Copper 


Lead 


Brass 


Zinc 


Inch 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Hi 


2.346 


2-517 


2.89 


3.691 


2.675 


2-34 


'A 


4-693 


5-035 


5-781 


7.382 


5-35 


4.68 


%, 


7-039 


7-552 


8.672 


11.074 


8-025 


7.02 


K 


9-386 


10.07 


1 1 .562 


14-765 


10.7 


9-36 


% 


11-733 


12.588 


14-453 


18.456 


13-375 


II.7 


H 


14.079 


15.106 


17-344 


22.148 


16.05 


14.04 


% 


16.426 


17-623 


20.234 


25-839 


18.725 


16.34 


"6 


18.773 


20.141 


23-125 


29-53 


21.4 


18.72 


% 


21. 119 


22.659 


26.016 


33.222 


24-075 




'tl 


23.466 


25.176 


28.906 


36.923 


26.75 




25-812 


27-694 


31-797 


40.604 


29-425 




.H 


28.159 


30.211 


34.688 


44-296 


32-1 




% 


30.505 


32.729 


37-578 


47-987 






,'{f 


32-852 


35-247 


40.469 


51-678 






"^ 


35-199 


37-764 


43-359 


55-37 






I 


37-545 


40.282 


46.25 


59.061 







NOTE.- 
plates. 



-The wrought iron and the copper weights are those of hard-rolled 



214 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



FRESH WATER 
UNITED STATES GALLON 
Tons = gallons Tons = cubic feet 

268.365 35.883 

Pounds = cubic feet X 62.425 
Gallons = cubic feet X 7.48 
Pressure = height in feet X -4335 
Height in feet = pressure X 2.3093 

Logarithm 

I ton contains 35.883 cubic feet 1.55489 

I ton contains 268.365 gallons 2.56628 

I ton weighs 2240 pounds 3-35025 

I gallon contains 231 cubic inches 2.36361 

1 gallon contains .833 imperial gallon 2.92065 

I gallon weighs 8.33 pounds j. 92065 

I quart weighs 2.08 pounds 31806 

I ^int weighs i .04 pounds 01703 

I gill weighs .26 pound 9.41497 

I cubic foot weighs 62.425 pounds 1 .79536 

I cubic foot contains 7.48 gallons 87390 

I cubic foot contains 1728 cubic inches 3-23754 

I cubic inch weighs .036125 pound 8.55781 

12 cubic inches weighs .4335 pound 9.63699 

27.71 cubic inches weighs i pound 

27.71 cubic inches, height 2.3093 feet 36348 



METRIC CONVERSION TABLE 



Inches 


Millimeters 


Inches 


Millimeters 


Inches 


Millimeters 


Mii 


1-59 


2% 


58.74 


6 


152.40 


}i 


3-17 


iH 


60.33 


6^ 


158-75 


% 


4.76 


2^6 


61.91 


6 K 


165.10 


K 


6-35 


2K 


63-50 


6K 


171-45 


% 


7-94 


2% 


65-09 


7 


177.80 


H 


9-53 


2fg 


66.67 


IV, 


184.15 


Ki 


11.10 


2'K6 


68.26 


TA 


190.50 


'A 


12.70 


2% 


69.85 


7K 


196.85 


% 


14.29 


2% 


71-44 


8 


203.20 


^ 


15-87 


21A 


73-03 


^'A 


209.55 


't^ 


17.46 


2% 


74.61 


8 A 


215-90 


K 


19-05 


3 


76.20 


8K 


222.25 


'Ke 


20.64 


33^ 


79-37 


9 


228.60 


n 


22.23 


3X 


82.55 


9X 


234-95 


'K6 " 


23.81 


3^ 


85-73 


9 A 


241.30 


I 


25.40 


iA 


88.90 


9 Y^ 


247-65 


I Ke 


26.99 


ZH 


92.08 


10 


254-00 


I yi 


28.57 


3K 


95-25 


10 A 


260.35 


1% 


30.16 


3^ 


98.43 


10 K 


266.70 


I X 


31-75 


4 


101.60 


10 K 


273-05 


1^6 


33-34 


4 J^ 


104.78 


II 


279.40 


I H 


34-92 


4X 


107.95 


II A 


285.75 


l'/<6 


36.51 


4N 


III. 13 


II K 


292.10 


I A 


38.10 


454 


114.30 


II K 


298.45 


1% 


39-68 


^H 


117.48 


12 


304-80 


Mfe 


41.27 


4^ 


120.65 


13 


330.20 


42.86 


4>i 


123-83 


14 


355-60 


i^ 


44-44 


5 


127.00 


15 


381.00 


1% 


46.03 


5>^ 


130.18 


16 


406.40 


I yk 


47-62 


5K 


133-35 


17 


431.80 


i'% 


49-21 


5 H 


136-53 


18 


457.20 


2 


50.80 


5K 


139-70 


19 


482 .60 


2 Hi 


52.39 


5^ 


142.88 


20 


508.00 


2 yi 


53-97 


5K 


146.05 










2% 


55-56 


5^ 


147-25 


39-3708 


I. Meter 


2>^ 


,56.15 











I Kilogramme = 

50,8 Kilogrammes = 

100 Kilogrammes = 

1000 Kilogrammes = 

1016,06 Kilogrammes 



2.2046 Lb. 
I Cwt. 
1 ,96 Cwts. 
19,68 Cwts. 
I Ton. 



i.o Cubic Meter = 35,317 Cubic Feet 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



215 



WEIGHTS OF ENGINES IN POUNDS PER H.P. FOR 
VARIOUS VESSELS 



Comp 



Compound 



Triple 



Quadruple 



Steam Launches 

Small Cargo Steamers 

Torpedo Boats 

Small Cruisers 

Large Cruisers 

Cargo Steamers 

Cargo Steamers 

Passenger Steamers. . . 



17-33 
132-187 



5-36 

36-70 

57-110 

143-210 

92-143 



154-242 
1 10-176 



WEIGHTS OF SINGLE PARTS OF ENGINES 



Designation of Parts 




Cylinders and Valve Boxes 

Cylinder Cover and Other Joints 

Covers and Faces of Valve Chests 

Stuffing Boxes, Safety Valves 

Screw Bolts 

Foundations, Col's, Bearings with Guides. 

Thrust Blocks, Complete 

Pistons 

Piston Rods 

Crossheads 

Connecting Rods 

Valves 

Valve Rods and Eccentrics 

Reversing Gear, including Reversing Shaft 

Crank Shaft and Shafting 

Condenser 

Driven Air Pump 

Driven Circulating Pump 



WEIGHTS OF STATIONARY AND MOVING PARTS OF 
MARINE ENGINES 











Condenser, 








Moving 


Fixed 


Pumps, Piping, 


Total 




I. H. P. 


Parts 


Parts 


IncludingWater 


Lbs. 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 




I 


520 


31.2 


59-6 


9.6 


100.4 


2 


1040 


233 


49-5 


1-9 


74-7 


3 


1200 


60.5 


99 


5-8 


1653 


4 


1470 


lOI .0 


1450 


10.2 


256.2 


5 


1670 


88.0 


1430 


4.8 


235-8 


6 


1880 


44 


74.1 


5-4 


1235 


7 


1880 


53-6 


107.6 


7-3 


168.5 


8 


2000 


72.2 


loi .0 


51-8 


225.0 


9 


2100 


78.5 


118. 


36.1 


232.6 


10 


2500 


72.6 


114. 


7.8 


194.4 


II 


6600 


66.5 


88.0 


28.8 


183.3 


12 


2000 


67.9 


68.0 


21.7 


157-6 



NOTE, — Since the weights will vary with the design, the above values can 
only be used as an estimate and their limitations appreciated. Weights are 
from actual calculations and checked by scale weights. 



2id 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 



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o o o o o o o^ o o o o oSSSSSS = 



WOODEN SHIP-BUILDING 

PARTICULARS OF VESSELS OF NAMED DIMENSIONS AND TYPE.S 



217 



Elements 



T.S.S. 


s. s. s. 


s. s. s. 


s. s. s. 


s.s.s. 


s. s. s. 


S.S.S. 


S. S. S. 


S.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


T.S.S. 


T.S.S. 


120.0 


200.0 


330.0 


250.0 


255 


310.0 


319.0 


320.0 


392-0 


420.0 


460.0 


469.0 


21.0 


30.0 


41 .0 


32.0 


34-5 


370 


340 


40.0 


39-0 


48.0 


52 


56.0 


7.10 


12 .1 


24.4 


12.6 


9.2 


17-3 


17.8 


18.33 


21-3 


18.8 


26.7 


24-5 


282 


1285 


6880 


1740 


1420 


3600 


3445 


4720 


5767 


8160 


13080 


13895 


150 


324 


925 


355 


285 


590 


526 


664 


738 


828 


1322 


1315 


4508 


8628 


25210 


1 1 184 


10164 


18099 


19245 


21 102 


26235 


31196 


42423 


43389 


54 


61 


70 


79 


80 


96 


90 


71 


118 


75 


no 


99 


■ 550 


■695 


.788 


.684 


.700 


.690 


.712 


.771 


.698 


.821 


-753 


.789 


9.20 


10.8 


10.5 


11.94 


II-3 


11.97 


"■59 


11.79 


12.05 


II. 8 


12.05 


12.0 


192 


661 


1372 


962 


816 


1655 


1 194 


1788 


1758 


2086 


3382 


3780 


174 


228 


305 


255 


223 


244 


297 


258 


320 


276 


276 


264 


608 


617 


780 


627 


504 


613 


686 


670 


735 


560 


690 


607 


0.680 


0.514 


0.200 


0.553 


0.574 


0.534 


0-347 


0-375 


0-305 


0.255 


0.256 


0.272 



s. s. s. 



Length Between Perpendiculars 

Beam Extreme 

Draught, Mean 

Displacement, Tons 

Area Midship Section, Square Feet 

Wetted Surface, Square Feet 

Length of Fore Body, Feet 

Prismatic Coefficient 

Speed in Knots per Hour 

Indicated Horse Power 

Admiralty Constant 

Midship Section Constant 

L H. P. -^ Displacement. '. 



426.0 

54-25 

24.0 

1 1 556 
1250 

37798 

102.5 
.760 

12.51 

3305 

303 

744 

0.286 



Elements 

















Naval 


Naval 


Naval 


T.S.S. 


T. S. S. 


T S.S. 


T. S. S. 


T.S.S. 


T. S. S. 


T.S.S. 


T.S.S. 


T. S. S. 


T.S.S. 


300.0 


302.0 


3"-5 


270.0 


290.0 


470.0 


685.0 


200.0 


210.0 


300.0 


34-5 


38.0 


36.0 


34-0 


38.0 


58.0 


68.0 


19-5 


20.5 


36.5 


13-78 


13-5 


"-5 


10.5 


11.92 


20.5 


29.91 


5-5 


5-67 


13-9 


2200 


2400 


1780 


1350 


2100 


9650 


25910 


263 


320 


2235 


425 


460 


392 


3" 


416 


1 100 


1922 


77 


91 


445 


14043 


14472 


12628 


10253 


I317O 


35912 


72208 


3890 


4323 


14083 


129 


"9-4 


152-5 


118. 


"3-3 


163 


213 


80 


87.0 


124 


.603 


.604 


-514 


-563 


.609 


-653 


.690 


.600 


.586 


.586 


18.20 


18.57 


18.70 


19-3 


20.34 


20.2 


20.8 


27-6 


30-5 


20.8 


4398 


5241 


4000 


3750 


5820 


16200 


26500 


3628 


6017 


7275 


246 


219 


240 


207 


236 


230 


297 


237 


220 


212 


556 


563 


641 


596 


599 


560 


652 


419 


428 


551 


2 .00 


2.18 


2.25 


2.78 


2.77 


1.68 


1.02 


13-8 


18.3 


3.26 



Naval 
T. S. S. 



Length Between Perpendiculars 

Beam Extreme 

Draught, Mean 

Displacement, Tons 

Area Midship Section, Square Feet 
Wetted Surface, Square Feet. . . . . . 

Length of Forebody, Feet 

Prismatic Coefficient 

Speed in Knots per Hour 

Indicated Horse Power 

Admiralty CoYistant 

Midship Section Constant 

I . H . P. -^ Displacement 



360.0 

60.0 

20.6 

6100 

1059 

25545 

158 

-561 

20.96 

10646 

288 

915 

1-74 



Elements 



S. S. s. 


S.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


T.S.S. 


S. S. S. 


T.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


T.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


T.S.S. 


300.0 


402.0 


380.0 


550.0 


460.0 


204.0 


240.0 


420.0 


340.0 


400.0 


425.0 


530.0 


42.0 


43-0 


43-0 


63-0 


So.o 


34-0 


32.0 


50.0 


41.0 


45-2 


51-0 


59-0 


II. 2 


18.51 


18.6 


29-9? 


2ib.7 


10-33 


15-4 


21. 1 


17.0 


18.6 


23.2 


23-5 


2502 


5670 


5685 


22589 


12720 


1080 


2040 


9070 


4120 


5842 


9950 


14206 


401 


700 


712 


1779 


J270 


300 


450 


980 


620 


747 


1 126 


1225 


14683 


25694 


24956 


6009a , 


41058 


7929 


12022 


33065 


20128 


26063 


36448 


46391 


81.4 


"8.5 


100 


106 


no 


78 


81.3 


96 


107.4 


126.3 


116 


124 


-729 


.708 


-737 


.809 


.761 


.617 


.661 


-771 


.684 


.684 


.767 


-765 


12.23 


12.28 


12.4 


12.75 


12.95 


13.20 


13-23 


13-90 


14-36 


14-79 


14.8 


14-7 


15" 


2101 


2329 


4790 


3950 


1018 


1,584 


3908 


2884 


3742 


4512 


6118 


223 


279 


260 


345 


299 


240 


235 


306 


262 


280 


299 


305 


484 


616 


.581 


768 


698 


685 


658 


670 


633 


645 


648 


637 


0.604 


0-371 


0.410 


0.213 


0.310 


0.942 


0.776 


0.430 


0.700 


0-645 


0.452 


0.430 



S.S.S. 



Length Between Perpendiculars 

Beam Extreme 

Draught, Mean 

Displacement, Tons 

Area Midship Section, Square Feet 

Wetted Surface, Square Feet 

Length of Fore Body, Feet 

Prismatic Coefficient 

Speed in Knots per Hour 

Indicated Horse Power 

Admiralty Constant 

Midship Section Constant 

I. H. P. -7- Displacement 



300.0 
38.0 
13 - 10 
2506 

453 

14596 

107 

-643 

15-33 

2602 

255 
629 
1.04 



Elements 



T. S. S. 


T. S. S. 


T. S. S. 


S.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


T. S. S. 


S.S.S. 


S.S.S. 


T. S. S. 


T. S. S. 


T. S. S. 


280.0 


290.0 


300.0 


315-5 


420.0 


450.0 


220.0 


388.0 


466.0 


600.0 


680.0 


570.0 


31.0 


38.0 


34-5 


33-5 


43-0 


45-17 


28.0 


43-0 


52.0 


65.0 


75 -o 


64.0 


13-4 


II .92 


13-78 


15-0 


18.4 


23.6 


9.0 


17.6 


20.1 


30.01 


30.0 


27-5 


1940 


2100 


2200 


2480 


5906 


8500 


736 


4315 


8124 


23630 


30020 


19150 


350 


416 


425 


422 


698 


926 


204 


615 


980 


181O 


2094 


1629 


12582 


13170 


14043 


15200 


26699 


32578 


6841 


22330 


285II 


63977 


76440 


56195 


86 


"3-3 


129.0 


107-5 


124 


129 


94 


142 


176 


143 


178 


168 


-693 


.609 


.603 


.658 


•705 


•714 


•573 


.632 


.622 


.762 


•738 


-723 


15 03 


15-00 


15-34 


15-34 


1510 


15-05 


16.50 


16.82 


16.52 


16.01 


16.20 


17-25 


2373 


2157 


2358 


2243 


4437 


4900 


1405 


4660 


6347 


10508 


12491 


11035 


223 


257 


259 


295 


253 


289 


261 


269 


287 


321 


329 


332 


501 


650 


650 


678 


543 


642 


654 


626 


696 


707 


712 


760 


1.22 


1.03 


1.07 


0.90 


0.75 


0.58 


1.90 


1.08 


0.78 


0-44 


0.42 


0.57 



T. S. S. 



Length Between Perpendiculars 

Beam Extreme 

Draught, Mean 

Displacement, Tons 

Area Midship Section, Square Feet.. 

Wetted Surface, Square Feet 

Length of Forebody, Feet 

Prismatic Coefficient 

Speed in Knots per Hour 

Indicated Horse Power 

Admiralty Constant 

Midship Section, Constant 

I. H. P. -T- Displacement 



269.0 

33-0 

8.75 

1237 

266 

9678 

106.3 

-605 

18.9 

3231 
246 
556 
2.61 




Thetis, a Sea-Nymph— Wooden Figurehead 



Paragraph Reference Index 



CHAPTER SUBJECT PAR. 

I.— CLASSIFICATION AND INSURANCE. 

Insurance explained 'a- 

II.— KNOWLEDGE OF WOODS. 

Cultivation of trees 2a 

Timber for Ship building 2b 

Care of timber 2c 

Bending timber 2d 

Seasoning timber 2e 

Loss of weight and shrinkage 2f 

Hard woods (description) 2g 

Soft and resinous woods 2h 

III.— KINDS AND DIMENSIONS OF MA- 
TERIAL TO USE. 

Explanation of tables 3 3a 

Dimensions of materials 3b 

Lloyd's rules and material tables 3c 

Tables of Material to use 3C 

IV.— TONNAGE. 

Tonnage explained 

Builder's Tonnage explained 

ross 

Registered " " 

Panama and Suez Tonnage 

Light Displacement 

Heavy Displacement 

Dead Weight 

Light Displacement W.L 

Freeboard mark 

Displacement curve and Deadweight scale. 
Volume of Internal Body or Room in a Ship 

v.— STRAINS EXPERIENCED BY SHIPS. 

Longitudinal strains in still water 

Hogging strains explained 

Sagging " ". . 

Curves of buoyancy distribution 

" " weight 

" " loads 

Longitudinal strains among waves 

Transverse strains when afloat 

Local strains 

• Strains due to propulsion of sail or steam. . 

VI.— ESTIMATING AND CONVERTING. 

Bills of material 

Selecting material required for construction 

of a ship 

Converting 

VII.— JOINTS AND SCARPHS. 

Joints that form an angle 

Scarphs 

Dovetailing halving 

Coaks 



PACE 



6a 



VIII.— DESCRIBING THE DIFFERENT 
PARTS OF A SHIP CONSTRUC- 
TED OF WOOD. 

Explanatory 

Keel — Description 

Materials for Keel ; 

Scarphing Keels 

Explanation of coaked keel scarphs 

Fastening scarphs of keel 

Stopwaters in keel scarphs 

Keel rabbet 

Edgebolting keel 

False keel or shoe 

Stem 

Apron 



8a 

8b 

8bi 

8b2 

8b3 

8b« 

8b= 

8b8 

8b^ 

8b8 

8c 

8d 



9 
10 
12 
13 
14 
16 



19 
19 
20 

24 



4a 


25 


4b 


25 


4C 


2.S 


4d 


26 


46 


27 


4f 


28 


4K 


28 


4h 


28 


41 


28 


4J 


29 


4k 


29 


4I 


29 


.Sa 


30 


.Sb 


31 


■Sc 


31 


.Sd 


32 


Se 


32 


5t 


33 


.SK 


33 


5h 


34 


51 


35 


5J 


35 



36 



6b 


36 


6c 


37 


7a 


39 


7b 


40 


7c 


42 


7d 


42 



44 
45 
45 
46 
47 
47 
47 
48 
48 
49 
49 
49 



SUBJECT 



Knightheads 

Forward deadwood 

Stern post 

After deadwood 

Counter timbers 

Frame 

Floor 

Frame timbers 

Filling frames 

Cant frames 

Hawse pieces 

Main keelson 

Sister keelson 

Boiler or bilge keelson 

Rider keelsons 

Stemson 

Sternson 

Diagonal steel bracing of frames . 

Planking 

Garboard 

Sheer 

Wales 

Caulking 

Ceiling 

Fastening planking 

The clamps 

Air course 

The Shelf 

Shelf fastenings 

Deck Beams 

Fastening knees and deck beams . 

Framing of deck 

Framing a hatchway 

Framing a mast partner 

Framing decks at stem and stern 
Framing decks under winches . . . . 

Water ways 

Lock and thick strakes 

Decking 



PAR. 

8e 

8f 

8g 

8h 

8i 

8k 

8ki 

8k2 

8k3 

8k* 

81 

8m 

8ml 

8m2 

8m3 

8n 

80 

8p 

8q 

8qi 

8q2 

8q8 

8q* 

8q=' 

8q8 

8r 

8ri 

8s 

8si 

8t 

8ti 

8t2 

8t3 

8t* 

8t5 

8t« 

8u 

8ui 

8u2 



IX— BUILDING SLIPS AND LAUNCH- 
ING WAYS. 

Slips and ways 9a 

Inclination of slip 9b 

Information about piles 9c 

Length and width of slips 9d 

Inclination of blocking 9e 

Keel blocking ■ 9* 

Launching apparatus 9g 

Breadth of surface of ways 9" 

Distance ways are apart 9f 

Description of cradle 9J 

Concluding remarks 9k 

Broadside launching 9I 

X.— BUILDING A SHIP. 

Explanatory 'oa 

Plans and Specifications lob 

Management and Supervision loc 

Actual Construction Work lod 

Keel Blocks loe 

Keel lof 

Getting out Frames log 

Stem, Apron and Deadwood loh 

Stem-Post and Deadwood loi 

Keelson Construction lOJ 

Steel Shaping of frames lok 

Planking lO' 

Laying a garboard 1°}^ 

Sheer strake and Wales lol- 

Fastenings of Planking loj' 

Double planking (fore and aft) lol* 

Double diagonal and single fore and aft 

planking lol' 



PAGE 

50 
50 

SI 

51 
51 
52 

53 
53 
S3 
54 
55 
55 
55 
56 
56 
S6 
56 
56 
56 
56 
57 
57 
57 
58 
S8 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
61 
62 
62 
63 
63 
63 
64 
64 
64 



66 
66 
68 
69 
70 
71 
71 
73 
73 
74 
77 
79 



80 
81 
86 
87 
87 
88 
88 
90 
92 
92 
94 
95 

96 
97 
99 

99 



220 



PARAGRAPH REFERENCE INDEX 



CHAPTER SUBJECT PAR. 

Ceiling lom 

Laying Ceiling lom"^ 

Limbers lom^ 

Butts and Fastenings of Ceiling lom^ 

Air Course and Salt Stops lom* 

Salting lom^ 

Double and Triple Ceiling lom" 

Clamps and Shelf Pieces lom' 

Pointer lom** 

Deck Beams and Framing ion 

Lock Shelf lon"^ 

Lodge Knee ion- 
Knee fastenings lon^ 

Hatch framing ion* 

XL— SHIP JOINERY. 

Description of Sheet A iia 

" B lib 

Dovetailing iic 

Description of Sheet C 

" D 

" E 

" H 

Hinging lid 

Mouldings lie 

Stairs iif 

Handrails iig 

XII.— SAILS. 

Sails of a Ship 12a 

Bark sail 12b 

Barkentine sails 12c 

Brig sails I2d 

Brigantine sails I2e 

Topsail schooner sails I2f 

Fore and aft schooner i2g 

Scow i2h 

Cat sails I2i 

Yawl " I2j 

Sloop " 12k 

Cutter " 12I 

Lugger " 12m 

Lateen " I2n 

Parts and Particulars of sails 

XIII.— RIGGING. 

Standing rigging described 13a 

Fastening standing rigging 13b 

Describing the Channels 13c 

Chain plates and their fastenings 13d 

Method of fastening standing rigging to 

spars and hull I3e 

List of ship's standing rigging i3f 

Alphabetical list of standing rigging I3g 

Running rigging I3h 

List of ship's running rigging 131 

Fore and Aft schooner's rigging 13J 

Alphabetical list of running rigging 13k 



PAGE 
lOI 
lOI 
lOI 

102 
102 
103 
103 
104 
104 
104 
106 
106 
106 
106 



108 
110 
no 

113 

"3 
113 
116 

113 
116 
120 
122 



123 
123 
124 
124 
124 
124 

125 
125 

125 
125 

126 
126 
126 
127 
127 



129 
129 
130 
130 

130 
130 
131 
132 

133 
133 
133 



CHAPTER SUBJECT PAR. 

Blocks 13I 

Shell of a block 13I1 

Straps of " 13I2 

Sheave of " 13I8 

Names of blocks 13I* 

Tackles 13m 

Knots and Splices I3n 

XIV.— SPARS. 

Timber used for spars 14a 

Spar making 14b 

Mast steps 14c 

Masts and Spars of Various Rigs I4d 

XV.— TYPES OF VESSELS. 

Division of Vessels into types 15a 

One deck vessels 15b 

Two " " 15c 

Three " " i5d 

Spar " " ise 

Awning" " i5f 

Partial awning vessels isg 

Shelter deck I5h 

Stave deck isi 

Flush deck 15J 

Well deck Vessels 15k 

Hurricane deck 15I 

Structural and House arrangement 15m 

XVI.— ANCHORS, CHAINS AND EQUIP- 
MENT. 

Anchors l6a 

Hawse pipes i6b 

Chain pipes l6bi 

Anchor chain i6c 

Chain Lockers i6ci 

Anchor Windlass Hand i6d 

Steam i6di 

Deck Winch i6e 

Hand pump i6f 

Sounding pipes i6g 

Capstan i6h 

Hand steering Gear i6i 

Boats and their equipment l6j 

Equipment i6k 

Stowage of cargo space required 16I 

XVII.— RESOLUTION AND COMPOSI- 
TION OF FORCES 

XVIII.— STRENGTH AND STRAINS OF 
MATERIAL. 

Resistance to tension l8a 

" " compression i8b 

" transverse strains i8c 

Tenacity i8d 

Summary of rules l8e 

Compound beams i8f 



PAGE 

136 
136 
137 
137 
138 
139 
140 



142 
143 
143 
144 



148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
149 
149 
149 
149 



156 
157 
158 
158 
158 
158 
158 
160 
161 
161 
161 
161 
161 
163 
165 

167 



169 
169 
170 
171 
171 
173 



Alphabetical Index 



PAR. PAGE 

Air course Sr"- 60 

lom^ 102 

Anchors i6a 156 

Anchor chain equipment 16 166 

Anchor Windlass, Steam i6di 158 

Apron 8d 49 

loh 90 

Awning deck vessels iSf '49 

B 

Bark sails 12b 123 

Bark spars I4d I44 

Barkentine sails 12c 124 

Barkentine spars I4d 144 

Beams, siding and moulding of Table 8^ 65 

Bills of material 6a 36 

Blocks 13I 136 

Block names 13I* 138 

Block sheaves described 13!'' 137 

Block shells 13!^ 136 

Block straps described 13.1^ I37 

Boats and their equipment i6j 161 

Boiler keelsons 8m2 56 

Brig sails I2d 124 

Brigantine sails I2e 124 

Broadside launching 9I 79 

Builder's tonnage 4h 28 

Building a ship — -explanatory loa 80 

Building slip foundations 9a 67 

Building slip inclination 9b 67 

Building slips and launching ways 9 66 

Building slip — Length and width 9d 69 

Buoyancy curves explained Sd 32 

C 

Cant frames 8k* 54 

Capstan i6h 161 

Cat sails I2i 125 

Cargo stowage 16I i6.'5 

Caulking 8q* 57 

Ceiling 8q5 58 

lom loi 

Ceiling — double and triple iom«> 103 

Chain i6c 158 

Chain locker i6ci 158 

Chain pipes i6b'^ 158 

Chain plates 13d 130 

Channels 13c 130 

Clamps 8r 60 

Clamps and shelf pieces lom^ 104 

Coaked scarphs and coaks 7d 42 

Compound beams i8f 173 

Construction work lod 87 

Converting 6c 37 

Counter timbers .' 8i 51 

Cradle launching 9J 74 

Cutter sails 12I 126 



Deadweight explained 4h 28 

Deadwood loh 90 

loi 92 

Deadwood aft 8h 51 

Deadwood forward 8f SO 

Deck beams 8t 60 

Deck beams and framing ion 104 

Deck framing St^ 62 

Deck framing under winches, etc 8t* 63 

Decking Su^ 64 

Diagonal straps 8p 56 

Dimensions of parts 3e 22 

3d 24 

Displacement calculations 4f 28 

4g 28 

Displacement curve and deadweight scale .... 4k 29 

Displacement W.L 4i 28 

Double ceiling • lom" 103 

Double planking loH 99 

lol' 99 

Dovetailing 7c 42 

lie no 

Durability of woods 3a 19 



E 



PAR. PAGE 

Edge bolting keel ....*. 8b^ 48 

Equipment for boats l6j 161 

Equipment, List of i6k 163 

Estimating and converting 6a 36 

Estimating material required lob 81 



False keel 8h^ 49 

Fastening deck beams 8t^ 61 

Fastening dimensions 3 21-23 

Fastening knees &i^ 61 

Fastening planking 8q*' 58 

Fastening shelf Ss^ 60 

Filling frames 8k^ 53 

Floor timbers 8ki 53 

Flush deck vessels 15J I49 

Foremast rigging I4d 144 

Frame 8k 52 

Frame timbers 8k2 53 

Frames, cant 8k* 54 

Frames, getting out log 88 

Framing deck ion 104 

Framing hatches ion* 106 

Freeboard mark 4J 29 



Garboard 8qi 56 

Garboard, laying a loU 95 

Gross tonnage 4c 25 

H 

Halving 7c 42 

Hand pump i6f 161 

Handling material lob 81 

Handrails ng 122 

Hard woods 2g 13 

Hatch framing 8i^ 62 

Hawse pieces 81 55 

Hawse pipes i6b 157 

Heavy displacement 4g 28 

Hinging nd 113 

Hogging strains Sb 30 

House arrangements 15^1 149 

Hurricane deck vessels 15! I49 

I 

Inclination of building slip 9b 65 

Inclination of keel blocking 9e 70 

Insurance classification la 5 

Internal volume or room in a ship 4I 29 



Joints and scarphs 7 39 

Joints that form an angle 7a 39 

Joinery ship i la 108 

Joinery illustrations A na 109 

Joinery illustrations B lib no 

Joinery illustrations C n 113 

Joinery illustrations D n 113 

Joinery illustrations E 1 1 113 

Joinery illustrations F n 113 

Joinery illustrations H n 116 

K 

Keel blocking 9f 7i 

Keel blocks loe 87 

Keel construction lof 88 

Keel description 8b 45 

Keel edge laolts 8b^ 48 

Keel materials 8b^ 45 

Keel rabbet 8b8 48 

Keel scarphs 8b2 46 

Keel scarphs coaked 8b* 47 

Keel scarph fastenings 8b* 47 

Keel shoe 8b8 49 

Keelsons 8m 55 

Keelson construction loj 92 

Keelson construction, trussed and steel loj'- 93 

Keeping track of materials lob 81 

Knee fastenings St^ 61 

ion* 106 

Knightheads 8e 50 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



PAR. 

Knots 13I 

Knots and splices I3n 

L 

Lateen sails I2n 

Launching apparatus 9g 

Launching broadside 9I 

Launching cradle 9J 

Launching ways, breadth of 9h 

Light displacement 4f 

Limber ; lom^ 

Lloyd's fastening table 3d 

Lloyd's planking table 3c 

Lloyd's rules 3c 

Lloyd's scantling table 3c 

Load curves Si 

Local strains Si 

Lock shelf loni 

Lock or thick strakes 8u^ 

Lodge knees lon^ 

Longitudinal strains Sa 

5g 
Lugger sails 12m 

M 

Machinery in shipyards lob 

Management loc 

Mast partner framing Sf 

Mast steps 14c 

Mast timber 14a 

Masts and spars of various rigs I4d 

Masts and spars — alphabetical list I4d 

Material Bills 6a 

Mouldings lie 

O 

One-decked vessels iSb 

P 

Panama Canal tonnage 4e 

Partial awning-deck vessels iSg 

Piles 9C 

Planking 8q 

lol 

Planking fastenings 8q'' 

Plans and specifications lob 

Plans and specifications described lob 

Pointers lom* 

R 

Registered tonnage 4a 

Resistance to compression iSb 

" " tension i8a 

" " transverse strains iSc 

Rider keelsons Sm* 

Rigging of fore and aft schooner 13J 

Rigging, running I3h 

Rigging, standing 13a 

Running rigging of a ship I3i 

Running rigging — alphabetical list 13k 

s 

Sails, Bark 12b 

" Barkentine 12c 

" Brig I2d 

" Brigantine I2e 

" Cat 1 2i 

Cutter 12I 

" Description of 12 

" Fore and Aft Schooner I2g 

" Lateen I2n 

" Lugger 12m 

" Schooner I2f 

" Scow i2h 

" Sloop 12k 

" Yawl I2j 

Salt stops lom* 

Salting lom'^ 

Scarphs of various kinds 7b 

Schooner spars 14a 

Selecting timber 6b 



PAGE 

136 
140 



127 
71 
79 
74 
73 
28 

lOI 

21 
21 
20 
20 
33 
35 

106 
64 

106 
30 
33 

126 



81 

86 

63 

143 

142 

144 

144 

36 

116 



149 



27 
149 
68 
56 
95 
58 
81 
81 
104 



25 
169 
169 
170 

S6 
133 
132 
129 
133 
133 



123 

124 
124 
124 
124 
126 
127 
125 
127 
126 
124 
125 
126 
125 
102 
103 

40 
142 

36 



PAR. 

Shade-deck vessels 151 

Sheer strakes 8q- 

Sheer strake construction lol'^ 

Shelf 8s 

Shelf pieces .■ . . . lom^ 

Shelter-deck vessels i5h 

Slip inclination 9b 

Slip length and width pd ' 

Slips and ways 9a 

Ship's sails 12a 

Ship's spars i4d 

Ship's standing rigging i3f 

Sister keelsons "i-m- 

Soft woods 2h 

Sounding pipes i6g 

Spar making 14b 

Spars of various rigs i4d 

Spars, timber for 14a 

Specifications described lob 

Splices i3n 

Stairs i if 

Standing rigging — alphabetical list I3g 

Standing rigging fastenings I3e 

Steel bracing pf frames 8p 

lok 

Steel strapping of frame lok 

Steering gear i6i 

Stem 8c 

loh 

Stemson 8n 

Stern post 8g 

loi 

Sternson 80 

Stopwaters in keel scarphs 8b^ 

Stowage of cargo 16I 

Strains caused by propulsion 5j 

Strains, Hogging, explained 5b 

Strains, local 5! 

Strains, longitudinal among waves 5g 

Strains, longitudinal bending in still water .... sa 

Strains, sagging, explained 5c 

Strains, transverse sh 

Structural arrangements 15m 

Suez Canal tonnage 4e 

Supervision loc 

T 

Tackles 13I 

Tackles described 13m 

Tenacity i8a 

Thick strakes 8u^ 

Three-decked vessels I5d 

Timber bending 2d 

Timber, care of ■ . . 2c 

Timber, properties of Table 

Timber seasoning 2e 

Timber shrinkage while seasoning 2f 

Timber for shipbuilding 2b 

Timber for spars 14a 

Tonnage explained 4a 

Tonnage, gross, explained 4c 

Tonnage, Panama and Suez \ . . . 4e 

Tonnage, Registered 4d 

Transverse strains Sh 

Trees, cultivation of 2a 

Triple ceiling lom" 

Triple planking „ lol'' 

Two-decked vessels 15c 

Types of vessels isa 

V 

Vessels, awning decked isf 

fiush " 15J 

" hurricane " 15I 

" one-decked 15b 

" partial awning decked isg 

" shade decked isi 

shelter " ish 

" spar decked I5e 

" three-decked isd 

" two-decked 15c 

" types of 15a 

well decked 15k 



149 

57 

96 

60 

104 

149 

66 

69 

66 

123 

144 

130 

56 

16 

161 

142 

144 

142 

81 

140 

120 

131 

130 

56 

94 

94 
161 

49 
90 

56 
51 
92 

56 

47 

149 

35 
31 
35 
33 
30 
31 
34 
149 
27 
86 



136 

139 
169 

64 
149 

10 

9 

2 18 
12 

13 

8 
142 
25 
25 
27 
26 

34 

8 

103 

99 

149 
149 



148 
149 
149 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
148 
149 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



223 



PAR. PAGE 

w 

Wales 8q3 57 

loe- 87 

W. L. Light displacement 41 28 

Waterways 8u 64 

Ways, distance apart pi 73 

Ways, launching 9* 66 

Weight distribution curves Se 32 



PAR. 

Well deck vessels 15k 

Winches, deck l6e 

Windlass, steam i6di 

Woods, hard woods described 2g 

W^oods, information about 2 

Woods, soft woods described 2h 

Y 

Yawl sails . .*. i2j 



PAGE 

149 
i6o 

158 

14 

7 

16 



125 



Index to Illustrations 



FIG. . PAGE 

1 Timber properly piled 9 

2 Bending timber 10 

3 " " " 

4 " " " 

5 " " II 

6 " " II 

7 " " 12 

8 " " 12 

9 Tonnage measurement 27 

10 Freeboard mark 29 

11 Displacement and surplus buoyancy 28 

12 Strains in still water 30 

13 " " " " 30 

14 Hogging strains 31 

14a Sagging strains 31 

15 Weight W. W. W 31 

15a Weight W 31 

15b Weight W. W.i W.2 32 

16 Curves of buoyancy 32 

17 Curves of weight 33 

18 Curves of loads 33 

19 Longitudinal strains among waves 33 

20 " " 33 

21 Transverse strains when afloat 34 

Scarphs Plate Vila 39 

Vllb 40 

VIIc ; 41 

" Vlld 40 

" Vile 42 

" yilf 43 

25 Longitudinal view (profile) 44 

26 Deck view 45 

27 Deck hatch 45 

28 Cross section 46 

29 Photo keel being set up 47 

30 Photo of keel 48 

31 Keel scarph 48 

33 Coaked scarph 49 

34 Keel stopwater 49 

35 Stem construction assembled 50 

36 Stem construction 50 

37 Stern post construction sailing vessel 51 

38 Stern post construction and shaft log • 51 

39 Screw propeller stern post construction 52 

40 Electrical stern construction 52 

41 Room and space S3 

42 Canted frame in position 54 

42a Midship construction plan 55 

43 Planking and sheer scarph 57 

43a Ceiling fastening 59 

43b Bottom ceiling in a vessel 59 

44 Caulking bottom plank seams 58 

45 Single, double and alternate plank fastenings .... 60 

46 Rules for spacing butt planking fastenings 61 

47 Treenails ready to drive 61 

49 Straps on stanchion 62 

51 Forward deck frames 64 

52 Knees — Steel and wood 64 

53 Waterways 65 

54 " 6s 

■55 End of deck let into waterway 65 

56 Plank of building slip 66 

57 New York Ship Yard Launching 67 

58 Outer end of launching ways 70 

59 Going down way 71 

60 Longitudinal outline or clearance 71 



FIG. PAGE 

61 Keel blocks set up , 71 

62 Ready for launching 72 

63 Moving into water 73 

64 Cross section of launching cradle 74 

65 Longitudinal view of cradle 74 

66 Launching motor ship 75 

67 Launching 76 

68 Floating clear Tj 

69 Broadside launching 79 

70 " " 78 

71 Timber trucks 83 

72 Hoists in a shipyard 84 

73 Templates in mould loft 87 

74 Assembling a forward frame 88 

75 " a midship frame 88 

76 Setting up a frame 89 

76a Erecting a midship frame 89 

77 Platform for erecting frame and midship frame 

set up 90 

78 Bilge ribband and stem set up 90 

79 Stem and forward deadwood 91 

80 Forward cant frames 91 

81 Air-operated augers s 92 

8ia " " " 92 

82 Stern post framing 93 

83 Framed ready for planks 94 

84 .Steel Keelson Construction 94 

84a Cross section details of steel Keelson 95 

85 Arched wood Keelson Construction 95 

86 Trussed wood " " 96 

86a Tie Rods and straps 97 

87 Trussed steel Keelson construction 98 

88 Steel diagonal straps 99 

89 Planking Bevel at rabbet 95 

90 Frame ready for sheer plank loo 

91 Planked ready for shutter loi 

91a Double planking 102 

91b Triple planking 102 

92 First planks of bottom ceiling in place 103 

93 Caulking bottom planks 103 

94 Breast hook — Knee Construction 104 

93 Deck Hanging Knees 104 

95a Large natural Knees 10.5 

96 Deck hatch coaming framing 105 

97 Pneumatic hammer in use 106 

98 Bitts and Knee 106 

99 Pneumatic caulking tool in use 107 

loi Ship's sails 123 

102 Stay sails 123 

103 Barque sails 123 

104 Barkentine sails 124 

105 Brig sails 124 

106 Brigantine sails 124 

107 Topsail schooner sails 125 

108 Fore and aft schooner sails 125 

109 Cat sails 125 

1 10 Yawl sails 126 

1 1 1 Sloop sails 126 

1 12 Cutter sails 126 

1 13 Lugger sails 126 

1 14 Lateen sails 126 

1 15 Square sails 127 

1 16 Triangular sails 128 

1 17 Gaff sails 128 

1 18 Chain plates and channels 130 



224 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



FIG. PAGE 

119 Ship's Standing rigging 130 

120 Rigged foremast 14S 

121 Manila rope 132 

122 Running rigging of ships 133 

123 Fore and aft schooner rigging 133 

123a Blocks and parts 136 

123b Tackles 137 

123c Tackles 138 

123d Knots 139 

I23e Knots 139 

I23f Splices 141 

I23g Rope 140 

124 Making spars 142 

125 Rounding spars 142 

126 Details of ship's mast 142 

127 Shapes and name of various spars 143 

128 Mast's part and details 142 

129 Mast top and rigging 143 

130 Ship's spars 144 

131 Barque spars 144 

132 Barkentine spars 144 

133 Rigged foremast 145 

134 Bowsprit and parts 143 

13s RQD, EBH and TF arrangement of house 149 

136 RQD, EBH and TF house with DB 149 

137 FP, EBH, TF house 149 

138 LFP, EBH, TF house 149 

139 LRQD, EBH and TF house 149 

140 HD, SD — Passenger Vessel 149 

141 Sailing Vessel RQD, F. 2 Decks 150 

142 Flush Deck Vessel 149 

143 Four Wood Cargo Carriers 150 



FIG. PAGE 

144 Cargo Carrier 150 

145 "Constitution", Frigate 151 

146 Yacht 151 

146a Hydroplane tender (52 ft.) (J. M. Watts) 152 

147 South Carolina, Battle Ship 153 

148 Mine Sweeper 153 

149 Concrete Ships. Faith 154 

150 " " " 154 

151 80 ft. Fishing Schooner Auxiliary 155 

152 Light Ships iss 

153 Schooner 155 

154 Motor Ship 155 

155 Ship 155 

156 Stockless anchor 156 

157 Stockless anchor in place 156 

158 Common Bower anchor 157 

159 Patent Bower anchor with hinged arm 157 

160 Anchor with stock hoisted in position on Bow.... 158 

161 Stream and Kedge anchors 158 

162 Hawse pipes for stockless anchors 159 

163 Chain pipe 158 

164 Steam Windlass with parts 161 

165 Anchor chain and shackles 160 

166 Hand operated anchor windlass on Whalers 160 

167 Detail and part of Hand Windlass 161 

168 Steam anchor windlass 162 

169 Steam deck winch 161 

170 Deck of motor ship 162 

171 Hand operated deck winch 161 

172 Hand operated Bilge pump 161 

173 Hand operated Capstan i6l 

174 Hand Steering Gear 161 




Plans 



FIG. PAGE 

200 Lines and Rigging 292 Schooner (Crowninshield) .180 

201 Construction details motor ship "James Timpson".l8l 

202 Construction details Steam trawler 184 

203 80 ft. Fishing Schooner 186 

204 Plan New Bedford Whaler 187 

205 270 ft. cargo carrier (E. B. Schock) 188 

206 220 ft. Auxiliary Schooner (E. B. Schock) 189 

207 223 ft. 4 mast schooner (Cox & Stevens) 190 

208 224 ft. Schooner (E. B. Schock) 191 



FIG. PAGE 

209 235 ft. Auxiliary Schooner (J. M. Watts) 191 

210 Mast Boom Gaff Rigging 5 Mast Schooner (G. B. 

Douglas) 192 

211 Mast and Details of Yard (G. B. Douglas) 193 

212 200 ft. Auxiliary Schooner (Cox & Stevens) 194 

213 152 ft. Auxiliary (J. G. Alden) 196 

214 N. Y. Pilot Boat (J. G. Douglas) 198 

215 47 ft. Tug (J. M. Watts) 199 

217 77 ft. Schooner 200 



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On Sights. By Sheppard J-oo 

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Boating Book for Boys i-So 

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Book of the Sail Boat. By Verrill t.io 

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Handbook of American Yacht Racing Rules -2.00 

The Helmsman's Handbook. By B. Heckstall Smith 4.00 

Kedge .Anchor. By Patterson i.oo 

Knots and Splices. By Capt. Jutsum 75 

Knots, Splices and Rope Work. By B. V^errill i.oo 

Knots. By A. F. Aldridge i.oo 

Know Your Own Ship 3°° 

Masting and Rigging. By Robert Kipping i.oo 

Motor Boats, Construction and Operation 1.50 

Practical Boat Sailing. By Frazar j i.oo 

Racing Schedule Sheets • • .10 

Sailing. By Knight 75 

Sailing Ships and Their Story. By E. Keble Chatterton 2.50 

Sails and Sailmaking 1.25 

Small Boat Sailing. By Knight $2.25; by mail 2,50 

Small Yacht. By R. A. Boardman $2.50; by mail 2.63 

The Landsman. By Ensign L. Edson Raff, ist Bat. Nav. Mil., N. Y. .50 

Yachtsman's Guide 1918 $1.00; by mail 1.25 

Yacht Sails. By Patterson i .00 

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Fore-and-Aft Seamanship 50 

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Notes on Stowage. C. H. Hillcoat 3.75 

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Signal Card 75 

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Rudder How to Series — 

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How to Design a Yacht. By C. G. Davis 2.00 

How to Run a Boat Shop. By Desmond 1.25 

How to Run and Install a Gasolene Engine. By C. Von Culin. .25 

How Sails Are Made and Handled. By C. G. Davis 2.00 

Boatbuilders' Estimating Pads 1.00 

Boat Building and Boating. By Beard 1.25 

Boating Book for Boys 1.50 

Motor Boats, Construction and Operation 1.50 

Steel Shipbuilders' Handbook. An Encyclopedia. By C. W. Cook 1.50 
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American Power Boat Rules ....paper .50 

Diesel Engines, Marine and Stationary. By A. H. Goldingham.. 3.00 

Elements of Gas Engine Design , 50 

Gas Engine Handbook. By Roberts. 7th Edition 2.00 

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YACHT AND NAVAL AbCHITECTURE 

Naval Architecture Simplified. By Chas, Desmond 5.00 

A Text Book of Laying Off. By Attwood and Cooper 2.00 

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Handbook of Ship Calculations, Construction and Operation 5.00 

Laying Down and Taking Off. By Desmond 2.00 

Machinery's Handbook 6.00 

Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing and Yacht Architecture. Kemp 15.00 

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Theoretical Naval Architecture. By Atwood 3.00 

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ELECTRICAL 

Dry Batteries. By a Dry Battery Expert 25 

Electrical Circuits and Diagrams. By N. H. Schneider .25 

Electric Wiring, Diagrams and Switchboards. By Newton Harrison 1.50 

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Induction Coils. By P. Marshall 25 

Modern ' Primary Batteries 25 

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Small Accumulators. By Marshall 25 

Study of Electricity. By Schneider 25 

Uses of Electricity on Shipboard. By J. W. Kellogg i.oo 

MODEL YACHTS 

How to Build a Model Yacht 1.25 

Building .Model Boats, By P. N. Hasluck 75 

Machinery for Model Steamers 25 

Model Engines and Small Boats. By Hopkins 1.25 

Model Sailing Yachts. By Marshall 75 

MARINE ENGINEERING 

Calculus for Engineers. By Larkman 2.00 

Elements of Mechanism. By Schwamb 2. 50 

New Marine Engineers' Guide 3-oo 

Marine Propellers. By Barnaby 3.00 

Marine Steam Turbine. By J. W. Sothern. 3d Edition 15.00 

Mechanics' and Engineers' Pocketbook. By Charles H. Haswell . . 4.00 

Practical Marine Engineering. By Capt. C. W. Dyson, U. S. N. . 6.00 

NAVIGATION 

Navigation Simplified. By McArthur 1.25 

.American Practical Navigator. Bowditch $2.25; by mail 2.50 

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Navigation — .A Short Course. By Hasting 75 

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Self Instructor in Navigation 3-00 

Simple Rules and Problems in Navigation 3.50 

Elements of Navigation. By Henderson 1.25 

Epitome of Navigation. By Norie 2 Vols. 1 5.00 

Navigation. By Jacoby 2.25 

Navigators' Pocket Book. By Capt. Howard Patterson 2.00 

Practical Aid to the Navigator. By Sturdy _. 2.00 

Wrinkles in Practical Navigation. By Lecky $12.00; by mail 12.50 

Book of Sights Taken in .Actual Practice at Sea i.oo 

Brown's Star Atlas ". 2.00 

Deviation and Deviascope 2.00 

Manual on Rules of the Road at Sea 3.25 

Pocket Course Book Chesapeake Bay 25 

Pocket Course Book Long Island Sound 25 

Pocket Course Book New England Waters 25 

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Pocket Course Book Race Rock to Boston Light 25 

Pugsley's — 

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Guide to the Local Inspectors' Examination — Ocean Going 

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New York Pilot and Guide to the Local Inspectors' Ex- 
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Log Book 2.00 

Multiplication Table I.oo 

Seaman's Receipt Book 25 

Tides 2.00 

Questions and Answers on the Rules of the Road 25 

Handy Jack Book of Navigation Tables paper .75 

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Laying Down 
and Taking Off 

By CHARLES DESMOND 



THE few men understanding Mould Loft Work 
and the urgent call for ships at the outbreak 
of the war presented grave problems and to 
help the situation we secured a series of articles 
for publication in The Rudder. The demand for 
the numbers soon exhausted the supply and we 
have received so many requests for the issues we 
decided to reprint the articles in book form. 

The author is thoroughly versed in the subject and has an unusual 
faculty of imparting his knowledge in a simple, understandable way 
that the reader readily grasps. The book is intended for the man 
who does not know and wants to gain the knowledge and to whom 
most books on the subject are a struggle in the dark, void space of 
theory. The author's soul is in this work and it's his religion to 
impart knowledge to those who seek it. Illustrated throughout. 

Trice $2.00 



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Naval 

Architecture 

Simplified 

HE study of Naval Architecture is one of the most diffi- 
cult subjects for the average man to master, especially if 
the rudimentary knowledge is not acquired under the 
guidance of an instructor. 

The various books on the subject while very thorough are 
too far advanced for the student to grasp. 

Naval Architecture Simplified, by Charles Desmond, was written 
for students. 

In order that the theory might be properly understood, the work is 
illustrated and described in detail, and while intended primarily for 
students, there is a fund of information of value to all Naval Architects. 

After many years of study both from the theoretical and practical 
side Mr. Desmond prepared a course of instruction, by correspondence, 
and enrolled students in all parts of the world in his school. 

The course required from 6 months to a year to complete according 
to the student and for the complete course as given in this book the 
charge was $150.00. 

With the outbreak of the War Mr. Desmond oflfered his service to the 
Government. All the data he had collected during the period 
of 30 years of practical experience he turned over to THE RUDDER to put in 
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Architect. The book is the result of a life's work and presents an oppor- 
tunity never before offered to a student. 

The explanations and descriptions are without doubt the simplest 
form in which the subject has been written and enable a student to 
thoroughly understand what heretofore has been a hopeless maze. 

Send for complete Paragraph Index. 

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